dog teak, five-carpelled simpoh, Nepalese elephant apple • Assamese: okshi • Bengali: বন চালতা ban chalta • Gujarati: કરમલ karmal • Hindi: करमल karmal • Kannada: ಕಾಡು ಕಣಿಗಲು kaadu kanigalu • Khasi: dieng soh bar • Konkani: लहान करमल lahan karmal • Malayalam: കുടപ്പുന്ന kutapunna, പട്ടിപ്പുന്ന pattippunna, വാഴപ്പുന്ന vaazhappunna • Marathi: पिवळा करमळ piwala karmal • Mizo: kaihzawl, kawrthing-dengte • Nepalese: राम फल ram phal, तानतारी tantari • Oriya: railgatcho • Sanskrit: अक्षिकीफल aksikiphal, पुन्नाग punnaga • Tamil: நாய்த்தேக்கு nay-t-tekku, புன்னை வகை punnai vakai • Telugu: చిన్న కళింగ chinna kalinga, రేవడ revada;
dil-LEN-ee-uh — named for Johann Jacob Dillen, German botanist and physician
pen-ta-GY-na — from the Greek pente (five) and gyne (woman, ovary)
Native to: China, India, Indomalesia
… ripe / unripe fruit (as FRUIT / VEGETABLE) …
leaves are used for making pattal (leaf plates). Fruits turns orange-yellow on ripen. eaten by monkeys..

Dilleniaceae (dillenia family) » Dillenia pentagyna
Synonyms: Dillenia baillonii, Dillenia floribunda
dil-LEN-ee-uh — named for Johann Jacob Dillen, German botanist and physician
pen-ta-GY-na — from the Greek pente (five) and gyne (woman, ovary)

Native to: China, India, Indomalesia
Edible use (WILD):
… ripe / unripe fruit (as FRUIT / VEGETABLE) …  Journal of Ethnobiology  and Ethnomedicine<>


Date/Time-: 25/03/11   –    08:45
Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-   wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tree
Height/Length- 12m

Dillenia pentagyna
Family: Dilleniaceae.
Large tree.
A fully flowered tree is a treat to watch. I have seen it near Belgaon-Goa.

– It’s  Dillenia pentagyna. These trees are observed in Ansi-Dandeli forest. I have seen in vegetative form, however with yellow fls, it looks marvelous.

Dillenia pentagyna. These trees are seen in Madras Christian College Campus Tambaram, Chennai

dillenia pentagyna:
in preparation to recieve rains many deciduos trees are showing new leaf.
even though it is blisteringly hot, shiny red leaves which quickly turn green have started appearing.
a new leaf on the slow growing dillenia pentagyna or karmal

– Very interesting observation…may be…due to change in climate??

–  Have a sneaking suspicion that the aberrant appearance of new leaves has more to do with over-watering of your plants by over-enthusiastic farmhands than any drastic climatic changes. Please check. Have encountered the same with my saplings but not with the established trees.

– It is possible, but only the newly planted saplings are watered I don’t have an older dellinia pentagyna, but most older other trees, which are definitely not watered, are showing new leaf.
In any case I dont have any observations from earlier years, so it is not possible to make comparisons.


Dillenia pentagna, Karmal fruiting:
Photographed at Shahapur today.


identification 170611sn1:
Thanks for all the help in identification, the best in this business. some more for Id. Pic taken at Mulshi,Pune April11.

Dillenia pentagyna, in Marathi its called as Karmal. leaves are used for making pattal (leaf plates). Fruits turns orange-yellow on ripen. eaten by monkeys.. mostly seen in semievergreen forest in Maharashtra or in moist deciduous

Nice photographs.  I go with  …  Dillenia pentagyna.   This species is seen in Madras Christian College campus.


TALL TREE ID……..8th NOV 2011…..S.S. ……064:
I hope this will be easy. Small yellow flowers. Round fruits.
Date…….17th April 2011. morning.
Location….In the low plains area around JALDAPARA. WEST BENGAL>

Habitat….. Wild, in forest
Plant……. Tree


Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- see pic.
Inflorescence Type/ Size- See pic
Flowers … small and yellow
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds-… round. See pic

I think it is Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. Common in the grassland habitat of Jaldapara. Locally known as OXI or Akshi.

I am most grateful for your help …
Esp for adding the pics! The flowers look beautiful. Sadly my pic just shows the backs of the flowers

Yes I agree with Dillenia pentagyna. The top view of the flowers is not there to display the typical androecium and gynaecium. The petiole colour and the flowers structure is matching though. The fruits are also matching.
Generally when the tree is in flowers it is full of flowers. Such type of occasional bloom is probably late feature as most of the tree is covered with fruits.

yes Dillenia pentagyna
Karmal in Marathi language.. one of the primitive plant

the tree also has very handsome and peculiar leaves…..the tree looks magnificent when it is green.



Dillenia pentagyna:
Dillenia pentagyna with fruits and new leaves.
Date/Time- May 2012

Location- Dandeli WLS

Habitat- Wild

Plant Habit- Tree

Height/Length- 15 meters

Leaves- Simple

Awesome photographs. Thanks for sharing. I have seen this tree in cultivation (of course in full bloom) in Madras Christian College Campus, Tambaram, Chennai.


Date/Time- May 2012

Location- Dandeli WLS

Habitat- Wild

Plant Habit- Tree

Height/Length- 15 meters

Leaves- Simple


Plz id this plant: pa52 – 12dec2012:
Plz id this plant that I saw in Yeoor region. I only saw huge leaves around 2.5 foot long sprouting from the ground.

looks like Dillenia pentagyna not sure

This is a sapling of Karmal [Dillenia pentagyna].

Sending a few photographs of some of my saplings for comparison.


Dillenia pentagyna:
I would like to share photos of Dillenia pentagyna (Dilleniaceae) from Bongaigaon District of Assam. In Assamese the plant is called OXI. …, DFO, Chirang has contributed one of these two photographs.

Beautiful ! The tree can be seen in Chennai in Madras Christian College Campus. I have seen this in flowering there.


Musa sp. (?) from Kamrup district, Assam:

Attached images are Musa sp.(?) collected from hilly area. Please ID for it.

Date : 21.12.2012

Location: Kamrup district, Assam

Family : Musaceae ?

Genus & species : Musa sp. (?)

Habitat: Grows wild on hilly area

Habit : Herb

Flower : Not seen
Fruits : Not seen

Pl. check Ensete superba

I don’t think is a Musa or even a member of that family. The venation of the leaves is wrong and it looks as if the leaves arise from a true stem on short petioles. I would think this is a dicot. Do you have any photos showing the stem?

I think this is a seedling of the large deciduous tree Dillenia pentagyna. Family: Dilleniaceae.
This is common in the Western Ghats.
Commonly called Dog Teak. Has very big leaves. Known as Pattipunna or Vazhapunna in Malayalam.
Please wait for experts to comment.

It does look something like D.pentagyna, though I am not very familiar with the plant and would not be able to tell for sure. But I have attached a picture that I took some time back. Sorry for the low quality.

I think that this is indeed Dillenia pentagyna.


Tree ID request – RK105 – 19-Feb-2013:
Requesting identification of this tree seen in Chinchoti. Could it be some Dillenia?

Yes … Dillenia pentagyna (family: Dilleniaceae).


Magnoliaceae, Dilleniaceae, Annonaceae fortnight- Dileniaceae: Dillenia pentagyna from Assam : Attachments (2). 4 posts by 4 authors.
Here is images of Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. from Bongaigaon, Assam.
Assamese name: Akshi, Bon ouw

Nice photos of Dillenia pentagyna


Thanks for wonderful presentation …

Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.
along Kumta Siddapur Road on 17 MAR 13
at Matheran on 02 FEB 13
at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary on 11 JUL 09
along MSH 60 on 13 JUN 09
at Yeoor Hills on 15 MAR 09
near BNHS CEC on 22 JUL 07

Thanks … for this detailed upload… seems that this tree is common in the area…

Thank you very much … for the appreciation.
Not as common as many other trees, …


Excellent photographs …


Dillenia pentagyna—-for sharing and validation : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
Pic of Karmal, taken at ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune in march14.

flowers of india has a set of by …
flowers and the anatomy of the knurly branches match
I wish you can show the leaves of this dillenia if possible

Some more pictures. It is a big tree. Attachments (1)

thanks Sasish, you looked for more in your files , thank you. but leaves?
never mind next time will be ok

MK_KHWS-15a,15b : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)

Collection site: Kalsubai-Harishchandragarh Wildlife Sanctuary (KHWS), Maharashtra
Date: 15 February 2015

Collected by: …

Could be Dillenia pentagyna

Seems like Dillenia pentagyna to me too

Dillenia For ID : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 08DEC14 : AK-27 : 10 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4).
Small tree with large leaves.
No flowers or fruits seen.

Dillenia indica ?

From the leaves it looks similar to Dillenia pentagyna

Looks more like Dillenia indica. Leaves of D.pentagyna are more serrated. Watch out for the flowers.

I am familiar with Dillenia indica.
These leaves were different.
Adding a picture of Dillenia indica for comparison.

It is Dillenia sp. But i am unable to identify the species. In wild we have D. pentagyna in our forest but this seems to be a planted sp. so cud also be D.indica.

Thanks for your feedback. Its a small tree, not seen the flowers as yet. Will add them as and when I get to see them.

So current working diagnosis is DIllenia sp…

I think its Dillenia pentagyna.

I was lucky to see this tree fruiting during my recent visit to Lalbagh.
Adding the pictures taken on 29th March,16.
They were approx the size of a cherry, little smaller.
It is Dillenia pentagyna Attachments (3)

Has to be Dillenia pentagyna

Thanks for validation. Hope to catch up with the flowers sometime in future.

Dillenia pentgyna? : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Location: Satchori National Park
Region: Sylhet
Flowering: March
Photo Take, March h_2017

I think matches with images at Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.

Me too strongly think it to be Dillenia pentagyna.

Flower for Id – ID07062017SH1 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Flower for Id pl.
Location – Sawantwadi, Sindhudurg Dist., Maharashtra
Date – 15.05.2017

Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. [Dilleniaceae].

Thanks, … I also agree with you.


Dillenia pentagyna from Mulshi Forest_Pune: 4 images.

This very elegant tree was observed in May 2021 at Mulshi forest, Pune.
It was raining heavily so could not get very clear pictures.
Still, happy to share the pics.
Collected seeds too. Hope they regenerate.
Tree habitat- Wild
Tree height-35 feet


Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.: 4 very high res. images.

Location: Jalthal, Jhapa, East Nepal
Date: 01 January 2023
Elevation: 97 m.
Habitat: Wild

Almost the Entire India we Have

I have seen a few trees in flowering in Madras Christian College campus, Chennai. Of course way back in 90s



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