India (widespread), Pakistan (Karachi, Sind, N.W.Frontier Prov., Kurram, Swat, Hazara, Pakistani Punjab), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), Sri Lanka (I), Bangladesh, Java (I), peninsular Malaysia (Penang, Selangor, Johor), Thailand, China (I), Taiwan, Ryukyu Isl. (I), Andaman Isl., Nicobar Isl., Myanmar [Burma], Nepal (I), Philippines (throughout), Laos, Vietnam, Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives), Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales), Cyprus (I) (N-Cyprus (I)), Iraq (NW-Iraq), Egypt (Desert Oases, Great Southwestern Desert, Nile Delta, Nile Valley, NW-coastal Egypt), Iran (S-Iran, W-Iran), Iraq (SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia), Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel), Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon), Oman (Dhofar, Mascat & Oman), Saudi Arabia (Hejaz, Asir), Sinai peninsula (N-Sinai, S-Sinai), Syria (coastal W-Syria), United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen (SW-Yemen), Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Laghman, often cultivated), Uzbekistan (I), Gambia, ?Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Chad, Bioko Isl. (Fernando Poo), Sao Tome, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville), D.R.Congo (Zaire), Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Angola, South Africa (I), Madagascar (I), Botswana (I), Mauritius (I), La Runion (I), Cape Verde Isl. (Ilha da Boa Vista, Ilha de Maio, Ilha de Sao Tiago, Fogo Isl.), Morocco (I), Algeria (I), Libya (I), Egypt (I), Bahamas (I), Cuba (I), Hispaniola (I), Jamaica (I), Virgin Isl. (I) (St. Thomas (I)), Lesser Antilles (I) (Barbados (I), Dominica (I), Guadeloupe (I), Martinique (I)), Tobago (I), Trinidad (I), Brazil (I), Venezuela (I), Guianas (I), Fiji (I), Aegaean Isl. (I), Greece (I) as per Catalogue of Life;
India: Throughout. Often found in moist situations; PantropicaI as per BSI Flora of India;
KOR-koh-rus — from the Greek kore (eye pupil) and koreo (purge)
oli-TOR-ee-us — from Latin (h)olitorius
commonly known as: bristly-leaved Jew’s mallow, nalta jute, tossa jute • * Assamese*: মৰা শাক mara shaak, তিতা মৰা tita mara • *Bengali*: মিঠা পাট meetha pat • *Gujarati*: છુઙ્છો chhunchho, ચુઙ્ચિયો chunchio • *Hindi*: मिठा पाट mitha paat, पाट paat, पाट साग pat-sag, पटसन patsan, पट्ट patta, तोश पाट tosha paat • *Kannada*: ಚುಂಚಳಿ ಗಿಡ chunchali gida • *Konkani*: बनपट banpat • *Manipuri*: limon • *Marathi*: मोठी चुंच mothi chunch • *Nepalese*: पाट् pat • *Oriya*: kaunria • *Sanskrit*: महाचञ्चु mahachanchu, पट्टशाकः pattashaakah • *Tamil*: காட்டுத்துத்தி kattuttuti, பெரும்பிண்ணாக்குக்கீரை perumpinnakkukkirai • *Telugu*: పేరంటాలికూర perantalikura
Native of: India, Pakistan, perhaps native elsewhere in tropical Asia; naturalized in tropics
As per efi thread : Tall herb (Corchorus trilocularis) somewhat similar to C. olitorius but differing in three chambered capsules, slightly trigonous, occurring 1-3 together and with undivided beak.

Malvaceae week :: Corchorus olitorius:
Corchorus olitorius L.
KOR-koh-rus — from the Greek kore (eye pupil) and koreo (purge)
oli-TOR-ee-us — from Latin (h)olitorius
[image: Corchorus olitorius] <http://www.google.com/flickr.com%2Fphotos%2Fdi…>
Sep 29, 2007 … somewhere in Pune
commonly known as: bristly-leaved Jew’s mallow, nalta jute, tossa jute • * Assamese*: মৰা শাক mara shaak, তিতা মৰা tita mara • *Bengali*: মিঠা পাট meetha pat • *Gujarati*: છુઙ્છો chhunchho, ચુઙ્ચિયો chunchio • *Hindi*: मिठा पाट mitha paat, पाट paat, पाट साग pat-sag, पटसन patsan, पट्ट patta, तोश पाट tosha paat • *Kannada*: ಚುಂಚಳಿ ಗಿಡ chunchali gida • *Konkani*: बनपट banpat • *Manipuri*: limon • *Marathi*: मोठी चुंच mothi chunch • *Nepalese*: पाट् pat • *Oriya*: kaunria • *Sanskrit*: महाचञ्चु mahachanchu, पट्टशाकः pattashaakah • *Tamil*: காட்டுத்துத்தி kattuttuti, பெரும்பிண்ணாக்குக்கீரை perumpinnakkukkirai • *Telugu*: పేరంటాలికూర perantalikura
Native of: India, Pakistan, perhaps native elsewhere in tropical Asia; naturalized in tropics
[image: Nalta
Jute] <http://www.google.com/flickr.com%2Fphotos%2Fdi…>…
Sep 29, 2007 … somewhere in Pune
[image: Banpat (Konkani:
बनपट)] <http://www.google.com/flickr.com%2Fphotos%2Fdi…>…
Oct 30, 2010 at vaghbil, Thane
[image: Patta (Hindi:
पट्ट)] <http://www.google.com/flickr.com%2Fphotos%2Fdi…>…
Oct 27, 2007 at vaghbil, Thane
… more views:


Malvaceae week : Corchorus olitarius: Malvaceae week :
Corchorus olitarius

corchorus olitrius:
corchorus olitrius, i think
would appreciate an confirmation
last week in alibaug
small flowers about 8 to 10 mm
Definitely a species of Corchorus but to determine the species, need to see the fruit. My photographs of this are available at this link

Yes it is Corchorus olitorius. The typical threadlike projections near the base of the leaves…….But as … has said fruit is necessary to clinch the ID.
I can see a fruit in the last two pictures and it appears to be 10 -ribbed(wild guess?)
It has to be 5 valved in C.olitorius. 3-4 valved in many other species.
By the way how do one know about valves? Any illustrations?

the threadlike projections near the base of the leaves are typical of all species of Corchorus, though their dimensions could be different.
To me too, this plant looks like C. olitorius. Many thanks for pointing to the fruits.

with fruits this time
unfortunately i waited to long to dissect the fruit and it is a bit dessicated

The Golden Fibre of Bengal
Internet tells you half the story, mostly put forward by semi-literate persons (me too), for i searched ‘The golden fibre of Bengal’, and i get “Golden Fibre of Bangladesh”. In future, say, 50 yrs. from now, an average reader may not be aware of the fact that what has been termed as “The Golden Fibre of Bangladesh” was actually a native fibre grown and extensively used in Bengal Province.

What you will find in the net :-

History :-

  1. Indians, especially Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses. – http://en.wikipedia.White_jute.Corchoruscapsularis
  2. During Mughal era in India, jute clothes were worn by the poor villagers. Earlier in West Bengal, ropes and twines used for different domestic household applications are made of white jute. Apart from textile application, Chinese paper manufacturers used jute plants to abstract paper. – http://www.jute-industry.com/history-of-jute.html
  3. In 1793, the Bengal Board of Trade sent a Jute fibre sample to the United Kingdom strictly for experimentation related to mechanical processing. The breakthrough came in 1833, when Jute fibre was spun mechanically in Dundee, Scotland. – https://cambridgeforecast.jute-bengal-dundee/
  4. Margaret Donnelly, a jute mill landowner in Dundee in the 1800s, set up the first jute mills in Bengal.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jute#History
  5. The first Indian Jute mill was constructed in 1855 at Calcutta (Currently spelled Kolkata), which was the capital of the Bengal Province in British India.https://cambridgeforecast.jute-bengal-dundee/
  6. Mr. George Acland had brought jute spinning machinery from Dundee to India, the first power driven weaving factory was established at Rishra, on the River Hooghly near Calcutta in year 1855.http://www.jute-industry.com/history-of-jute.html
  7. By the year 1869, five mills were established with around 950 looms. The growth was so fast that, by the year 1910, 38 companies were operating around 30,685 looms, rendering more than a billion yards of cloth and over 450 million bags. – http://www.jute-industry.com/history-of-jute.html
  8. By the early 1900s the Calcutta Jute industry surpassed the European Jute industry.https://cambridgeforecast.jute-bengal-dundee/
  9. In India 4000,000 families are involved in the cultivation of raw jute. There are 76 jute mills in India and nearly 1,37,679(Oct.2001) people are employed in these mills. Several thousand other people are engaged in several jute related diversified goods. – http://www.worldjute.com/about_jute/abj_intro.html

Botanical Aspect :-

  1. Jute (Corchorus capsularis & Corchorus olitorius), Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and Roselle (H. sabdariffa var. altissima) are vegetable bast fibre plants next to cotton in importance. In the trade there are usually two names of jute, White and Tossa. Corchorus capsularis is called White Jute and Corchorus olitorius is called Tossa Jute. In India & Bangladesh Roselle is usually called Mesta. Jute fibres are finer and stronger than Mesta and are, therefore, better in quality. – http://www.jute.org/plant.htm
  2. Kenaf known as Mesta or Ambari (species Hibiscus Cannabinus) is also considered as a variety of Jute. It is cultivated in Indian sub-continent, Thailand, China and Africa. The two main types of jute, white jute (Corchorus capsularis)and dark jute or tossa (Corchorus olitorius) are grown in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, China, south Asian countries and Brazil.http://www.worldjute.com/about_jute/abj_intro.html 

What you may not find in the net :-

  1. PATTAVASTRA, main fabrics of Ancient India was produced from Jute fibres – http://nopr.niscair.res.in/IJTK%207(1)20204-207.pdf
  1. Leaves of Jute plant is used as SHAAK (SHAG) or leafy vegetable and, though not delicious, you can try it for a change in taste buds.
  2. Jute fibres are used to make Puja Pandals and idols
  3. Fibres were also used to make dolls
  4. Dry stems are called PAAT-KAATHI or PANKAATHI in Bengali, is used as fuel. It is essential to grow PAAN or Betel Leaf (Piper betle L.). A room, which is called PAAN BORUJ, is erected by covering a rectangle land with PANKAATHI fence. (forget whatever wiki says – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betel#Cultivation)
  5. Dry stems are also essential to produce fireworks – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_(firework) you burn in DIWALI
  6. When i was a kid i learned my first smoking lesson by lighting a small piece of dry Jute stem, …so did my friends!

More reading :-

  1. Golden era with rare photographshttps://cambridgeforecast.jute-bengal-dundee/
  2. Jute tradershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jute_trade#East_India_Company
  3. Ecological aspecthttp://www.jute.org/ecology.htm
  4. Features of Jute fibrehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jute#Features
  5. Economic impacthttp://en.wikipedia.PartitionofBengal(1947)#Economic_impact
  6. Hooghly Districthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hooghly_district#Economy
  7. Jute cultivationhttp://agroeducation.com/home/2012/06/29/jute/
  8. Recent Articlehttp://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/fall-golden-fibre

Trivia :-

  1. species – Corchorus sp.
  2. Bengali name : PAAT
  3. Habit & Habitat : water intensive cultivated herb
  4. photographed at Balarambati (Hooghly) & Gobra (Hooghly) on 23/8/12 & 25/8/12

Thanks for the interesting information. I was surprised to know that Corchorus olitorius is Jute. This plant is common in Maharashtra also. Why then Jute fiber is not produced elsewhere than Bengal?

I do not know much, but what i could apprehend is 1) cultivation of jute needs much water that Gangetic Bengal Province could provide those days, 2) extraction of jute fibres from stems (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jute_cultivation#Retting) again need much water, 3) river Hooghly played a vital role for transportation of raw jute and jute products, 4) today’s Bangladesh produced best quality jutes, for optimum temp. and humidity along with soil quality, 4) British cnetred all their activities in Calcutta.
Besides, i think Maharashtra and Gujarat were more suitable for cotton production and they provided all cotton textiles to entire India. Of late jute lost its importance and states might have found it was not feasible to produce jute.
As i searched the net, while preparing my Sunday special i read Andhra produced majority of jute seeds.
This much i do know.


Corchorus olitorius Linn. from Hooghly:

I think this is Corchorus olitorius Linn., found on roadside yesterday, certainly one or two seeds escaped there at the time of cultivation, a couple of months back.
Date : 25/10/12, 12.15 p.m.
Place : Hooghly
prv. group posts :


Flora of Panipat: corchorus olitorius from Khukhrana Panipat: Attachments (11)
Corchorus olitorius from Khukhrana Panipat (220mts) wild on roadside are about 4 feet high

Or anyway it can be Corchorus trilocularis
Attaching a image of fruit
Pls validate

Yes, Corchorus olitorius L. as per images herein.



Corchorus olitorius fruiting:
This is with reference to my previous mail. Sending a few photographs.

I had photographed some plants cultivated in our Botanical Garden, which initially I identified as C. olitorius, but as ridges of fruit were lacking, and fruit looked three sides I identified it as C. trilocularis. This plant, however, has totally smooth fruits (and not scabrid as usual for this species). I am uploading it separately. Could you help in its identification.


Here are some of mine.
Flowers and fruits.
They are growing wild in a nearby galli in Mumbai

Corchorus olitorius flowering:
Photographed at my farm over the weekend. Am posting these photographs to showcase
the lower serratures on both sides of the leaf which are elongated into filamentous appendages [Photographs 4 & 5]. 

Very nice, I looked at the last pic first was delighted to see the filaments…
and then I found that you had already talked of it in your write up.. ha ha
I could not find any essay or even a snippet about the filaments, and what other plants may have such basal filaments… I know, Gloriosa lily has apex of the leaf becoming a filament and may even act as an anchoring tendril..
but could not find another example of basal filaments … my question: do you know of any ?


Malvaceae Fortnight ::Corchorus olitorius::Nagpur:: PKAJUL67:: : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)

Herb photographed at “Gorewada, Nagpur” (21-10-09).
Pods were seen to be almost parallel to the stem..
Bot. name: Corchorus olitorius
Family: Tiliaceae

Herb ID request – RK35 – 27-Oct-2012:
Request id of this herb from
Vasai region. The leaves caught my attention with two thread-like things projecting like antennae from the base of the leaf. Also I would like to know that if the round things in the last photo are fruits then what is the slim and straight magenta colour thing in the 8th photo?

This is Chorchorus capsularis. My photographs of this are available at this link
Please also check this link for some of the answers to your questions

Thanks a million … for the id as well as the superb links, reading which I understand that the straight fruit in the 8th photo is from a different species i.e. Corchorus olitorius while the round fruits in the last photo are of Corchorus capsularis. Hope I understood correctly. An entire stretch was full of these plants and it looks like there was more than one species growing there.

Affirmative. ‘The slim and straight magenta colour thing in the 8th photo’ is the fruit of Corchorus olitorius [locally called Banpat / Chichuria].
Am sending my photographs of it fruiting in a separate mail.

Thanks a million … I had clicked a picture of the apex of the ‘slim & straight’ fruit – what I now know as Corchorus olitorius …  and the apex of this fruit has a star-shaped tip. Sorry this photo is a bit out of focus so I didn’t send it earlier.


Malvaceae fortnight :: Corchorus olitorius : Pune SMP31 : 1 post by 1 author. 2 images.
Corchorus olitorius


Malvaceae Fortnight :: Corchorus trilocularis ??- ::Mumbai :: PKAJUL86: : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)

Could this be Corchorus trilocularis ??
Location: Mumbai

efi page on Corchorus trilocularis 

There are two Corchorus trilocularis of L. and of non L.

… uploaded both –
Number of stamens reject Corchorus trilocularis auct. non L. (ref. FoP).
The difference between C. trilocularis L. and C. olitorius L. can be viewed at FoC site.
As per Bengal Plants, C. trilocularis L. features (i) leaves without basal lobes/tails (ii) capsule scabrous or aculeate
As per Haines C. trilocularis L. features (i) leaves rarely with basal tails (ii) capsule rough.
To me this species is C. olitorius L.

It is a Corchorus olitorius


Malvaceae Fortnight :: Corchorus sp? ::Nagpur :: PKAJUL107:: : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Corchorus sp? ::Nagpur.

Corchorus species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)

Corchorus olitorius



Flowers from SGNP, Mumbai : Attachments (5). 8 posts by 6 authors.
flowers photographed in Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai:-
1050161 & 1050161-1 : Identity please?

Grewia nervosa [G.microcos].

The second one is Corchorus olitorius or Banpat

Here is a link for details of Corchorus olitorius or Banpat: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/Corchorus_olitorius.html

1050161 & 1050161-1 : Chorchorus olitorius (the capsule seems to be cylindrical) 

efloraofindia:”For Id 07102011MR2’’ wild yellow flower Pune:
Request for identification
Date/Time-Oct 2011
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS-
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-Wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Herb
Height/Length- 1.5 feet approx
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- green 6-8cms long green
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts- lemon yellow 5 petals. calyx 5 thin sepals in between the petals
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds-Not seen
Other Information This was the only plant of this type of flower amongst other wild
Sida varieties and Malvestrum plants

I forgot to add the leaves were rough to touch

This is most probably Corchorus olitarius from Tiliaceae
Pods are needed for confirmation of species.

Malvaceae member (earlier in Tiliaceae). I shall check for the species name later.



Corchorus trilocularis from Panipat – efloraofindia | Google Groups : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9)
Corchorus trilocularis from Panipat

Following keys in Flora of Pakistan (stamens more than 20) & Flora of China (leaf matgin serrulate and not crenate), it should be Corchorus olitorius L. 

Not C. trilocularis …….leaf in this species is long, lanceolate with rounded base. But, I rely on fruit, not on any other character.


ANAUG23 Herb for ID : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).

Found growing next to paddy fields
Bangalore outskirts
August 2014

Corchorus species?

You’re right ma’am. Thank you for the genus id.

Corchorus olitorius?

Corchorus trilocularis L. –  weed in cultivation

Following keys in Flora of Pakistan (stamens more than 20) & Flora of China (leaf matgin serrulate and not crenate), it should be Corchorus olitorius L.

3rd image does show one fruit on extreme left. Corchorus olitorius. One trick I pull on this genus ……fruit is deciding factor ……. trilocularis, tridens, capsularis….. derived from fruit character. Leaf is unreliable.
Corchorus urticifolia is only species to be recognised by leaf, yet to see this species.

Thanks, …, With increased expertise, it is possible to arrive at id even without fruits.

I agreed with you …, for olitorius, because the capsule has more than 3 ribs,


Mumbai, MH :: Corchorus olitorius :: ARK2020-021 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Saw Corchorus olitorius in a marshy area in Charkop, Mumbai, MH in October 2019.

Yes, appears to be Corchorus olitorius L.  as per comparative images at Corchorus

Need help with id of yellow-flowered annual with pods : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
|Bhopal; black soil; 24 Oct 2020

Corchorus olitorus


MS/ID/NOV/2020/2 – ID of Corchorus species. : 6 images.
Kindly ID the plant photographed in Chennai Farm.
The photographed attached. Looks like Corchorus olitorius L. Images compared with those available at : efloraofindia
The fruits look typical of C.olitorius. Please confirm or otherwise.

Few more photos of fruits.
8 images.

Looks matching


Corchorus olitorius L. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Oct 30, 2010 · 9:52 AM IST: 6 images.
Corchorus olitorius L.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Oct 30, 2010 · 9:52 AM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl


Corchorus olitorius L. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Oct 30, 2010 · 9:11 AM IST: 1 image.
Corchorus olitorius L.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Oct 30, 2010 · 9:11 AM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl


Corchorus (Jute) field SN262023: 2 high res. images.
Jute (Corchorus olitorius) field in Bihar and west Bengal

Link 1 and link 2


Corchorus olitorius L. :: Waghbil, Thane :: Oct 27, 2007 · JUN23 DV318: 3 images.

Corchorus olitorius L.
Waghbil, Thane :: Oct 27, 2007 · 1:54 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
Many thanks to Pieter Winter for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Malvaceae: Corchorus olitorius L.: 1 high res. images.
location/date: Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, October 1994