Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Sér. 3, Bot. 35: 13 1978. (syn. Canthium chinense Pers.; Canthium coronatum Lam.; Ceriscus malabaricus Gaertn.; Gardenia dumetorum Retz.; Gardenia dumosa Salisb.; Gardenia floribunda Roxb. [Invalid]; Gardenia glabra R.Br. ex Wall. [Invalid]; Gardenia latifolia Schltdl. ex Hook.f. [Illegitimate]; Gardenia spinosa L.f. [Illegitimate]; Gardenia stipularis RottlerGardenia spinosa Thunb.; Genipa dumetorum (Retz.) Baill.; Narega coduva Raf.Posoqueria dumetorum (Retz.) Willd. ex Roxb.; Posoqueria floribunda Roxb.; Randia brandisii Gamble [Illegitimate]; Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Lam.Randia floribunda (Roxb.) DC.; Randia lachnosiphonium Hochst.; Randia oxypetala Lindl.; Randia rottleri Wight & Arn.;  Randia spinosa (Thunb.) Poir.Randia spinosa (Thunb.) Blume; Randia stipulosa Miq.Randia tomentosa Wight & Arn.; Solena dumetorum (Retz.) D.Dietr.; Solena floribunda (Roxb.) D.Dietr.; Solena longispina D.Dietr.; Solena nutans D.Dietr.; Xeromphis obovata (Hochst.) Keay; Xeromphis retzii Raf.Xeromphis spinosa (Thunb.) Keay ….;         (=) Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Poir.);
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Keys as per book in Flora of peninsular India:
Spines axillary; leaves less than 8 cm long; calyx lobes persistent – Xeromphis spinosa (syn. of Catunaregam spinosa)
Spines terminal; leaves more than 10 cm long; calyx lobes deciduous-Xeromphis ulginosa (syn. of Tamilnadia uliginosa) [Corola seen is only white as per observations at Tamilnadia uliginosa]
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kah-too-NAH-rain-gum — from Tamil kātu (scrub forest), nārangkam (Mandarin orange)
spy-NO-suh — with spines
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commonly known as: false guava, mountain pomegranate, spiny randia, thorny bone-apple • Assamese: behmona, gurol, mona • Bengali: karhar, mainphal • Gujarati: મીંઢળ mindhal • Hindi: मैनफल mainphal • Kannada: ಕಾರೆಕಾಯಿ ಗಿಡ kaarekaayi-gida, ಮಗ್ಗಾರೆ maggaare • Kashmir: मैनफल mainphal • Khasia: diengmakasing-khlaw • Lushai: sazuk thei • Malayalam: മലങ്കാര malankaara • Marathi: गेळ gela, खाजकांदा khajkanda, पेरअळू peralu • Oriya: palova, patova • Sanskrit: मदन madan, पिण्ड pinda, शल्पक shalpaka • Tamil: மதுக்காரை matukkarai, மருக் காண mruk kana, முள்ளுக்காரை mullukkarai • Telugu: మందాచెట్టు mandacettu, మంగ manga, మ్రంగ mranga, పిండీతకము pinditakamu
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Native to: India, south tropical Africa, southern Africa
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Medium sized deciduous tree, bark smooth. Leaves opposite, ovate, 10-15 cm, coriaceous. Flowers sessile, solitary, terminal, 10 cm. Flowers are pure white and extremely fragrant as they open at night. The very next day they turn golden yellow, lose fragrance & nbsp; and attract diurnal pollinators like bees. Flowers are extremely fragrant when they bloom at night but not so on the next daytime when they turn golden yellow. Fruits are 3-5 cm, globose and hard, not of any edible value.
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It is quite a variable species, from small shrub to medium sized tree. Sometimes it doesn’t have spines either;
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The wild edible fruit plant in most of the tribal dominated districts of Odisha;
In some parts of TN, it is said to be used as a fish-stupefying agent;
Humans use – C.spinosa fruits are crushed and used as soap to wash clothes, they turn frothy when mixed with water and agitated;

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Catunaregam spinosa: Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.
Family Rubiaceae
Small size tree
Location: Khanada to Duke’s Nose., Khandala (Maharashtra)


–  Wow so beautiful.. these plants in Amboli are covered by lot of Dendrobium.. different species of it:):)



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identification no060311sn3: date/time:feb11
location:mulshi,pune
Catunaregam spinosa
Marathi : गेळ
Family :Rubiaceae
bitat:wild
plant habit:shrub?
height:about5ft
leaves:ribbed,branches a bit thorny
fruits: yellow flower, maybe just 1 or 2


–  Catunaregam spinosa
Marathi : गेळ
Family :Rubiaceae



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Ceriscoides turgida:  Most probably I assume this to be Ceriscoides turgida. (Syn Gardenia turgida) from Rubiaceae. I do not have any other features for confirmation. The tree was leafless. Phansad. March 2011.


– Absolutely Catunaregam spinosa as said by ..


– It looks like catunaregum  spinosa. Initialy fls are white , later turns into yellow colour.



 

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Medium sized deciduous tree, bark smooth. Leaves opposite, ovate, 10-15 cm, coriaceous. Flowers sessile, solitary, terminal, 10 cm. Flowers are pure white and extremely fragrant as they open at night. Small creeping insects can be seen within flower. The very next day they turn golden yellow, lose fragrance & nbsp; and attract diurnal pollinators like bees. A crab spider merged in yellow colour is seen predating on a bee that was attracted by the golden colour.

–  Sorry, forgot to mention the name as Gardenia latifloia Soland. Local name Pendro. A rare beautiful tree distributed sparsely in dry hilly areas of central and western India. The tree is presently in flowers.


Yes, the flowers are extremely fragrant when they bloom at night but not so on the next daytime when they turn golden yellow. Fruits are 3-5 cm, globose and hard, not of any edible value.


– Have this sapling on my property. Could this be a sapling of Gardenia latifolia ?


– this seems Gardenia resinifera. Leaves for G. latifolia have to be broadly ovate and has no distribution in your area.


forgot to mention that this was planted [and the source failed to provide its true identity]. Am familiar with Dikemali [Gardenia resinifera], hence the question.


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ID Request 24082011mc01: Another ID request. Separate shots of flower and fruit sent.
Locality: About 40 km from Chennai
Altitude: Sea level
Habitat: Thorny bush to small tree
Approximate Height: 10-15 feet
Photo taken on: 14th August, 2011

Nice Pictures! Yes Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng. of Rubiaceae family.
Please check the spelling of the genus it is Catunaregam not ‘gum’.


Madanphalan important emetic, and pitta-nashak oushadhi….


Yes Catunaregum spinosa, Gela in Marathi and Madanphal in Sanskrit.
An Emetic plant (fruit) in Ayurveda


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Catunaregam spinosa flowering: Photographed on my property at Shahapur last Sunday. This tree had only this one flower which showed the colour changing from white to yellow indicating successful pollination. For my previous photographs and discussion on this please refer to the archives of this group.



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ID-02062012-PR-2:  Plants from gujarat
Its a medium size shrub
Family Rubiaceae
May be its Xeromphis

 


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False Guava: Catunaregam spinosa of Rubiaceae family. On 29th June at Matheran.


Interesting and nice pics. Is it edible?


I am not sure… somewhere read the unripe fruit is used as Fish poison and somewhere I read that this has medicinal value. May be someone else can throw light on this.


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241211 BRS 282:

Pl. find the attached file contain photos for id. request.
Location: NBNP Anaikatti, Coimbatore Dist.
Date: 22.12.2011
Habitat: Wild

Habit: Tree


Catunaregam spinosa (Rubiaceae). Tamil names: Madhukkaarai, Marikkalaan


Yes … is right. This is Catunaregam spinosa, the wild edible fruit plant in most of the tribal dominated districts of Odisha.


Thanks … In some parts of TN, it is said to be used as a fish-stupefying agent.



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KAS Week:: (Catunaregam spinarum – 04/10/2012 – NJ):  Catunaregam spinarumFalse Guava (Ghela – Marathi)



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KAS Week DS_101012_01 Tree that named KAS plateau:  Today’s postings are my last episode of KAS.
The tree Kas- for which the plateau is named.

This is Catunaregam spinosa. The local name as far as I know is Ghela. My photographs of this tree are available in the archives of this group.


Kas is said to be named after Elaeocarpus glandulosus which is called Kasa in marathi. The plant in picture seems Catunaregam or Gela in marathi.


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Rubiaceae Week :: Catunarega​m spinosa from Coimbatore: Sharing the images of Catunarega​m spinosa from NBNP, Coimbatore



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kah-too-NAH-rain-gum — from Tamil kātu (scrub forest), nārangkam (Mandarin orange)
spy-NO-suh — with spines
Jun 28, 2008 … at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra
commonly known as: false guava, mountain pomegranate, spiny randia, thorny bone-apple • Assamese: behmona, gurol, mona • Bengali: karhar, mainphal • Gujarati: મીંઢળ mindhal • Hindi: मैनफल mainphal • Kannada: ಕಾರೆಕಾಯಿ ಗಿಡ kaarekaayi-gida, ಮಗ್ಗಾರೆ maggaare • Kashmir: मैनफल mainphal • Khasia: diengmakasing-khlaw • Lushai: sazuk thei • Malayalam: മലങ്കാര malankaara • Marathi: गेळ gela, खाजकांदा khajkanda, पेरअळू peralu • Oriya: palova, patova • Sanskrit: मदन madan, पिण्ड pinda, शल्पक shalpaka • Tamil: மதுக்காரை matukkarai, மருக் காண mruk kana, முள்ளுக்காரை mullukkarai • Telugu: మందాచెట్టు mandacettu, మంగ manga, మ్రంగ mranga, పిండీతకము pinditakamu
Native to: India, south tropical Africa, southern Africa
References: Flowers of IndiaeFloraFlowers of Sahyadri by Shrikant Ingalhalikar
more views: Jun 28, 2008 … at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra

Feb 16, 2008 … at Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra


Great capture and a complete set



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Rubiaceae week: Catunaregam spinosa from Arsikere, Karnataka:  Sharing a few photos of this plant in full fruit in Arsikere Reserve Forest, KA. The ripe fruit had a pungent fruity smell in fact.


Nice set of photos …,
Humans use – C.spinosa fruits are crushed and used as soap to wash clothes, they turn frothy when mixed with water and agitated. About faunal interdependance we need to study carefully
We are heading to the same forest again on 19 th Feb. You must join us and carry on the good work of documenting floral species.

Thanks …  for sharing the nice photographs and … for the valuable info. This is very common in Tamil Nadu scrub jungles.


 


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Manga Kai / Kaare kai – used to lure fish on the water surface:

Common emetic Nut
Telugu: Manga Kai (Chettu),
Kannada: Kare fruit, used to lure fish on the water surface
Tamil: Madu Karei
Marati Mainhpur
Habitat: Eastern ghats – foot hills,
Botanical: Randia spinosa, Family: Rubiaceae (As per forest flora of andhra pradesh)
Mamandur, near tirupati, (Recall -Mamandur man eater by Kenneth Anderson , a pioneer of wildlife conservation in southern India, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_Anderson_(writer) )
Andhra Pradesh, 27 Mar 2010,
On fishing practices using kaare fruit, near sakaleshpur and kukke, Karnataka
In the Western Ghats, during summer, the river water starts to recede and in some of the shallow pools beneath rocks and crevices many kinds of fishes still struggle to survive – waiting for the next monsoon.
People have learnt to to catch these fishes. Kaare fruits are properly beaten up with the help of stones and the mix is left to soak in the pool waters till it comes to a rich foam. After about five minutes, the fishes turn up on the surface belly-up. People then catch and take them home for a feast.
In Mamandur, two of the senior forest officials, when asked, explained “Before the wild life protection act -1979 came into practice, when they tried the above in a shallow pool, a large sized python came belly-up onto the surface and managed to escape into the forest !
Wonder what reaction this fruit causes on fishes – probably induces a severe itching or perhaps the poison reduces oxygen, makes it difficult for them to breathe.

These days fish, frog habitats are under severe threat from human activities – over fishing, dams, pesticides etc


It is now called Catunaregam spinosa [Randia dumetorum / Randia spinosa]. The local name is Ghela.


Thanks for sharing your experiences. It is used as fish poison in many parts of the world. Thats why its one of the common names is Fish Poison plant/bush. Here is Google link showing its worldwide use.


I found the link on Fish Poison plant has wealth of information and very interesting. One of your article on Mainphal (Randia dumetorum, family Rubiaceae) has good info on the medicinal practices and on traditional healers. These kind of surveys, gathering information and mainly documenting – is a commendable job. I hope it gives a immense satisfaction at least to ourselves.
I liked the way Ayurveda describes some of the common use of the plant ..

According to Ayurveda, Mainphal is bitter, sweet, heating, aphrodisiac, emetic, antipyretic, carminative, alexiteric and cures abscesses, ulcers, inflammations, tumours, skin-diseases, piles etc.”


Yes, it is called ‘Gella’ ‘गेळा’ or ‘Gellphall’ ‘गेळफळ’ in Marathi.



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[EfloraofIndia_Rubiaceae week_080212PD05_Catunaregam spinosa_Flora of Odisha]:  sharing the images of Catunaregam spinosa taken from Ranpur, Odisha


Beautiful set of pics … except for third one 😛


He He………..yes sir i understood exactly what u wana to to point out here. I have already applied ur suggestions in my recent photography. But this was taken earlier.


Rubiaceae Week: Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng from Munak Road Karnal Haryana:  Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng from Munak Road Karnal Haryana


Very good set of pictures. I have not seen the flowers.


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Rubiaceae week:: Catunaregam spinosa at Nagpur:  Came across this Tree at Nagpur. Branches were having straight spines.
Bot. name: Catunaregam spinosa
Family: Rubiaceae
Date/Time: 28-04-2010 / 07:25AM
Location: Near Gorewada Dam, Nagpur
Habitat- Wild
Plant Habit: Tree


It is nice to see gradual variation in flower color of Catunaregam spinosa


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Exceptional shots … no words to appreciate.



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Rubiaceae for ID 070212MK01:  Please help me to identify this Rubiacaeae tree of 4-5 M height. This is similar to Catunaregam sp.

Location: Sirumalai, Dindigul dist, TN

Alt: c. 1600 metres


Photos taken on first week of May 2011. Any kind of Randia?


Looks more like Catunaregam spinosa. Any how please check the characters.


I also think this to be Catunaregam spinosa only


Yes, This should be Randia dumetorum Syn. Catunaregum spinosa



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catunaregam spinosa

mulshi dam area near lonavla

this monday (April’ 13)


Yes it is



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Attachments (6). 7 posts by 4 authors.

Requesting to please ID this tree with yellow/white flowers captured on the Shilonda trail, SGNP, Mumbai in June 2013.


This is Gardenia sp. of Rubiaceae.


It is Catunaregam spinosa, ghela in marathi, Rubiaceae


Thanks for your feeback…

I did not find any spines on the branches, is it possible that a particular tree of Catunaregam spinosa does not have any spines?


It is quite a variable species, from small shrub to medium sized tree. Sometimes it doesn’t have spines either.


… Completely agree with … There is a chance that this plant, being in comfortness, decided not to produce any defense tools.
Further, …, you have spotted both white and yellow flowers (as in DSC07175), I believe.
Color of the flower is white, which turns to yellow after a period of pollination.
Just to convey the pollinators- I am done with, already.


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Thorny Tree for ID: July13- NAW07 :  Attachments (4). 2 posts by 2 authors.

Thorny Tree for ID: Growing on rocky wasteland, near farmland, Mahbubnagar District, Andhra Pradesh.

Photographed 27th June 2013.

flowers of multiple tints from white to yellow. about 1 inch diameter. tree small about 2-3 metres tall.


Looks like Catunaregam spinosa


 


 

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Catunaregam spinosa—For sharing and validation : Attachments (1). 1 post by 1 author.

Pic of Mountain Pomegranate, taken at Ambyvalley rd., Lonavala, Pune in Nov12.



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Habit:  Spiny Shrub
Habitat: Scrub Jungle in plain land
Flowering: May
Fruit: Round, green

Location: Tatulia, Panchagar


Is it not Tamilnadia uliginosa?


May be Randia dumetorum..


Thanks … I am agree with you. It is a spiny shrubs with scented flower and round fruit. R. spinosa could be occur where I found it


Please visit Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Himachal Pradesh


efi page on Catunaregam spinosa (Syn: …. Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Lam.; ….  Randia spinosa (Thunb.) Poir. ……..)



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Plant for id xvi : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5).

Found in Bannerghatta, Bangalore 15th June.


Nice photographs, … I think it is Catunaregam spinosa. Old flowers are yellow in colour.



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Catunaregam spinosa : Jim Corbett,Uttarakhand : 230614 : AK-41 :  1 post by 1 author. Attachments (4).

Sharing pictures of Catunaregam spinosa.

Seen on the 21st of May,14.



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ANNOV44 Please identify this shrub :  8 posts by 5 authors. 8 correct images.

Dehra Dun
31st October 2014


Looks like Randia dumetorum (Rubiaceae)


It should be Randia spinosa.


Catunaregum spinosa check it


Thank you all.


are you sure the last image belongs to the same plant?


I am not sure ma’am. There are no other photos related to the last one in my album.

The last photo 0275 was clicked a minute and half after 0274. The picture after 0275 was clicked much later.

I think I must have clicked a photo of something else and forgotten about it. Please ignore the last photo DSC_0275.



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Catunaregam spinosa—for sharing and validation : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).

Pic taken at ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune in may14.



Images by tspkumar

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TSP-DEC2015-48-222:Images of Catunaregam spinosa (Rubiaceae) : 11 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (6)

It is my pleasure to share few images of Catunaregam spinosa (Rubiaceae 

Habit: Medium sized, much branched, armed tree 

Habitat: Scrub forest 

Sighting: Tumkur, Karnataka, about 800 msl 

Date 24-05-2014 and 27-05-2014:


So beautifully captured.


Very good capture indeed. The white flowers, the pollinated yellow flowers and fruits.


I agree with … comments. I had never seen fruits’ pictures


Thanks for the info reg colour change after pollination….I thought that the yellowing is a sign of withering.


it also occurs in Gardenia. i’ll remember some more….  later i guess
when i am not concentrating on them!!!!  🙂  will list them here if i remember


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plant/jan16/2 : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)

Request for identification of photos taken near Ghati Subramanya.


Pl. check Catunaregam spinosa 


Tamiladia ulginosa, Rubiaceae


To me it is Catunaregam spinosa


Thanks for the identification. Looks like Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.



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On 13/9/08 in Vanasthalipuram, Hyderabad, AP; at Matheran- April’09?; at Silonda trail, SGNP Borivli on 12th July 09; At Kanakeshwar, Alibag- 20 Nov, 2009; 28-04-2010 / 07:25AM: Near Gorewada Dam, Nagpur; Kanakeshwar, Alibag- 22/6/10; April 12, 2009: Burondi, Dapoli, Maharashtra; Near Chandra gutti, Uttara kannada; Amboli, Maharashtra; Request for ID – 021010SC2 – efloraofindia | Google Groups Gardenia species? – indiantreepix | Google Groups
False Guava – indiantreepix | Google Groups Randia dumetorum – indiantreepix | Google Groups Catunaregam spinosa – indiantreepix | Google Groups Catunaregam spinosa 1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups Tree ID Reqd. – indiantreepix | Google Groups Catunaregum spinosa -fruiting. – indiantreepix | Google Groups DV – 12 APR 10 – 0816 :: mistaking for Tamilnadia uliginosa – efloraofindia | Google Groups

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This tree was seen by the roadside near Tamhini ghat near Pune, MH in Aug 2019.
I guess this is Catunaregam spinosa.

fruits are reminiscent of the wild pomegranate but I cant see any spines. do you …?


I too do not see much of spines in the pics except for the 3rd pic, which has a branch with spines on the bottom right.

Also, the local boy did indeed tell us that the plant was ‘Gela’, the local marathi name for this species.


thanks, … I personally have not seen this in real life. only on the net. so if you saw them on your visit or your co-travellers, it would be it.



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Flora of Haryana- Catunaregam spinosa from a Village near Karnal:  Catunaregam spinosa

From a village near Karnal Haryana, Wild, from roadside area, lage shrub or small tree whitish to yellow flowers no fruit seen. Spinous

pls validate


Affirmative … The flowers after pollination change from white to yellow. Please check the archives of this group for my photographs of this.


One synonym of this plant is (as per plant)

Xeromphis spinosa (Thunb.) Keay is a synonym of Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.

.


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28112019EPT34 : 7 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (8)- around 500 kb each.

presenting for ID
Location : Chennai outskirts 
Date :07.08.2019
Elevation : 23 mts.
Habitat : Semi forest – border bushes 
Habit : thorny , bushy shrub

Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.

Syn: Xeromphis spinosa (Thunb.) Keay


I agree.


yes. i wonder why does it nee such big threatening looking thorns?


Other recipients:
Nature’s wonder that is !
Nature’s wonder that is !

The plant is common in scrub jungles surrounding Chennai.



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MS/ID/OCTOBER/2020/5 – ID of the plant : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)

The photographs of the plant from Chennai. Forwarded as received.

The picture quality is very bad as the purpose is to show spiderwebs on this plant. But I am interested to know the plant ID.
Catunaregum species ????

Catunaregum spinosa



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Id REQUEST 30052011 PJ2: Id requested for the following attachment.

Date/Time-: 29/05/11 – 10:30
Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- tree
Height/Length- 3 mtr


looks like some Catunaregum species


agree with …


Catunaregam spinosa to me



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30062013 ASP 73 : Attachments (1).  2 posts by 2 authors.
Can you please ID this medicinal plant with fruits. Photo was taken in Sri Lanka in Oct 2012


Randia sp


Tamilnadia uliginosa (Retz.) Tirveng. & Sastre and Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.
have got distribution in Sri Lanka.
I guess it is close to Tamilnadia uliginosa (Retz.) Tirveng. & Sastre


I thought Catunaregum spinosa only


OK … !


Yes …



.

References:

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