Echinochloa frumentacea Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 204 1827. (Syn: Echinochloa colona var. frumentacea (Link) Ridl.; Echinochloa crus-galli var. edulis Hitchc. [Illegitimate]; Echinochloa crus-galli var. edulis Honda; Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea (Link) W.F.Wright; Echinochloa crusgalli var. frumentacea W. Wight; Echinochloa glabrescens var. barbata Kossenko; Oplismenus frumentaceus (Link) Kunth; Panicum crus-galli var. edule (Hitchc.) Thell. ex de Lesd.; Panicum crus-galli var. edulis (Hitchc.) Makino & Nemoto; Panicum crus-galli var. frumentacea (Link) Trimen; Panicum crus-galli var. frumentaceum (Roxb.) Trimen; Panicum frumentaceum Roxb. [Illegitimate];                               (≡) Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea (Link) E. G. Camus & A. Camus);
Barti, Sawan, Shamule;

Echinochloa frumentacea (Indian barnyard millet, sawa millet, or billion dollar grass)[2] is a species of Echinochloa. Both Echinochloa frumentacea and E. esculenta are called Japanese millet.
This millet is widely grown as a cereal in India, Pakistan, and Nepal.
Its wild ancestor is the tropical grass Echinochloa colona,[3] but the exact date or region of domestication is uncertain.
It is cultivated on marginal lands where rice and other crops will not grow well.
The grains are cooked in water, like rice, or boiled with milk and sugar. Sometimes it is fermented to make beer. While also being part of staple diet for some communities in India, these seeds are, in particular, (cooked and) eaten during religious fasting (willingly abstaining from some types of food / food ingredients). For this reason, these seeds are commonly also referred to as “vrat ke chawal” in Hindi (i.e. – rice for fasting, literally).
Other common names to identify these seeds include Samo seeds, Morio / Mario / Moraiaya seeds, Bhagar
(From Wikipedia on 22.4.13)

Echinochloa frumentacea occurs in tropical warm Asia and Africa, naturalized in America and Ukraine. Also found in East Africa, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka through South East Asia to New Guinea and Australia.  
It is herbaceous, tufted annual or perennial. Not confined to wetlands but often found along rivers and round ponds as the water recedes. A common weed in rice fields. It is often cultivated as a dry season crop, particularly in river beds (Cook 1996). It is abundant in aquatic or semi-aquatic systems like marshes and cultivated fields (Kabeer and Nair 2009).
(From  IUCN Red List (LC)  )





Attachments (2). 3 posts by 2 authors.
This grass is common during rice season (early winter), specially abundant among fodder crops.. to me this is Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, wanted to know exactly, if this is feasible with these pics..

Echinochloa frumentacea (Also called E.crusgalli var. frumentacea) or Barnyard millet. The recurved racemes distinguish it from the normal.

The spikelets almost awnless led me to think about this being E. colona.. thanks … for clarification..





Echinochloa frumentacea Link 15Jan SN 19 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Echinochloa frumentacea Link,
a weed in paddy cultivation from Hosur area of Krishnagiri dt, Tamilnadu.

Thanks … for your valuable uploads, I need to know almost all of grasses/sedges around me, a good task to start..



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