Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to S. Pacific: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niue, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Society Is., Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya as per POWO;
Common name: Bishop Wood, Tiger tree • Assamese: Urium • Bengali: Kainjal • Garo: Asri, Bolasri, Thichri • Hindi: Bhillar, पनियाला Paniala, Kein, Kanji • Kannada: Goparini, ಗೊಬ್ರನೇರಳೆ Gobbara nerale, ನೀಲಿಮರ Neeli mara, ನಿಗುರುಳ್ಳೆ Nigurulle • Khasi: Dieng jamew, Dieng soh tung • Malayalam: Nili, Cholavenga, Thiruppu, Mlachethayan • Manipuri: ꯊꯩꯆꯥꯛ Theichak • Marathi: Boke • Mizo: Khuangthli, Khauangthli • Oriya: Dingiri • Tamil: Thondi, Milachityan • Telugu: Nalupu-musthi, Panta;

Bischofia javanica:
Bischofia javanica (bishop wood)
the tree is in flowering these days and its also the time for it to produce new leaves. but the inflorescence is all you will see on a tree as the tree flowers more than simply profusely…. attaching a closeup and a bunch

–  find the plant (Bischofia javanica) in a vegitative stage to support .. reproductive view of the same species. I have taken the photograph from Baisipalli wildlife sanctuary, Nayagarh, orissa.


amit tree uid:
Sending photo of small tree, photo taken near water stream Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. Flowers and fruits not observed at this time. Pls help in identifying

– This could perhaps be Bishofia javanica, supossed to be growing along streams, sub-himalayan region

– this plant is indeed Bischofia javanica

Bischofia  javanica is in honour of G.W. Bischoff, a professor at Heidelberg in the early 19th century; javanica

-Java, referring to its place of origin. Commonly called Bishop wood tree, Java Cedar, Euphorbiaceae family.
    Wood is red, used for dyeing bamboo baskets, fans and so on. Timber for building!    Ref: Aima, pg 58.

– Would like to inform the group that this  tree Bischofia javanica Blume is now in Phyllanthaceae family as per Kewplant list. Earlier it was in Euphorbiaceae as also informed in  my post.

ID No. 05042011 RD08:
Help me to identify this wild tree sp.
Date/Time- 5/4/2011- 11 AM
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS-  Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal,
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type– Wild Type
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tall-Moderate Tree
Height/Length-  10-14X5-8cm
Inflorescence Type/ Size- as seen in the photos
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts- Greenish white,
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- not seen


Attaching the image of the 83rd member of the series. In this a Bluethroated Barbet is relishing the fruits of Bischofia javanica. This tree is known as Paniala in Hindi and Kainjal in Bangla. In trade it is Bishop Wood.

Here is the image of the 84th member of the series. In this a Redvented Bulbul is on the fruits of Bischofia javanica. 

Bischofia javanica : Confirm ID : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 210413 : AK :  Attachments (3). 5 posts by 3 authors.
A huge tree at Lalbagh Botanical Gardens.
Pictures taken in March,2013.
Name suggests Bischofia javanica.
Experts kindly validate.

Yes it is

Bischofia javanica
Not aware of the tree so far.
On searching it belongs to family Phyllanthaceae and is found in Assam China South east Asia and Australia.


Euphorbiaceae fortnight :: Phyllanthaceae :: Bischofia javanica at Anshi :: DV09 : 3 images. 6 posts by 4 authors.
Bischofia javanica Blume … Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae s. l.
at Anshi on 25 MAY 13

Good posting and correctly identified.

Bishop Wood is an evergreen or semi evergreen woody tree with a maximum height of 40 m and diameter of 2.3 m.
The relatively short trunk is erect, but branches are low. Though coarse at maturity, the bark is nearly smooth, grayish brown to brown, and 1 cm thick, and contains a red milky sap that becomes a resinous semi-solid when dried.
Leaves are trifoliate, rarely palmate, with stalk 8-20 cm in length. Each papery leaflet may be ovate, elliptic, subovate, or elliptic-ovate, 7-15 cm long and 4-8 cm wide, pointed and broadly wedge-shaped to obtuse at base, with two to three teeth per centimeter along the serrated margin. The stalk of the terminal leaflet is 2-5 cm in length, while that of lateral leaflet is 5-20 mm.
Small greenish-yellow flowers are borne on dioecious panicles in leaf axils. The male inflorescence is 8-13 cm long and pubescent to glabrous, while the female inflorescence is 15-17 cm long and pendant.
Appearing in August to October, berry-like fruits are light brown, globular or subglobular, 6-13 mm in diameter, containing oblong seeds 5 mm in length.
Flowering: February-May

Good photos.

Bischofia javanica Blume is a large tree occurring in Tarai region and up to mid hills of Uttarakhand.
Photographed near Kathgodam, Uttarakhand

Correct identification.

Euphorbiaceae Fortnight : Bischofia javanica : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 141113 : AK-90 : Attachments (3). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Bischofia javanica , commonly known as ‘Toog Tree’ seen at Lalbagh Botanical Gardens, Bangalore.

The identity is written on the board.

Euphorbiaceae fortnight :: Bischofia javanica at Anshi :: PKA24:: : Attachments (6). 3 posts by 2 authors.

Its huge tree seen at Anshi WLS (Karnataka).
Bot. Name: Bischofia javanica
Family: Euphorbiaceae

Excellent photos.


Fwd: [efloraofindia:188308] Tree Id from Bangladesh 130514SM1 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1).

Habit: Tree
Habitat: Wet place along an wetland

Flowering: January
local Name: Uri Aum

Some details from another thread:
“Habit: Tree
Habitat: Swamp place along the water bodies
Flowering: January
I have collected the sample. I have seen it several location of Barisal city and Barisal district environs. The local people known as the tree is Uri Aum. The tree always prefer wet place.  I found all of the trees near pond, canal. The wood is using for making Boat and  its lasting very long. “

Bischofia javanica , Phyllanthaceae

Yes, I also think so, and it took much time to decide that leaves can be trifoliolate!

Anshi Ghat :: Bischofia javanica :: DVFEB28/61 : 5 posts by 3 authors. 5 images.
Anshi Ghat Karnataka
Date: 25 MAY 2013 … Altitude: 340 – 380 m asl
Bischofia javanica Blume (family: Euphorbiaceae, Phyllanthaceae)

Seems to be Bischofia javanica

Wonderful photography once again.

BISCHOFIA JAVANICA : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Bischofia javanica (KAINJAL).

nice collage. do you have flower pictures, …?


Tree for id from AJCB Garden, Howrah :: NS March 2020-05 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (7)
Can identification for this tree be suggested based on the attached pics, which were recorded from Acharya Jagdish Chandra Bose Botanical Garden, Howrah, West Bengal, recorded in February, 2020??

Bischofia javanica, Phyllanthaceae,


Attaching a collage of Bischofia javanica (KAINJAL). The fruits are relished by Green pigeon, Blue throated Barbet, Bulbuls and other birds.


Bischofia javanica from Lal Bagh Bangalore-GS17052022-1: 4 very high res. images.
Bischofia javanica photographed from Lal Bagh Bangalore, 29-9-2015.


Bischofia javanica Blume: 9 very high res. images.

Location:  Shubhakuna, Surkhet, West Nepal 
Date: 30 May 2023
Elevation 600m.
Habit : Wild


SK 3845 29 August 2023: 9 high res. images.

Location:  Tulsipur – Purandara-Botechaur Road, Surkhet, West Nepal 
Date: 30 May 2023
Elevation 1000m.

Habit : Wild

Bischofia javanica Blume [Phyllanthaceae]. Female tree.