Cassia javanica L. (Filaments swollen in the middle. Ovary hairy, Stipules 12-15 mm long, leafy, leaflets usually obtuse, silky beneath;  petals pink, turning dark red, fading to white)


Cassia javanica subsp. nodosa (Roxb.) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen (Filaments swollen in the middle. Ovary hairy, Stipules 5 mm long, linear, not leafy, leaflets acute, glabrous beneath; petals pink, fading to yellow-pink or white)



Cassia renigera Benth. (Filaments swollen in the middle. Ovary glabrous, leaflets oblong, densely velvety, tip mucronate; leafy bracts at base of each flower; stipules large leafy)



Cassia roxburghii DC. (As per efi thread : This species does not have swollen filaments in the middle. The other three species with similar flowers all have filaments swollen in the middle)



Key to Indian Species of Cassia Complex (CassiaChamaecristaSenna)
1a The longest filament
(or filaments of three anterior stamens) sigmoidally curved, longest more
than 2.5 cm long
1b The longest filament
straight, less than 1 cm long
2a Flowers yellow or
golden yellow
2b Flowers pink,
reddish to white
3a Leaflets less than
10 pairs, longer than 5 cm, glabrous on both surfaces
Cassia fistula
3b Leaflets 10 or more
pairs, shorter than 5 cm, puberulent on both surfaces; petals 11-15 mm long
Cassia moschata
4a Filaments of 3
longer stamens not swollen in the middle; pedicels less than 2 cm long;
petals 10-15 mm long
4b Filaments of 3
longer stamens swollen in the middle; pedicels more than 2.5 cm long; petals
usually longer than 15 mm
5a Pod more than 35 cm
long with pulp inside, usually broader than 2.5 cm
Cassia grandis
5b Pod less than 35 cm
long with dry pith inside, usually narrower than 2.5 cm
Cassia roxburghii
6a Stipules reniform,  larger than 15 mm, cuspidate; leaflets velvety on both surfaces; ovary
Cassia renigera
6b Stipules less than 15 mm; leaflets glabrous or silky beneath only; ovary hairy 7
7a Stipules 12-15 mm
long, leafy; leaflets usually rounded or obtuse at tip; calyx dark red;
petals 2.5-3.5 cm long, pink to dark red
Cassia javanica ssp. javanica
7b Stipules 5 mm long,
narrow, not leafy; leaflets acute at tip; calyx Green; petals 1.2-2.5 cm
long, pink to nearly white, turning yellow
Cassia javanica ssp. nodosa
8a Ovary stalk less
than 0.9 mm long, fruitless than 9 cm long; braceoles present; legume
elastically coiling
8b Ovary stalk more
than 0.9 mm long, fruit more than 9 cm long; bracteoles absent; legume not
elastically coiling
9a Leaflets 2 pairs;
one linear gland present between each pair or only one pair of leaflets;
leaflets broader than 1 cm; stamens 5(2-7)
Chamaecrista absus
9b Leaflets more than 2
pairs; glands present on petiole below leaflets; Leaflets linear, narrower
than 1 cm; stamens 10 or 4-5
10a Gland on petiole
stalked, just below the lowest pair of leaflets
10b Gland on petiole
11a Stamens 5; pedicel
less than 7 mm long; sepals 5-6 mm long
Chamaecrista pumila
11b Stamens 10; pedicel
10-15 mm long; sepals 6-8 mm long
Chamaecrista kleinii
12a Leaflets usually in 25-60 pairs Chamaecrista
12b Leaflets usually in
less than 25 pairs
13a Stamens 4-5;
leaflets 5-10 mm long; stem with short curved hairs leaves less than 6 cm
Chamaecrista nomame
13b Stamens 10,
sometimes 7; leaflets 8-14 mm long; stem with spreading hairs; leaves longer
than 6 cm
14a Leaves without
14b Leaves with glands
on rachis or petiole
15a Pod cylindrical or
4-angled; leaflets 10-16 pairs, 3-9 cm long; pod 15-30 cm long, 1 cm thick
Senna spectabilis
15b Pod compressed 16
16a Leaflets 5 cm or
more long; pod winged
Senna alata
16b Leaflets less than 5
cm long; pod not winged
17a Pod elliptic-oblong
to falcate, less than 7 cm long
17b Pod linear-oblong,
longer than 7 cm
18a Leaflets narrower
usually less than 10 mm broad, acute; pod 3-7 cm long, oblong to subfalcate,
valves not crested
Senna alexandrina
18b Leaflets broader
usually broader than 10 mm, obtuse; pod 3-6 cm long, falcate, valves with
longitudinal ridge of raised crests
19a Raceme 10-25 cm
long, longer than subtending leaves; sepals 9-13 mm long; petals 12-20 mm
Senna italica ssp. italica
19b Raceme less than 10
cm long, shorter than subtending leaves; sepals 6-8 mm long; petals 8-9 mm
Senna italica ssp. micrantha
20a Pod 15-30 cm long,
1-2 cm broad; stipules minute, subulate, less than 3 mm long
Senna siamea
20b Pod shorter than 15
cm; stipules minute or larger
21a Inflorescence
subspicate; pedicel 5-7 mm long; stipules foliaceous, 1.5-2.5 cm long; shrub;
pod pilose
Senna didymobotrya
21b Inflorescence
paniculate; pedicel longer than 10 mm; pod glabrous
22a Shrub; stipules
minute, less than 3 mm long; leaves 10-15 cm long; pod 7-12 cm long
Senna montana
22b Tree; stipules
foliaceous, about 9 mm long with filiform tip; leaves 15-30 cm long; pod
12-15 cm long
Senna timoriensis
23a Glands on rachis
between pairs of leaflets, none on petiole
23b Gland on petiole,
none on rachis between pairs of leaflets
24a Pod terete or
subterete, broader than 10 mm
24b Pod compressed or if
terete then less than 8 mm broad
25a Leaflets 2 pairs;
gland between lower pair of leaflets; petals 2-3 cm long
Senna bacillaris
25b Leaflets 3-5 pairs;
petals 1-2 cm long
26a Gland only between
lowest pairs of leaflets; leaflets rounded or subacute
Senna bicapsularis
26b Glands between
leaflets of each pair; leaflets acuminate
27a Stipules reniform,
broader than 7 mm, persistent
Senna auriculata
27b Stipules linear less
than 5 mm broad, caducous
28a Leaflets 12 or more
Senna multijuga
28b Leaflets less than
12 pairs
29a Pods 1-2 cm wide 30
29b Pods less than 1 cm
30a Glands clavate or
sessile, between all or most pairs of leaflets, pod tomentose or glabrous
30b Glands clavate
usually between lowest two pairs of leaflets; pod glabrous
31a Young branches
tomentose; leaflets 4-8 pairs, densely tomentose especially beneath, oblong
to elliptic, 2-3 cm long, glands sessile; pod 10-14 cm long, tomentose, 50-90
Senna glandulosa
31b Young branches
glabrous; leaflets 3-5 pairs, almost glabrous, ovate to ovate elliptic, 4-11
cm long; glands clavate or conical; pod 6-10 cm long, glabrous.
Senna floribunda
32a Leaflets 4-6 pairs;
leaves 15-30 cm long; stalk of pod 10-20 mm long
Senna sulfurea
32b Leaflets 6-9 pairs;
leaves 10-15 cm long; stalk of pod 5-7 mm long
Senna surattensis
33a Leaves with 5-15
pairs of leaflets, generally clustered 3-5 together at nodes; leaflets 4-10mm
long; pod 8-15 cm long.
Senna polyphylla
33b Leaves with 2-7
pairs of leaflets, occurring singly at nodes; leaflets longer than 15 mm
34a Leaflets 4-7 pairs,
2-3 cm long; flowers in pairs in leaf axils; pod 6-8 cm long
Senna pallida
34b Leaflets 2-5 pairs;
flowers more than two in short racemes
35a Leaflets ovate or
oblong, not obovate; Leaflets 2-3 pairs, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 2.5-5
cm long; pod 7-9 mm broad
Senna corymbosa
35b Pods obovate; leaflets
3-5 pairs.
36a Leaflets 4 pairs
(3-5); glands between all or lowest pair of leaflets; pod 3-5 cm long, 5-10
Senna uniflora
36b Leaflets 3 pairs
glands between lowest 1-2 pairs; pod longer than 10 cm; more than 20 seeded
37a Glands 2, between
lowest two pairs of leaflets; sepals glabrous; petals 8-12 mm long; anthers
of three large stamens rounded at tip; pedicel 12-15 mm long in fruit
Senna tora
37b Gland only one
between lowest pair of leaflets; sepals hairy; petals 12-15 mm long; anthers
of three large stamens narrowed at tip; pedicel 30 mm long in fruit
Senna obtusifolia
38a Plants hirsute;
leaves with 3-5 pairs of leaflets; gland subclavate, near the base of
petiole; pod 12-15 cm long, 3-7 mm wide, hirsute, linear, curved
Senna hirsuta
38b Plants glabrous or
subglabrous; Leaves with 4-10 pairs of leaflets; gland clavate or
hemispheric; fruit shorter than 13 cm, glabrous at maturity
39b Gland at base of
petiole, sessile, hemispherical; leaflets 3-6 pairs; pod 10-13 cm long,
compressed, glabrous, often slightly curved, 20-30 seeded, torulose when
Senna occidentalis
39b Gland situated 3-10
mm above the base of petiole, clavate; leaflets 3-12 pairs; pod 5-10 cm long,
somewhat inflated, puberulent when young, glabrous when mature, not curved,
30-40 seeded, not torulose when mature
40a Leaflets 4-12 pairs, 4-9 cm
long, acute or mucronate, branches not purple; pod 9-10 cm long
Senna sophera var. sophera
40b Leaflets 3-5 pairs, less than 3
cm long, obtuse at apex; branches slender, purple; pod 5-8 cm long
Senna sophera var. purpurea

Cassia bakeriana Craib.
Cassia fistula L.
Cassia grandis L.f.
Cassia javanica var. javanica
Cassia javanica var. nodosa (Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham.; C. javanica var. indochinensis Gagnep.)
Cassia moschata Kunth
Cassia x nealiae Irwin & Barneby
Cassia renigera
Cassia roxburghii DC. (Cassia marginata Roxb.)

Chamaecrista absus (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia absus L.)
Chamaecrista kleinii (Wight & Arn.) V.Singh (Cassia kleinii Wight.& Arn.)
Chamaecrista leschenaultiana (DC.) Degener (Cassia wallichiana DC.)
Chamaecrista mimosoides L. (Cassia mimosoides L.)
Chamaecrista nomame (Sieber) H.Ohashi (Cassia hochstetteri Ghesq.)
Chamaecrista pumila (Lam.) K.Larsen (Cassia pumila Lam.)

Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Cassia alata L.)
Senna alexandrina Mill. (Cassia senna L.)
Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (Cassia auriculata L.)
Senna bacillaris (L.f.) IRWIN & Barneby (Cassia bacillaris L.f.)
Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. (Cassia bicapsularis L.)
Senna corymbosa (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia corymbosa Lam.)
Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia didymobotrya Fresen.)
Senna floribunda (Cav.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia floribunda Cav.)
Senna hirsuta (L.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia hirsuta L.)
Senna italica Mill. subsp. italic (Cassia obovata Collad; C. obtusa Roxb.)
Senna italica subsp. micrantha (Brenan) Lock (Cassia italica subsp. micrantha Brenan)
Senna montana (Roth) V. Singh (Cassia montana Roth; Cassia setigera DC.)
Senna multiglandulosa (Jacq.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia tomentosa L.f.)
Senna multijuga (Rich.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia multijuga Rich.)
Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia obtusifolia L.)
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Cassia occidentalis (L.) Rose)
Senna pallida (Vahl) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia biflora L.)
Senna polyphylla (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby  (Cassia polyphylla Jacq.)
Senna septemtrionalis (Viviani) Irwin & Barneby
Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia siamea Lam.)
Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. (Cassia sophera L.)
Senna sophera var. purpurea (Lindl.) V.Singh (Cassia purpurea Roxb. ex Lindl.)
Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia spectabilis DC.)
Senna sulfurea (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia sulfurea Collad; C. glauca Lam.)
Senna surattensis (Burm.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia surattensis Burm.f.)
Senna timoriensis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia timoriensis DC.)
Senna tora (L.) Roxb. (Cassia tora L.)
Senna uniflora (Mill.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia uniflora Mill.)



Key for Indian species of Cassia complex (Cassia, Chamaecrista and Senna) has been uploaded, except for two species (Cassia bakeriana and Cassia nealiae) has been uploaded to the Group website. Please follow the link to reach the key:

Chamaecrista absus,
C. auriculata (now Senna auriculata)
Cassia fistula,
C. italica (now Senna italica),
Chamaecrista kleinii,
C. occidentalis (now Senna occidentalis),
Chamaecrista pumila,
Cassia siamea (now S. siamea),
C. senna (now Senna alexandrina)
C. sophera (now Senna shophera)
C. tora (now Senna tora)


Pl. go through Cassia (‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎Fabaceae (Leguminosae)‎) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice. 

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