Primula denticulata Sm., Exot. Bot. 2: 109 1806.;
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Perennial herb with basal rosette of oblong to oblanceolate leaves, up to 15 cm long and 2-4 cm broad, elongating to 20 cm in fruit, margin denticulate, sometimes yellowish or white farinose beneath; petiole broadly winged; flowers mauve to pinkish-blue, in almost capitate umbel carried on up to 30 cm long scape; pedicel 1-5 mm long; calyx lobes oblong-lanceolate, often tinged purple; corolla tube 7-11 mm long, throat yellow, lobes obovate, emarginate; capsule subglobose, shorter than calyx.
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Primula denticulata: Uploading pictures of Primula denticulata of Primulaceae.
I hope this plant is also found planted in temperate climates of India.
Yet I am not sure of this identification, so please help in naming.
Date: 26 Mar 2011
Location: a home garden, Cambridge University, UK


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Primula species from Paddar valley J&K: Request for ID confirmation.

Kindly confirm the ID
Bot. name: Primula denticulata
Family: Primulaceae
Location: Paddar valley J&K
Date: 17th May 2012

Altitude: 3500 meters asl


Any possibility of Primula denticulata

Yes Primula denticulata


I hope Primula rosea. I photographed both this and P. denticulata in Kashmir in May, this year, only two species flowering in subalpine and alpine region in May..


I doubt for Primula rosea,
Flowers of India


In May I also visited the sub-alpine zone of my area for three days. In addition to these Primula species I also found Gentiana carinata, Colchicum luteum, Gagea lutea, Tussilago farfara, Adonis chrysocyathus, Trollius acaulis, Oxytropis lapponica, Iris, Rhodiola and some other species. I will post these on by one.


Yes Gentiana is very common in those altitudes in May. Gentiana carinata is reported but I found that flowers have distinct fringe in the throat, and I think that plant is G. coronata, especially in Gulmarg, Khillenmarg area.


This is Primula denticulata.

I love Primulas. Thanks for sharing.



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Primula denticulata from Gulmarg, Kashmir: Primula denticulata Smith, Exot. Bot. 2: 109. 1806.
Perennial herb with basal rosette of oblong to oblanceolate leaves, up to 15 cm long and 2-4 cm broad, elongating to 20 cm in fruit, margin denticulate, sometimes yellowish or white farinose beneath; petiole broadly winged; flowers mauve to pinkish-blue, in almost capitate umbel carried on up to 30 cm long scape; pedicel 1-5 mm long; calyx lobes oblong-lanceolate, often tinged purple; corolla tube 7-11 mm long, throat yellow, lobes obovate, emarginate; capsule subglobose, shorter than calyx.

Common in Gulmarg meadow Kashmir, photographed in May, alt. 2500 m


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species based upon a specimen in cultivation originating above Gulmarg @ 3700m at the edge of a stream – if the altitude recorded was correct, it must be above Khelanmarg.  The P.denticulata var. cachemiriana having been recognised since Hooker’s day with pronounced meal.
The images taken by … were from 2500m in the main part of Gulmarg itself.  Presumably on or near the Golf Course?
Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.


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ID Request for Primula from Sikkim 05032014: SCMAR01 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).

Kindly help for this id.
Place: Yumthang valley, North Sikkim

Date: June, 2007


Seems Primula denticulata.


Thanks …


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
In Sikkim & Bhutan it is widespread in open damp meadows and flushes, marshy clearings in Oak, Pine & Spruce forests @ 1525 to 4100m flowering February to June.  I remember photographing a sizeable population when I was working in Bhutan in the 1990s which matches these images in terms of flower colour and general appearance of foliage.
It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.
Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.


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5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3).

Sharing one more set of  photographs taken during Sar Pass trek. (Photos taken by my friend Mr Avinash Mujumdar).

Family: Primulaceae


Is this Primula denticulata  ?


I think yes, Primula denticulata.


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.
Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.


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This beautiful herb was shot from Chakrata area in Uttrakhand..
Please confirm the id, I hope this should be…

Primula denticulata


yes this is P.denticulata


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.
Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.

Sharing few photographs taken during Sar Pass trek. (Photos taken by my friend Mr Avinash Mujumdar).

Family: Primulaceae


Primula denticulata.


Beautiful upload.

Compact globular heads. Purple to mauvish blue flowers on a stout flowering stem.

Deeply bilobed petals. Leaves in compact rosette; oblong to oblanceolate; toothed, blunt, tapering to a broadly winged leaf stalk.


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
These images remind more of some of the forms of this species in cultivation. 

It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.

Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.

Primula denticulata from Himachal [Lahaul & Spiti; 3300 m asl]


Yes, the most common denizen of sub alpine and alpine Himalaya. Blooms immediately after snow melt, thanks to preformed inflorescences which shoot up as soon as snow thaws on slopes. At higher elevations share the habitats with Caltha palustris.


One more beautiful Primula.


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.
Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.


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Chopata visit – NSD 1 Drumstick Primrose 20 May 16 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Drumstick Primrose, Primula denticulata
Nanda Devi Wildlife Sanctuary
Chopta, Uttarakhand India

9 April 2013


what nice complete habit shot


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
In Bhutan it is widespread in open damp meadows and flushes, marshy clearings in Oak, Pine & Spruce forests @ 1525 to 4100m flowering February to June.  I remember photographing a sizeable population when I was working in Bhutan in the 1990s. This image comes closer to the variant I observe in Bhutan than most I have viewed from the NW Himalaya.
It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.
Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.


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Primula sp for ID: Please help me to ID these Primula sps. Photographed near Thimphu, Bhutan.


This could be Primula denticulata.


Primula denticulata i too hope


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
In Bhutan it is widespread in open damp meadows and flushes, marshy clearings in Oak, Pine & Spruce forests @ 1525 to 4100m flowering February to June.  I remember photographing a sizeable population when I was working in Bhutan in the 1990s.
It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.
Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.


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SK871 22 NOV-2017:ID : 9 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Location: Ghandtuk, Kaski, Nepal
Altitude:10300 ft.

Date: 17 November 2017  

Primula …??? Could not find match for leaf !
Image Credit : Sameer Kasaju

Certainly Primula.


Yes … Trying for ID !


How about Primula denticulata?

Could not decide. Broad leaves!


To me also appear close to images at Primula denticulata 

Thank you … I should take it as Primula denticulata Sm.


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Flower for Id ( from Bhutan)-ID13032018SH3 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Flower for id pl. Which species of Primula ?
Location – Near Thimpu on the way to Dochula pass ( Bhutan)
Date – March. 2018

I think some Primula species.

No leaves ! But I guess Primula capitata Hook. f.

I think Primula denticulata..


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Primula denticulata Sm. is the most common Primula in alpine zones of Uttarakhand.

Shot in Kedarnath after a brisk snow fall in 1990s.


Seems that it is from your old records. Good one.


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.

Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.



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Primula denticulata Sm.

Common Himalayan Primula, photographed from Gulmarg meadow and forest area in Kashmir.


Excellent images of this beautiful herb.. thanks Sir…

Beautiful globular clusters.


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Plumbaginaceae and Primulaceae (incl. Myrsinaceae) Fortnight: Primula denticulata Sm. from Rohtang Pass, H.P. – PKS PRIM 004 : 3 posts by 3 authors.

Primula denticulata Sm. Exot. Bot. 2: 109 1806.

Family: Primulaceae


Lovely shot..


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.
Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.

Kindly ID this Primulaceae sp.
Place : Dhirang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh

Date : April 2014


Looks like P. denticulata.


It is very much Primula denticulata- a herb appearing during the process of Snow melt in temperate regions.


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.
In Bhutan it is widespread in open damp meadows and flushes, marshy clearings in Oak, Pine & Spruce forests @ 1525 to 4100m flowering February to June.  I remember photographing a sizeable population when I was working in Bhutan in the 1990s-  these images seem to match.
It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.

Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.



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Primula sp. photographed from below Tungnath in Uttarakhand. Please help in ID.


A reply from , Creator of Primula World – A Visual Reference for the Genus Primula : Primula denticulata

I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth. 

It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.
Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.


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Primula sp. for ID (fr. Churdhar) : VG-JUL-15 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
This herb was observed along the last leg (c. 3000 m.) of our trek to Churdhar Peak.
Photographed on 26 May 2015.

Would appreciate any help with the specific id.


Very beautiful pics …,

I think this can be Primula denticulata


Many thanks, …, for the prompt suggestion. Tallies well with P. denticulata.


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth. 

It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.

Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.



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MY FLORA PICTURE 2015 : 15 posts by 12 authors.

2015 was another year which gave me an opportunity to step into wilderness of mighty Himalayas. The programme was finalized, the team gathered at Panipat on May 22, 2015 to start a tour the next day. The flower hunting team was led by Dr. and Mrs. Gurcharan Singh with Dr. & Mrs. Gurdeep Singh Virdi from Delhi, Smita Raskar from Sawantwadi, myself and Dr. Balkar Singh from Panipat, Dr. Sunoj Kumar, Calicut, Mr. Viplav Ganger, Mumbai, Mr. Anurag Sharma, Ms. Medha Rao and Ms. Smitha Ramesh from Bengaluru. We had a stay for one night at Renuka Ji, a beautiful place in foothills. The next day tour ended up in a beautiful place amidst pines and deodars, the Mata Bhangyani Temple in Haripurdhar. We had the midway plant exploration and refreshment halts, all thoroughly enjoyable. 

At the next stay point, Nauradhar, which formed our base camp for the next days, Dr. Anil Thakur joined the team. From here, the trekking towards Choordhar peak started early morning. Our senior most members joined us for initial few hours, and started back before noon. Out of nine members, me and Smita Ji took different path, unaware of the fact that we won’t be able to converge before 7 km. We could get together only at Jamnala (Doosri) in the afternoon, where 7 members were waiting with refreshment, which was much needed. Smita Ji, Aunrag, Smitha and Medha decided to stay there for one night (which was a very wise decision indeed), to come back the next day. 
Five of us started up trekking after 2:00 pm. This was really tough climb but we enjoyed it all and we reached Teesri at around 5:30 pm. We were spellbound on seeing high altitude flora especially Rhododendrons from the corner of a sharp cliff taking a semi-circular turn after Teesri. That was a quite a different world there, alpine floral elements started appearing. The path we took was a longer route, but supposed to have a gradual climb, instead of sharp edges from the other way. The things were not going to be as smooth as we assumed at first. 
The problems started soon after we reached a point, lying ahead was a vast glacier, which we had not expected. It was long and slippery, and left us undecided for a while, what to do? The first glacier was crossed, with fear and terror (thanks to bamboo sticks in hand), we had a sigh of relief, but that was not the last hurdle. Many small  glaciers came our way, there was trouble in breathing, a really serious cause of concern. Darkness aggravated, skidding could happen, glaciers started reappearing more vigorously.
Air was getting diluted of oxygen, daylight was almost gone, energy getting down, and still no sign of our destination anywhere around.  I was (may be all of us) repenting on the decision to complete the trek in one day, we could have stayed at Teesri. To further worsen the things, rain and snow started falling, thunder and lightening joined, it got absolutely dark, still no sign of the place we were supposed to reach. We tried to console each other regarding the distance remaining to be covered, though no one was certain. We could not afford to loose hope and kept on leaping through snow, mud, darkness and silence. Finally we saw a few people with torches way up, assuring us that we have not lost our way. Ultimately, we reached the place, shivering and wet, tired and trembling with hunger. We got the meals as per tradition of the place, and a very good stay (for which I am grateful to Sh. Babu Ram, Manager, Sewa Samiti, Choordhar).

Now I come to my Flora Picture of the year-2015. In the morning, when we started back trek, through the temple, I saw a strange yellow coloured flower (as it appeared from distance). I got near and saw this in curiosity. This took me quite a while, and observing few more individuals in advanced stages, to understand that this is the “Ice Breaking Primrose” which pierces through the snow. I thought this is apt picture for me to share as FLORA PICTURE of 2015.


Fantastic narration. Reminds me of that great Novel by R.L.Stevenson’s Treasure Island. Your finding the ‘Ice breaker’ is like an icing on the cake. A great expedition…!


Superb narration and good find…


Thanks, …, Really difficult situation to be in.
Reminds of a similar trek journey with my elder brother (on his first Himalayan trek) while returning from Pindari Glacier.
We decided to skip the stay at one trekkers hut & aimed for the next one. We had a similar experience made worse by an old injury in my brothers leg.

What is the botanical name ?


Thanks for the nice words of appreciation

… I hope the species should be Primula denticulata..!!


Thanks for sharing your experience with us!
Your plant reminded me of my earlier post which remained unidentified

Looks somewhat similar. Your opinion please.


… fantastic reportage; thrilling, gripping !!
The ice-breaking climax wonderful !!


Thank you so very much for your narrative, adventurous excursion. It should prove inspirational for all the out door worker and field botanists. I convey my sincere regards to you and all in the team.
Very well narrative indeed,


A nice itinerary of high altitudes of the Himalaya in early season. Thanks for sharing these moments with all of us here in eFI.
Primulas, particularly this P.denticulata is one of the early flowers blooming immediately after snow melt. While in similar situations in the Himalaya I have also seen it practically emerging out of thin snow cover. Flowers are already formed in the end of last year growing season and buds unfold early to avoid competition for pollinators and space. Later in rainy season the plants are difficult to locate as they are covered by other herbage.
This story brings me back to Himalayan high altitudes! Compels me to think once again “where to go this year in summers?”


Beautiful picture, Beautiful narration as well Nidhan all of it came alive in front of my eyes
I remembered we found orchid Cephalanthera longifolia & Calathe tricarinata on the way
Though quite tired , it was amazing trek through beautiful forest
and how much i wish, i could complete the trek though it was impossible for me

I wish we will go for many more treks in Mighty Himalaya


I thankfully acknowledge the responses of our respected members …
Hope to get enough courage and energy for more such outings to many many wonderful places which remain unvisited by me…


And thanks … for elaborating the Himalayan floral secrets, gathered through your practical experience…
…, having gone through your post, I think that can also be same species…


What an extraordinary effort… at more than 12000 feet above sea level… no wonder glaciers and difficulty in breathing…

A keen observation… and those of us seating at sea-level  do appreciate this rare moment…and greatly appreciate the generosity of your sharing of the story and the flowering plants.

Great.



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Primula denticulata ABMAR01/11 : 6 posts by 4 authors. 8 images.
And finally this primula. Although I have seen other primroses here but this was new to me. A fine and productive day then with three new species for me! I have some gentians to confirm too but that will have to wait till I have some energy to edit and research.
Primula denticulataDrumstick primrose
Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
1800m

27 March 2016


Very beautiful display of this wonderful wild beauty..!! thanks …


Thanks, …, for complete depiction of all parts of the plants.


primulas as nature intended. this spring at the garden of five senses in delhi i saw soooo many cultivars and colors of these…

makes we wonder why is the human being not satisfied what we have. you have shown its beauty as it was designed


I presume these must come within Primula denticulata but I am far from certain as to the range of variation which exists within this species.  A species which has been recorded from Afghanistan to SE Tibet (and Myanamar) @ 1500-4500m, variation is inevitable.  Often hard to be sure about poorly developed forms or those in early growth.  

It is entirely possible that in the future when the genus is revised, variants will be recognised at the sub-species or even species level.  Richards has recognised Primula cachemiriana (syn. P.denticulata var. cachemiriana) as a separate species.   

Hooker observed that the species was very variable separating var. paucifolia.


Thank you … I found another plant at about 2000m today photos of which I will share soon.


I was happy to find these primulas out in good numbers on my walk on Sunday. Following … advice and to show the features more closely I made these images. Whatever little I have learnt since my post last year points me to P. denticulata but again I cannot be sure. Please advise.
The individual flowers are about 1.5cm across and the globe about 5-6cm. Stalks are covered in yellow farina but only some leaves underneath. Sepals are finely toothed.
Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
1900-2000m
05 March 2017

11 images.


Superb images,  ….

I think you are surpassing everybody here in Flora photography.


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primula denticulata, hopfully : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)

Primula denticulata, hopefully

I would appreciate a confirmation if possible
we saw this near Duggalbitta Uttarakhand
at an altitude of about 7,500 feet
in the first week of may 2018

I guess ID is correct.



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Primula for identification : 12 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5) Primula for identification
it looks very close to the images at
including the color of sepals in a dried flower but I am hesitating to id this. I would much appreciate an identification if at all possible. we saw just below the the temple at Tunganath at an altitude of about 12,000 feet in the first week of may 2018

Seems to be Primula denticulata.

I guess more close to your guess …


Many thanks for the identification suggestions. I will try and read more about both of them

We do not have single identified post on Primula atrodentata W. W. Smith so far.
As per the given link from Primal World:
Can be difficult to tell from small forms of P. denticulata but distinguished by being evergreen, lacking basal bud scales (but may have the remains of old foliage at the base) and by having a white eye
Thus the posted images as well as images on FOI page are of Primula denticulata only.
I request … to pl. correct on FOI site.

Thank you … for bringing this up. I read that too, these flowers clearly have yellow eyes. So this seems to be P denticulata.

Corrected in FOI also.

Thanks to all for the efforts to bring correctness.
Identification of plant : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1) – 7 Mb.

I have collected this herb from diwalikhal gairsain Chamoli Uttrakhand 13marc2019


Look like Primula sp. to me.


Yes it is Primula.


Primula denticulata



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Primula for ID ABNOV2016/01 : 12 posts by 4 authors. 8 images.
I saw these just below Triund on my walk a couple of weeks back. They look closer to P. denticulata but it’s odd that they are flowering in late autumn. Also the spike bearing flowers was sort (almost absent in some) and the flowers very few in number. There were at least six different plants in flower near each other.
Please advise.
Primula sp.
Triund, Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
2900m approx.

25 October 2016


This is Primula atrodentata.


Sorry, … but this does not appear to be Primula atrodentata, according to my understanding of what this species is – accepted I cannot say I am that familiar with it.
IF the albeit brief description in ‘Flowers of the Himalaya’ is correct, what about the dense white or yellow farina which is meant to be on the undersides of the leaf?
The foliage of … plant does not match that of those you have named as P.atrodentata on Marijn van den Brink’s Khumbu, Nepal site (I have only come across just now – I spent some time naming, as best I could, his images taken in Baltistan where there are wonderful shots of scenery and flowers, see: Photos)
Next, what about the geographic and altitudinal ranges of this species – accepted that these are not set in stone?  But as far as I know, it has not been recorded west of what was Kumaon.
So IF you were correct, it would represent a Westerly extension of its range. As to altitude, it has not been recorded below 3600m, so 2900m is a fair bit lower.
What about habitat?  From what I can recollect, “alpine slopes” and “open peaty turf” fit with my experience of the plant but not where … found his plants. Flowers of Himalaya give May-June as flowering, though late flowerings do happen – even so. Mind you, high-altitude forms of what we think come within P.denticulata can flower much later.
Then there is overall appearance.  I first saw the species below Dhaulagiri ice-falls in Nepal (though not in flower).  I did publish an image of what I understand to be this plant grown in New Mexico within the Himalayan Plant Association Journal and have another but would need to seek permission to post on eFI, which I shall endeavour to do. There are currently no images of P.atrodentata on the site.
In the mean-time, may I draw members’ attention to: LINK which is a photo of P.atrodentata taken by Adam Stainton in Nepal.  I am sure you will agree this does not match … plant.
Also: Elmer The great thing about the Edinburgh scans is that provided you download at high resolution you can zoom in to see a high level of detail.  Unfortunately, the digitised images from the Kew herbarium are low resolution, so one can usually only make out the ‘habit’ of a plant. Frustrating!
Overall, I wonder about Primula denticulata.  It seems to vary considerably.  The examples I saw in Bhutan had a different general
appearance to those from Western Himalaya. As you know, Professor Richards has recognised P.cachemirica as a separate species. Perhaps other taxa will be recognised in the coming years. I have images of a number of ‘denticulata-like’ Primulas I struggle to assign an identification to.  Given its considerable altitudinal and geographic range it would come as no surprise if other taxa were recognised, whether at varietal, subspecies or species level.   At present we are left to try and fit all variants into existing species….
So, please inspect … images again.

Thank you … for this information. I think I saw yet another plant at about 2000m. I am planning to hike up soon and will look for more plants.


Thank you for critical comments.
Another thing to be noted here is the date of photograph; it is mentioned as 25th October, almost in the autumn at this elevation!
Primula denticulata or any other similar looking Primula usually do not flower in October. Primulas always have a preformed flower/ inflorescence bud covered in scales and miniature leaves. This miniature form grow rapidly after snowmelt and Primulas come in flowering early in the season. An October flowering is unusual and may be a re-flowering due to dormancy-break. Such flowers/ habits are also misleading as we have seen in the case of Gypsophila cerastioides.
Farina is not visible, though in autumn it usually increases.


Thank you … I hope to hike up this weekend and check if the plants are still there flowering. I will report the results soon.


Thanks … for the discussion. I am quite happy to be wrong. I think from what you are saying, you are OK with it being identified as belonging to the Denticulata Section.
I have updated the webpage on Primula World for P. atrodentata – you may have to refresh your web browser if you have been there recently in order to see the changes. The images include those from Marijin who has given me permission to publish his images and also a couple of images at the end which I recently took at a reputable nursery in Scotland. As expected, there is quite a bit of variation.  http://www.primulaworld.com/PWweb/photogallery.htm  I am sorry that some of the links won’t work as RBGE has yet to update their links to correspond with the new website at NHM where some of the references are stored. This won’t happen until the new year.
Primula atrodentata is similar to P. denticulata but “a much smaller plant, evergreen, winter buds and persistent bud scales absent” (Flora of Bhutan). As you would expect it is difficult to distinguish P. atrodentata from small forms of P. denticulata as images, when the basal scales (or absence) are not shown, especially when looking at an individual plant. An indication that the population is consistently small is a help but not necessarily a foolproof indicator. I recently was at the herbarium at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and the attached sheet is the only dwarf P. denticulata that resembles P. atrodentata, but as you can see, the basal scales are very prominent.
Though the Flowers of the Himalaya is a good reference, it isn’t definitive, being necessarily brief. If you consult other references (Smith & Fletcher, Richards, Flora of China, Flora of Bhutan, Genus Primula in India, etc) you will find that the leaves are described as scabrid glandular, sometimes white or yellow farinose underneath but not always so. The herbarium sheet of P. atrodentata at E shows some farina underneath but not copious amounts. http://data.rbge.org.uk/herb/E00024426 . Smith & Fletcher give the altitudinal range as 3000-5300m. I can’t find the habitat information given by …  I don’t think the later flowering is of consequence as it does look like a dormancy break, as mentioned already. I have three images included on the P. atrodentata webpage which were taken at Rupin Pass. These could be P. denticulata, but I included them under that name as there is no indication of basal scales and the plants are small. There can be no certainty when the images do not show clear evidence!
Yes, Richards listed P. cachmeriana (which was described from cultivated plants) separately in his monograph 13 years ago, but John and I have since discussed that further, with plants before us, and have agreed that unless more evidence can be found in the wild, it probably isn’t distinct. At present, I do list it separately on Primula World, though there is no clear evidence for assigning the images as such.
P. denticulata has been split many times before. Smith & Fletcher give 11 synonyms. Smith & Forrest recognised 8 subspecies.

Attachments (1)


Part II

Primula cachemiriana and P.denticulata
Further to part I.
May I draw your attention to:  http://www.primulaworld.com/PWweb/photogallery.htm . In my opinion the image taken in the wild at Gulmarg does not fit with Professor Richard’s description of P.cachemiriana.
I am reasonably familiar with the Gulmarg area (though not as much as certain Indian members of this google group).
The main ‘resort’ of Gulmarg is around 2400m or so, including a golf-course (one of the highest in the world).  There is coniferous forest mixed with maples. One can reach Khelanmarg at about 2900-3300m (marg meaning “meadow”, although due to over-grazing, not as flower-rich as one might think but impressive nevertheless with displays of species which can tolerate grazing such as Euphorbia wallichii – as shown in a B&W photo recently posted by Professor Singh).
I firstly attach an image of the underside of a leaf of Primula I photographed when walking down from Khelanmarg to Gulmarg.  I presumed this was either P.cachemiriana or P.denticulata?
Above Khelanmarg is Aphawat mountain (at some 3900m or so).
Gulmarg is often used to described the whole area right up to Aphawat.  Beyond is Alpather (known as “Frozen Lake”) at 3750m, now “out-of-bounds”.
According to Professor Richard’s book on Primula what he named as P.cachemiriana originated at 3700m at edges of streams at Gulmarg.
IF the altitude is correct, then it came from near the top of Aphawat, not Gulmarg itself at 2400m or so.
Next are 4 images hastily snapped on a very hot & sunny day during a whistle-stop tour of the University of Kashmir Botanical Garden a few years ago.  I presume this is Primula denticulata and that the specimens were dug up and in the hills/mountains and transported down to Srinagar and replanted but do not know exactly where from?   The most likely is somewhere near Gulmarg.
In 1985 during a botanical expedition in Kashmir I obtained seed from P.Kohli & Co., Kashmir (Estblished in 1928, with a long- standing export license).  I attach images of plants (unfortunately not in flower) raised from this seed named as Primula ‘cachemirica’ by Kohli.
Kohli also supplied Primula denticulata. As to the sources, I believe the former came from above Gulmarg, perhaps above Khelanmarg @ 3500m, which would fit with Richard’s location @ 3700m. As to the P.denticulata, this may have originated in Kailash Himalaya.
Perhaps both ‘typical’ P.denticulata and P.cachemiriana are found in the Gulmarg area – perhaps the latter at higher elevations?
According to ‘Plants of Gulmarg (Kashmir)’, A.R.Naqshi, G.Singh & K.K.Koul (1984) Primula denticulata is found from Farozpur to Khillenmarg – common.   They do not mention var. cachemiriana recognised by ‘Flora of British India’.
Stewart (Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Pakistan & Kashmir) only mentions Primula denticulata, which he describes as probably our commonest species from 1800-3600m (occasionally up to 4200m).  It is interesting that the location mentioned by Richards is at the upper limit of the plants normal range in Kashmir.
I would say the Primula at Kashmir University Botanical Garden look similar to the Primula photographed at Gulmarg.  The Profile of Kashmir University Botanical Garden says nothing as to the origin of these plants though describe it as a “high-altitude” plant of ornamental potential.  It is not a ‘high-altitude’ plant and in the West has been widely cultivated probably for more than a century.
As to its ornamental potential in India, much depends on how well it copes with conditions at lower elevations. As it already grows wild at what were some of the old hill-stations, I don’t expect there would be much interest in such places. Presumably it could not survive on the plians of India….
Coventry in ‘Wild Flowers of Kashmir’ (1923) was not aware of var. cachemiriana (or perhaps did not cover it).  He says the lower surface of leaves was sparingly covered with a yellow powder. He said elevations of 2100-3600m, abundant at Gulmarg.
Collet in ‘Flora Simlensis’ does not mention meal on the undersides of the leaves of P.denticulata which was common on Jako, Shimla – though I would not view this as conclusive that some specimens in the region did not exhibit meal underneath.
Ludlow in ‘The Primulas of Kashmir’ (1951) only mentions P.denticulata.
Nasir in ‘Primulaceae’ (Flora of Pakistan) only refers to P.denticulata with P.cachemeriana Munro as a synonym.
Hooker, ‘Flora of British India’ described two varieties: var. cachemiriana – leaves produced almost with the flowers, more mealy from the W.Himalaya and var. paucifolia.
Remiss of both Ludlow & Nasir not to refer to Hooker’s FBI, even if they did not recognise the ‘variety’ themselves.
But Prem Nath Kohli was aware of this variety and the two images below (ref: K29) showing plants raised from their seed clearly show a form with pronounced meal and recurved margins to leaves, which fit with Richard’s description of P.cachemiriana.
Clearly, K29 looks markedly different to the plants grown as P.denticulata at Kashmir University Botanical Garden and the photo taken at Gulmarg on your web-site as P.cachemiriana.
They also look markedly different to foliage of what I understand to be P.denticulata photographed in the Kulu Valley, Himachal Pradesh (see final 2 images attached). 
This additional evidence appears to support recognition of a separate taxon but it is for others to decide if it is a species, subspecies or varietal level.
Primula denticulata
I consider this species needs further investigation given is wide geographic and altitudinal range. Without examining closely, the forms I saw in Bhutan, appear to differ to those from the W.Himalaya.

Attachments (9)


To me it looks just off season flowering in P. denticulata

It is not uncommon to see spring/early summer flowering plants having odd flowering in autumn


Looks close !



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Primula sp. for ID ABFEB2017/06 : 6 posts by 3 authors. 8 images.
Found these Primula plants at about 2100m yesterday. The flowers stalks and the undersurfces of the leaves had yellow farina. Please advise.
Above McleodganjHP
2100m

12 February 2017


For the present I can only name this as Primula sp.


Primula denticulata Sm. ??


This is Primula denticulata. The presence of basal bud scales when in flower confirms this.
Since the farina under the leaves is yellow, it could be considered Primula cashmeriana, originally described as a garden name.
It is thought by some authorities to be a variation within P. denticulata and by others to be distinct.


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Primula denticulata Sm.
9 very high resolution images.

Location: Godawari, Lalitpur
Date: 11 March 2021
Altitude: 2500m.
Habitat : Wild



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References:

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