Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. 2: 209 1833. (Syn: Brachiaria longifolia Gilli; Digitaria cuspidata (Roxb.) Schult.; Echinochloa colona var. equitans (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Cufod. ……………….; Echinochloa divaricata Andersson; Echinochloa equitans (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) C.E.Hubb.; Echinochloa subverticillata Pilg.; Echinochloa zonalis (Guss.) Parl.; Milium colonum (L.) Moench; Milium colonum (L.) Kunth; Oplismenus colonus (L.) Kunth ..; Oplismenus cuspidatus (Roxb.) Kunth; Oplismenus daltonii (Parl. ex Webb.) J.A.Schmidt; Oplismenus margaritaceus (Link) Kunth; Oplismenus muticus Phil.; Oplismenus pseudocolonus (Roem. & Schult.) Kunth; Oplismenus repens J.Presl; Orthopogon dichotomus Llanos; Orthopogon subverticillatus Llanos; Panicum brachiariaeforme Steud.; Panicum brizoides L.; Panicum caesium Hook. & Arn.; Panicum colonum L. ………….;  Panicum crus-galli subsp. colonum (L.) Makino & Nemoto …..; Panicum cumingianum Steud.; Panicum cuspidatum Roxb.; Panicum daltonii Parl. ex Webb; Panicum echinochloa T.Durand & Schinz; Panicum equitans Hochst. ex A.Rich. ..; Panicum flaccidum J.Koenig ex Hook.f. [Invalid]; Panicum geniculatum Forssk. ex Spreng. [Invalid]; Panicum haematodes C.Presl; Panicum hookeri Parl.; Panicum incertum Bosc ex Steud. [Invalid]; Panicum margaritaceum Link; Panicum musei Steud.; Panicum numidianum C.Presl [Illegitimate]; Panicum petiveri Kotschy ex Griseb. [Invalid]; Panicum prorepens Steud.; Panicum pseudocolonum Roth; Panicum tetrastichum Forssk.; Panicum zonale Guss.; Setaria brachiariaeformis (Steud.) T.Durand & Schinz);

Tropical & Subtropical Old World: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe; Introduced into: Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Italy, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Kriti, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marquesas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Sardegna, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turks-Caicos Is., Ukraine, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yugoslavia as per POWO;
Common name: Jungle Rice, Shama Millet, Small barnyard grass, Marsh Grass • Hindi: Jangli jhangora, Jharwa, Jirio, शामा Shama • Kannada: ಊದಿಕೆ Udike, ಊದಲು Udalu kaadu haaraka, Kaadu haaraka hullu • Marathi: Borur, Jiria, Pacushama, Pawank, Tor, Todia • Nepali: सामा Sama • Telugu: Othagaddi


grass Echinochloa sp.? ID from Hooghly 11-6-12 SK2:

Found this grass again beside a pond. But i think it can be found in grassland as well.
Species : Echinochloa colona (L.) Link. ???
Habit & Habitat : common grass, beside pond
Date : 9/6/12, 8.58 a.m.
Place : Nalikul (Hooghly)

It is Echinochloa colona (L.)


Plant for ID 16/09/2011 SMP1:
Another grass for ID

Sorry for inadequate information.
If suggested I can go again and try to catch for the required characters.
A 1 foot tall grass species with characteristic unique inflorescence.

Paspalidium flavidum, I think.

Stem, leaves, racemes on the rachis, & spikelet patterns of this grass draw near to Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A Camus [Panicum flavidum Retz.]
Sometimes the grass habitat description, full plant photo adds more value.

The second photograph shows that it is Echinochloa colona (L.) Link

Echinochloa video for comparison.

Echinochloa colona no doubt abt it

Both may be Echinochloa colonum.

Grass ID request – RK19 – 16-Oct-2012:
This grass is around 2 feet high and flowering in Karjat region. Hope the pictures are okay for identification.

This might be Echinochloa colona (L.) Link. ….. but please do wait for experts.

Yes it is. Many authors also spell it Echinochloa colonum, instead of colona, as an exception to the rules of ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature)

Actually this should be Echinochloa colona only. Related with the gender of the plant.
There is no exception for this plant except for the fact that basionym was Panicum colonum L. so may be some people think of maintaining the gender which is usually not the accepted way.

Yes, I also think so. This has been published in the following link. But I have not read the whole text.
Echinochloa colona versus” Echinochloa colonum” (Poaceae)
Author: Michael, Peter W.
Source: Taxon, Volume 58, Number 4, November 2009 , pp. 1366-1368(3)
Abstract: Confusion in current botanical literature about the correct spelling of the specific epithet of the important crop weed referred to as either Echinochloa colona or E. colonum is resolved in favour of E. colona. The use of “ colonus ” as an adjective is not found in classical Latin dictionaries published since the latter part of the 19th century but is found in dictionaries, listed here, published between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. Linnaeus and other early botanists were quite in order to adopt colonus ” as an adjective and decline it according to the gender of the generic name, as in Panicum colonum L. and Echinochloa colona (L.) Link.


Grass for ID : MNP,Mumbai : 181012 : AK-1:
Wild grass seen in Maharashtra Nature Park, Mumbai on 17/8/2011. Smaller plants, not more than a feet high.

Could this be Echinochloa colona, common name Jungle Rice as in flowersofindia? Experts, kindly confirm id please.

Yes. Echinochloa colonum. (The specific name is used both as colona and colonum by different authors.)


“Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae Week: Poaceae- Echinochloa colona from Pune—MR11 :  2 images. 3 posts by 2 authors.
Sharing images of Echinochloa colona at Pune. Id courtsey … at Indian Flora


Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae Week: Poaceae: Echinocloa colona L. from Hyderabad : 1 image. 1 post by 1 author.
Name: Echinocloa colona
Family: Poacaeae


Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae Week: Poaceae-01042013GS1 grass :  2 images. 4 posts by 3 authors.
Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link
plz validate me 

Yes it is


Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae Week: Echinochloa colona from Kashmir-GS60 :  Attachments (5).  1 post by 1 author.
Echinochloa colona photographed from Rice field around Dachhigam Kashmir.


Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae Week: SMP9 Pune for ID : Attachments (2).  2 posts by 2 authors.
Trying to post some images with inadequate data. Hoping to get to near ID so that I can study further.

Echinochloa colonum


Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae Week: Poaceae- Paspalidium geminatum from Delhi-GS88:  ttachments (3). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Paspalidium geminatum (Forssk.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9:583. 1920.
Growing in moist places and in cultivated fields. Photographed from Wazirabad in Delhi August, along banks of river Yamuna. Distinguished from P. flavidum in spikes usually less than their own length apart and spikelets plano-convex.

Echinochloa colonum. There is another post of Paspalidium geminatum in this week.

Grass week: Paspalidium geminatum from Delhi : Paspalidium geminatum (Forssk.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9:583. 1920.
Growing in moist places and in cultivated fields. Photographed from Wazirabad in Delhi August, along banks of river Yamuna. Distinguished from P. flavidum in spikes usually less than their own length apart and spikelets plano-convex.
This should be the same as plant uploaded by me for ID from Delhi as per link below.…

Paspalidium geminatum (Forssk.) Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9(4): 583. 1920.

Panicum geminatum Forssk. Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 18. 1775.
Setaria geminata (Forssk.) Veldkamp Blumea 39(1–2): 377 (1994).

Echinochloa colonum as per another thread.

Yes. Echinochloa colonum



Requesting ID of this grass – Mumbai :30062013 : ARK-01 : June 2013: Attachments (5). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Requesting to please ID this grass captured in Mumbai in June 2013.

Echinochloa colona. The specific epithet is often (mis)spelt as E. colonum.

Thank you … for the ID..


[efloraofindia:34574] Alopecurus nepalensis from Delhi :  7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3).
Alopecurus nepalensis Trin. from Delhi, growing as weed in rice field,

photographed on 26-10-2009. From where you have photographed this grass. do you hav any specimen ??

It was in Khalsa College Botanical garden, plot in which we had planted rice.

Echinochloa crus-galli as per another thread.

according to me this one is Echinochloa colona not Alopecurus

That is all right to call it Echinochloa colonum also as E.crus-galli is considered by many authors as E.colonum var. crus-galli and some authors also have used Echinochloa crus-galli ssp. colonum.
The correct spelling of the specific epithet is colonum and not colona as it is not related to gender but is a contraction of ‘colonorum’

The variations are quite continuous from E.colonum, which is the simplest form whereas E.crus-galli has more vigour in growth and inflorescence. The chromosome nos. also show high level of variation from 2n=36,42,48,54,56,72, all these species. E.frumentacea is also another form in which the racemes are curved inwards. There are very long awned to completely unawned forms too. The colour also varies from light green to dark red and even black.  E.crus-pavonis and E.glabrescens also are such variant forms. Due to this high amout of variation, it is high time to treat all of them under one species, Echinochloa crus-galli
(The basionym Panicum crus-galli L. has priority (Species Plantarum 1753) over Panicum colonum L. (Systema Naturae 10th edition 1758-59), both books being written by Carolus Linnaeus. The earlier editions of Syst.Nat. does not have this species mentioned.)
However, in order to distinguish various forms, one may use var. crus-galli, var. crus-pavonis, var. colonum, var. glabrescnes, var. frumentacea, etc., there are intermediate forms too which one may not be able to assign to any of these.
However, Echinochloa stagnina and E.pyramidalis are entirely different from the rest owing to their having long ligules, whereas ligules are absent in all the rest. That is why farmers can distinguish Echinochloa crusgalii from Paddy in its vegetative stage itself and weed it at an early stage itself, but are not able to weed out E.stagnina as it resembles rice in its earlier stage because of its ligule.


Alopecurus nepalensis from Delhi : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3).
Alopecurus nepalensis Trin. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1:148. 1854.
Growing in damp places, along fields and drains. Photographed from Delhi

This is Echinochloa crus-galli unawned form whose branches have not yet opened out.

Echinochloa crus-galli as per [efloraofindia:34574] Alopecurus nepalensis from Delhi

Sorry, it should be Echinochloa colona


A grass for ID : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1).
Attaching a photo of a grass. The photo was taken in IIT Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, in August 2014.
Is it a some sp. of Ottachloa or Isachne ?

I think Echinochloa sp..

Paspalidium flavidum

I think its Echinochloa colona (L.) Link,

Yes it is Echinochloa colonum

Agreed with Echinochloa colona 


ANOCT65 Poaceae for identification (1) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4).

Bangalore outskirts
19th October 2014

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link

“Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae Week: Poaceae- Paspalidium flavidum from Pune—MR12 : 3 images. 14 posts by 6 authors.
sharing images of Paspalidium flavidum at Pune

Could I request group members to have another look at this id please.
I feel this could be Paspalidium germinatum.

.. or is it Echinochloa colonum?

Yes it looks like Echinochloa colona (L.) Link

this one is Paspalidium flavidum

Echinochloa colona

Echinochloa colonum. In case of Paspalidiums, the easiest identification is that the racemes would be adpressed to the peduncle. In case P.flavidum, the racemes would be spaced at least twice its length of internode of peduncle, whereas in the other Paspalidiums, they would overlap each other. Usually Paspalidium racemes do not spread out unlike Echinochloas.


Grass from Karjat, Maharashtra, for id, Aug-2015 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Please identify this grass found on roadside height was 2 ft.

Echinochloa colona

Echinochloa colona

Echinochloa colonum

Echinochloa colona


PM 13-07-2018 Id Confirmation. is it Echinochloa colona???: 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
id requested a small grass species found growing along roadside
in Chandigarh. As per efi images i think it belonges to Echinochloa colona. Correct id is required.
Date- 12-08-2017

Yes it is.

need Plant ID  : 12 posts by 4 authors. 2 images.

Echinochloa colona ?

Echinochloa colonum


Echinocloa colona ?

Thanks, …, for the id.
To me also appear close to images at Echinochloa colona


Kas Platue Satara– Sept’09?; On 2/8/09 near Pocharam lake in A.P.; Pench Tiger Reserve, Photographed on 12-8-2005; Grass Week : Echinochloa colona – efloraofindia | Google Groups Grass (?) for Id 291009JM1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups Id080909phk1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Grass for id pl.Is this Eragrostis unioloides ? : 8 posts by 3 authors. 2 correct images as above.
Grass for id pl. Is this Eragrostis unioloides ?
Location – Versova, Mumbai
Date – July 2019

…, you posted two species, 1&3  pics. Echinochloa sp. and the 2nd one is Eleusine indica.

Thank you so much … and extremely sorry for the mix-up of images.

It’s ok, …, no need to sorry, we want to rectify our selves only, two species separately post again as per authority guidelines,

Images 182125 and 182143 are Echinochloa colonum
Image 185121 is Eleusine indica


Biaspur grass : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1) – 3 mb.
Request for validation of Echinochloa crus-galli from Bilaspur. Photograph taken in June 2020.

Echinochloa colona


Poaceae for id : 8 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)- 3 mb.
Attaching a photograph of grass, perhaps Echinochloa from Bilaspur for I’d. Photographed in June 2020.

Echinochloa colona


Can anyone help id this short grass please? : 8 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Bhopal; black soil; 7/10/2020

Check with Paspalidium distans

Looks like an abnormal inflorescence of Paspalidium flavidum. Please post more photos of different individuals.

Here you go, sir:
Attachments (5)

Its Echinochloa colonum (The bristles, cuspidate glumes and pointed leaf tips differ from Paspalidium)


Grass for ID : Nasik : 27JUL21 : AK-09: 1 image.
Grass seen in Nasik last week (27.7.21)
I have only one picture since it suddenly started raining very heavily.

Pl. post a high res. image.

High resolution image- 1

Echinochloa sp. mostly E.colona,

Echinochloa colonum


Alopecurus nepalensis in FOI: 1 image.
Images of Alopecurus nepalensis in FOI by Singh ji (as attached), should be of Echinochloa colonum as per discussions at Alopecurus nepalensis from Delhi
Pl. correct.

Thank you … for the correction.


SK 3881 27 October 2023 – Grass (Poaceae): 5 very high res. images.

Location: Gyaneswor, Kathmandu, Nepal
Altitude: 1400m.
Date: 30 September 2023
Habit : Wild

Echinochloa colona

As per general rules of naming plants genus and species epithets should rhyme. So, ideally when Panicum colonum was transferred to new genus Echinochloa, the right naming should have been Echinochloa colona. However, certain authors have preferred to conserve the original specific epithet colonum. So, I have seen many authors use Echinochloa colona while many others use Echinochloa colonum.


Grass ID help: 3 images.

Need grass ID

Echinochloa colona




Grass week: 071210GS3 from Delhi for ID:
071210GS3 from Delhi for ID, grass growing in moist portion of a park in Vikas Puri Delhi. Please ID.

Paspalidium flavidum, perhaps.

Echinochloa colona



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