Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Sp. Pl. 366 1753. (Syn: Cardiospermum corycodes Kunze; Cardiospermum glabrum Schumach. & Thonn.; Cardiospermum halicacabum var. luridum (BI.) Adelb.; Cardiospermum luridum Blume; Cardiospermum microspermum E. Mey.; Cardiospermum truncatum A.Rich.; Corindum halicacabum (L.) Medik.; Rhodiola biternata Lour.);
Native to: Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe; Introduced into: Alabama, Albania, Andaman Is., Ascension, Bermuda, Christmas I., Cook Is., District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., Greece, Illinois, Indiana, Iraq, Kentucky, Korea, Kriti, Missouri, New Caledonia, New York, Nicobar Is., Niue, North Carolina, South China Sea, Spain, Tennessee, Tonga, Turkey, Vanuatu, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Yugoslavia as per POWO;
kar-dee-oh-SPER-mum — Greek: kardia (heart); sperma (seed), referring to the heart-shaped white spot that marks each of the black seeds … Dave’s Botanary
hal-ee-KAY-ka-bum or hal-ee-ka-KAH-bum — Latin: halicacabus
(the name is probably used in this instance to denote a likeness to a
bladder rather than any claims to medicinal properties) … Dave’s Botanary • and, elsewhere on internet – Greek: halicacabus (salt barrel), referring to the balloon-like fruit
commonly known as: balloon vine, blister creeper, heart-pea, heart-seed, love in a puff, winter cherry • Assamese: কপাল ফুটা লতা kapaal phuta lata • Hindi: कानफूटा kanphuta, कपालफोड़ी kapalphodi • Kannada: ಬೆಅಗ್ನಿಬಳ್ಳಿ agniballi, ಬೆಕ್ಕಿನ ಬುಡ್ಡೆ ಗಿಡ bekkina budde gida, ಬೆಕ್ಕಿನ ತೊಡ್ಡಿನ ಬಳ್ಳಿ bekkina toddina balli, ಚಿಟಕಿ ಹಂಬು chitaki hambu, ಎರುಂಬಳ್ಳಿ erumballi, ಜೋತಿಷ್ಮತಿ jotishmati, ಕನಕಾಯ kanakaaya, ಮಿಂಚುಬಳ್ಳಿ minchuballi • Konkani: कानफुटी kanphuti, कपाळ फोडी kapala phodi • Malayalam: ജ്യോതിഷ്മതി jyotishmati, കറുത്തകുന്നി karuttakunni, പാലുരുവം paluruvam, ഉഴിഞ്ഞ uzhinja • Marathi: कानफुटी kanphuti, कपाळ फोडी kapal phodi • Nepali: ज्योतिष्मती jyotishmati, कपाल फोडी kapaal phodi, केश लहरा kesh lahara • Odia: ଜ୍ଯୋତିଷ୍ମତୀ jyotishmati, ଫୁଟୁ ଫୁଟୁକା phutu phutuka • Sanskrit: कर्णस्फोटा karnasphota, स्फुटवल्कली sphutavalkali • Tamil: கொற்றவன் korravan, முடக்கொற்றான் mutakkorran • Telugu: బుడ్డకాకర buddakakara, జ్యోతిష్మతి jyotishmati • Tibetan: ཀ་ཀེ་ད ka ke da • Tulu: ಉರುಂಡೆ ಬೂರು urunde booru… and many more names: Hindi: बड़ी चिरमी bari-chirmi, लत lat, नगणा nagana, पण्या panya • Marathi: लघुमालकांगोणी laghumalkangoni, पिंगवी pingavi • Odia: ଅନଳପ୍ରଭା analaprabha, ବ୍ରାହ୍ମୀ brahmi, ହରିତାଳୀ haritali, ୟଶସ୍ବିନୀ jasaswini, କଟଭୀ katabhi, ଲବଣା labana, ଲବଣୋତ୍ଥା labanottha, ଲତା lata, ମତିଦା matida, ମେଧା ବତୀ medha bati, ପୂତିତୈଳା putitaila, ଶୈଳ ସୁତା saila suta, ଶୀତା Sita, ସ୍ଫୁଟକ sphutaka, ସ୍ଫୁଟ ବନ୍ଧନୀ sphuta bandhani, ସ୍ଫୁଟ ତ୍ବଚା sphuta twacha, ଶ୍ରୀଲତା srilata, ଶ୍ରୀଫଳୀ sriphali, ସୁପିଙ୍ଗଳା supingala, ସ୍ବର୍ଣ୍ଣଲତା swarnnalata, ତେଜୋବତୀ tejobati • Sanskrit: अनल anala, अनलप्रभा analaprabha, बहुरसा bahurasa, दीप्त dipta, गीर्लता girlata, इन्द्रवल्ली indravalli, ज्योतिर्लता jyotirlata, ज्योतिष्का jyotiska, कैडर्य kaidarya, कनकप्रभा kanakaprabha, कटभी katabhi, कुकुन्दनी kukundani, लगणा lagana, लता lata, लतापुटकी lataputaki, लवण lavana, लवणकिंशुका lavanakimshuka, मतिदा matida, नगणा nagana, निफला niphala, पण्या panya, पारापतपदी parapatapadi, पारावताङ्घ्रि paravatanghri, पीततैला pitataila, पूतितैला putitaila, सारस्वती sarasvati, श्लेष्मघ्नी shlesmaghni, शृङ्गिन् shrngin, स्फुटरङ्गिणी sphutarangini, सुमेधस् sumedhas, सुपिङ्गला supingala, सुवेगा suvega, स्वर्णलता svarnalata, तेजस्विनी tejasvini, तेजोह्वा tejohva, तीक्ष्णा tiksna, तिक्तका tiktaka, वायसादनी vayasadani • Tamil: அளப்புக்கு alappukku, அரத்தை arattai, அத்தான் attan, சமுத்திரதோயம் camuttira-toyam, சிலியானை ciliyanai, சொலியன் coliyan, சுகட்டான் cukattan, சுடுகாடுமீட்டான் cutu-katu-mittan, எரிக்கொடி eri-k-koti, இந்திரவல்லி indiravalli, நிம்பசேதம் nimpacetam, பொக்கணப்பிச்சி pokkana-p-picci, திரகமூலம் tirakamulam, துடக்கறுப்பான் tuṭakkaruppan, உழிஞை ulinai, வருடகம் varutakam • Telugu: అల్లెన allena, బుడ్డబూసర buddaboosara, బుడ్డువ budduva, ఎక్కుడు తీగ ekkuduteega, కాసరి తీగ kaasari teega, కాశ kash, నల్ల గులిసింద nalla gulisinda, పాటలి తివ్వ patalitivva, తెల్ల గురువింద tella guruvinda, వెక్కుడుతీగె vekkudutige, వుప్పరింత vupparintha, ఉల్లింగతీగ vullinga teega
The leaf surface of Cardiospermum canescens (syn. C. corindum) is densely hairy in respect to C. halicacabum. Leaf shape is also different. Fruit shape is elliptic and long in C. canescens in respect to C. halicacabum, where the fruit is globose or broadly pyriform
As per efi thread :
Only two species of Cardiospermum are known in India and differentiated as:
Capsules pyriform, winged at the angles; seeds with large heart shaped hilum………………..C.helicacabum
Capsules subglobose, ovate when young, not winged; seeds with small orbicular hilum ……C. canescens
based on Pant (2000) in Flora of India vol-5 page 355.
Every village woman in Tamil Nadu knows that the leaves of this wild creeper are used to give relief in arthritis.
I believe it is also used as a shampoo.
(Maybe the men too know this, but I deal mainly with women!)
a very common tree in Bengal too…. !! All Sapindaceae member I hope has such frothing property as you have said.
Tree????? …, I will love to see its tree version. It is Balloon Vine. 😉
Thank you very Much … for pointing out my mistake it a herbaceous climber not a tree !!
Creeper for ID : 231210 : AK-1: Taken by the roadside growing wild on the 16th of November, 2010 at
Kandy, Sri Lanka. Sorry for the bad quality of pictures as taken in a hurry. The flowers resembled that of Potato Vine. But have not seen such fruits on Potato Vine before. Is it some Solanum?
-This is Cardiospermum halicacabum indeed, I suppose the name Cardiospermum have been derived from heart- shaped scar on the seeds.
– you are right: http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Hawaii_flora
Fruits & Vegetables Week: RVS-12: Leaves of Cardiospermum halicacabum is used as vegetable. This is from FRLHT campus, too.
-This too is a wasteland weed i didnt knew it has food value
–It is very popularly known for its use against joint pains. And it can be conveniently used as food & medicine.
-didn’t know that it was a considered a weed. Because here it is sold in our markets. People with arthritis complaints use it. Called ‘mudakkathaan’ in Tamil.
– Very common weed in Mysore city.
Cardiospermum halicacabum: Balloon Vine
Mar.name Kanphuti, kapalphodi
Cardiospermum helicacabum from SV ZOO Tirupati: Cardiospermum helicacabum
Very common weed in Mysore city.
I think the correct spelling will be Cardiospermum halicacabum
more pics of the Cardiospermum halicacabum from a village near samalkha panipat haryana
Cardiospermum halicacabum from Srinagar, Kashmir: Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Sp. pl. 1:366. 1753
Common names: balloonvine, heart-pea, lesser balloonvine, winter-cherry
The herbaceous vine often cultivated for its attractive balloon shaped fruits.
Photographed from Haiderpur colony, Srinagar, Kashmir
I have seen them in florist shops in Vancouver. They call them halloween lantern !!
here are mines from Panipat
I had seen this attractive baloonvine some years back in my neighbours garden. I remember that it is a very fast growing vine and spreads rapidly.
Informative pictorial compilation of flowers, fruits as well as the entire habitat.
… do they last till Halloween? strange , it would be… up north… “Balloon vine” was on my seed label …
In herbal medicine gardens… I have seen a small/tiny seeded and a very large seeded variety..
I think they are found during the halloween
small herb for id, mm1 21102011: this is growing quite commonly
small white flowers, about 3 mm
would very much appreciate an id
Yes I agree with all
Balloon vine – Puffed up with Pride!!! – 21OctAR02: Cauvery river plains, Climber, 10 ft. high, tiny flowers-white/pink-0.5 cms, fruit size-3cms
Yes Cardiospermum halicacabum (Sapindaceae). Seeds on surface have heart shaped marking.
Attaching 2 sets of images, recorded on different dates and on different places, but maybe of the same species. Please identify this/these plant(s).
Species : UNKNOWN
Habit & Habitat : wild climber (twiner?), roadside, waste places
Date : set-1 = 21-12-2011; set-2 = 22-03-2012
Place : Hooghly
This not a Physalis sp. from Solanaceae rather Cardiospermum halicacabum from the family Sapindaceae.
Oh! searched the net for various Physalis sp. for an hour and was thinking why i failed to get any positive result !!!
Yes it is Cardiospermum halicacabum
Nice pics. Cardiospermum helicacabum indeed, look for a heart shaped scar on the seeds where they are attached to the fruit wall…. clearly visible in ripe fruits, when you forcefully remove the seeds…
Yes Cardiospermum halicacabum
Yes , … You got it… once you see this, its so spectacular that you’ll remember it always..
Yes … You got it…Cardio….spermum..
Attaching more seed images of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Please, overlook the background leaf (yet to ID) in the second pic.
We really need members like you. I like your way to document so many things from nature.
The leaf in the second image is of Pseuderanthemum carruthersii var. atropurpureum.
Cardiospermum halicacabum L. from Kamrup district, Assam : Attachments (7). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Attached images are Cardiospermum halicacabum L. collected from Kamrup district, Assam
Location: Kamrup district, Assam
Family : Sapindaceae
Genus & species : Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Habitat: Grows wild
Habit :Tendril climber
Very nice photographs. This plant is a common weed in Mysore city. The plant is called agniballi in kannada and Mudakkatran or Uzhinjha in Tamil. The plant has many medicinal properties and used in Sidda medicine.
ID Request 210913SG-B : Attachments (3). 3 posts by 3 authors.
Please help identify following weed found in wild.
Photographed 14Sep13, at Dhavlas, Maharashtra.
Yes agree with …
Sapindaceae Fortnight ::Cardiospermum halicacabum SMP4 : 3 images. 1 post by 1 author.
A balloon vine – indiantreepix | Google Groups : 3 images.
Celastraceae and Sapindaceae Fortnight:: Sapindaceae: Cardiospermum halicacabum-NS 19 : Attachments (5). 2 posts by 2 authors.
This climbing plant is widely distributed in plains as well as lower hills, I have recorded this from Morni Hills, Panipat and many other places..
present shots of this balloon plant, Cardiospermum halicacabum are from Gori valley area…..
Very nice pictures of the seeds.
Was eager to see them.
Sapindaceae fortnight :: Cardiospermum corindum near Kumta :: DV03 : 4 + 2 + 2 images. 14 posts by 5 authors.
Cardiospermum corindum L.
near Kumta on 17 MAR 13
Why not C. halicacabum?
Thanks … for validating the ID. Thanks … for affirming the ID.
Would like to know if there is some clear indicator in the photos which suggests the ID as C. halicacabum ?
Referring to notes in Flowers of India, Small Balloon Vine … Leaves are biternate – trifoliate with the leaflets divided again into 3 leaflets. The lateral divisions may sometimes be reduced so that they appear like pinnae. Leaflets are ovate, deeply cut, the color a duller green and the texture firmer than in the others, and especially the lower surface always downy, with the main veins a little raised. The terminal leaflets easily distinguishes this plant from Balloon Vine. In Balloon Vine, the terminal leaflet is ovate, with a broad base and narrow tip – in Small Balloon Vine, the terminal leaflet has a narrow tapering base.
There is a key in the BSI book, posted by … at efi thread
In that key, the distinguishing characters are winged nature of fruit and the shape of hilum in seeds.. Possibly the leaf character MAY not stand very distinct often.
Now the question is- a narrow ridge seen on the angle of the fruits posted by …- shall we consider them as “wing” ?
I am yet to see a picture of C. corindum fruit (which lacks the wings), unfortunately its not seen in Flowers of India, Small Balloon Vine .
Thanks very much … for the clarifications and thoughts. Hopefully someday we get to see pictures of fruits of both species to understand the difference.
The leaf of both the species are different in their surface. The leaf surface of Cardiospermum canescens (syn. C. corindum) is densely hairy in respect to C. halicacabum. Leaf shape is also different. The picture has given this link http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Small%20Balloon%20Vine.html as C. corindum (syn. C. canescens) is not C. corindum. It is C. halicacabum also. Fruit shape is elliptic and long in C. canescens in respect to C. halicacabum, where the fruit is globose or broadly pyriform. I am sending herewith a portion of herbarium picture of C. canescens.
Thank you very very much … for the efforts and validation of the ID. I will correct my notes at flickr.
I am sending herewith two pictures having fruits and flowers of Cardiospermum canescens. I have collected it from Maruthamalai, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu during May- Aug, 2009. There is difference in leaf and fruit with reference to Cardiospermum halicacabum.
I have also collected the same species from same area during November 2011
Pls go through the attachment.
Thank you very much … and many thanks … for these pictures; very helpful for getting clear idea to differentiate the two species.
Glad that I could see both..
Thanks to … and … for sharing the photographs..
And..Dinesh jee, your post initiated the discussion to resolve another taxonomic mystery for me..Thanks !
Shall we conclude by naming your plant as Cardiospermum halicacabum L. ?
…, yes indeed Cardiospermum halicacabum L. … I will correcting my notes at flickr at earliest.
Sapindaceae fortnight :: Cardiospermum corindum ?? at North Karnataka ::PKA1 : Attachments (5). 3 posts by 3 authors.
This particular plant was spotted at North Karnataka.
I think Cardiospermum corindum ??
I think it should be Cardiospermum halicacabum in view of discussions in another thread.
Yes … Cardiospermum halicacabum as pointed out in my post … this is the same sighting, me and … were together.
Weedy herb for ID Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu NAW-OCT-33 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4).
Kindly identify this weedy herb if possible, photographed in an unkempt agricultural field Tiruvannamalei, Tamil Nadu in September 2014.
I didnt have a clear picture of habit but this plant was about 40-50 cm tall growing in the midst of grass.
puffy pods about 10 mm.
Yes, Cardiospermum halicacabum.
Yes, the flowers are minute, yet very attractive..
wonders of seeds and stories ! (mixed thread): 1 correct image as above. ……………….
Since … suggested to initiate this thread I now request Didi to add her story, of seeds of Cardiospermum halicacabum. I came to know about this heart shaped marks from …, in my earlier upload of this species.
Sangli, May 2015 :: Requesting ID of this shrub :: ARKJUL-06/06 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)
Requesting to please ID this shrub growing by the roadside near Sangli, Maharahstra in May 2015.
Cardiospermum helicacabum (Sapindaceae) to me.
Cardiospermum helicacabum (Sapindaceae)-Karansphutica, Kanphuti.
The pods when pressed hard give a phut- phut like sound
TSP-APR2016-08-308: Images of Cardiospermum helicacabum (Sapindaceae) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (7)
It is my pleasure to share few images of Cardiospermum helicacabum (Sapindaceae)
Habit: Herbaceous climber
Sighting: Hassan and Tumkur, Karnataka, about 800 msl
Date: 07-09-2014, 04-11-2014, 29-06-2015, 04-10-2015 and 18-12-2016
Cardiospermum halicacabum : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Sharing some pictures of C. halicacabum shot at Nuwakot Nepal on 26 April 2015 at 3200 ft !
Oh! What a beauty!
Etymology :: blister creeper :: Cardiospermum halicacabum : 4 posts by 2 authors.
Why would the plant Cardiospermum halicacabum gain this name as blister creeper ?
Other than a small mention in book Florida Ethnobotany by Daniel F. Austin, about plant containing irritating chemicals, could not find any more reasoning given anywhere else.
While compiling names for this plant, found that the plant is of highly medicinal – used in treating / curing boils, blisters, cysts, tumours, thus could be the name blister creeper.
Names of Plants in India :: Cardiospermum halicacabum L. : 5 posts by 3 authors.1 image.
ID request 24112017CP1 : 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
Kindly identify this plant.
Check for C.grandiflorum as well by comparing vegetative and floral characters and decide yourself
I also agree with … It is Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Where was it taken?
Gujarati name of Cardiospermum halicacabum : 11 posts by 3 authors.
Please help me with the name karotio for the balloon vine, Cardiospermum halicacabum in native script.
Reference: Indigenous Drugs Of India by Chopra R N, I.C. Chopra
Post got inadvertently sent.
Please validate the names put here – બોધ bodha, કપાલફોડી kapaalphodi, શિવજાલ shivajaal
Reference: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics by C P Khare
Bodha and Kapalphodi both are used
Bodha and Kapalphodi both are used for Cardiospermum halicacabum
the Cardiospermum halicacabum is called as Nayphataki, Lataphataki, Latphatkari, Kagdoliyo, Karoliyo, Kapalfodi, Bodh. Actually it is discussed as Karnasfota, Kakamardanika in ayurvedic texts.
Thanks … for the two names – bodha and kapalphodi. I will soon add them to the Sanskrit page in the site.
Since these two are the most appropriate names, I will bolden them to stand out among the rest.
अनल anala, अनलप्रभा analaprabha, बहुरसा bahurasa, दीप्त dipta, गीर्लता girlata, इन्द्रवल्ली indravalli, ज्योतिर्लता jyotirlata, ज्योतिष्का jyotiska, कैडर्य kaidarya, कनकप्रभा kanakaprabha, कर्णस्फोटा karnasphota, कटभी katabhi, कुकुन्दनी kukundani, लगणा lagana, लता lata, लतापुटकी lataputaki, लवण lavana, लवणकिंशुका lavanakimshuka, मतिदा matida, नगणा nagana, निफला niphala, पण्या panya, पारापतपदी parapatapadi, पारावताङ्घ्रि paravatanghri, पीततैला pitataila, पूतितैला putitaila, सारस्वती sarasvati, श्लेष्मघ्नी shlesmaghni, शृङ्गिन् shrngin, स्फुटरङ्गिणी sphutarangini, स्फुटवल्कली sphutavalkali, सुमेधस् sumedhas, सुपिङ्गला supingala, सुवेगा suvega, स्वर्णलता svarnalata, तेजस्विनी tejasvini, तेजोह्वा tejohva, तीक्ष्णा tiksna, तिक्तका tiktaka, वायसादनी vayasadani
To my knowledge, I have only heard this plant spoken of as either કાગડોળિયો or કરોળિયો in Gujarati. Though the first two names you have cited are used by some, they are likely to have been appropriated from other tongues. The last name mentioned in your post – “shivajaal” – also seems to belong to some other Indian language(s).
Thank you very very much, …
I agree, the names: બોધ bodha, કપાલફોડી kapaalphodi, શિવજાલ shivajaal are clearly from other languages – quite possibly used in ayurveda.
Will add કાગડોળિયો, કરોળિયો.
050719AB1 ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2) – 1 Mb each.
Identification, please. Attaching high resolution images.
Cardiospermum halicacabum !
Photo from Sumedha Karkhanis : 7 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (1)
Plz id, seen at ranjangaon near pune, maharashtra, 20 Aug 2019
Please check Cardiospermum halicacabum.
And check Bidens too !
I also agree with Cardiospermum halicacabum
ID _ DKB_5666 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Mewar Biodiversity Park, Udaipur (Rajasthan)
47 Identify weed plant cardiospermum
Please identify the weed plant.
Location: near Reserve Forest, Chathamattom, Ernakulam District, Kerala PIN:686671
Date:. 04.02.2021, 08.50am
Habitat: wild moisture
Plant habit: climbing weak stem annual climbing/hanging/spring thread adjoining flower
Height: 04 feet
Leaves: alternative bipinnate
Flower: diameter:03mm, white non fragrant
Fruit: green triangular 20mm diameter
Seed: globular black with heart shaped white spot, 3 in a pod 03mm diameter
Attaching more images,
Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Yesterday (15.02.2021) I got images of 5 petals of Halicacabum (any genetic disorder?), I am happily share the same,
Catalogue of Life POWO The Plant List Ver.1.1 Flora of China FOC illustration Flora of Pakistan Annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal Flora of peninsular India