Euryale ferox Salisb., Ann. Bot. (König & Sims) 2: 74 1805. (Syn: Anneslea spinosa Andrews; Euryale indica Planch.);
Jammu & Kashmir, India (Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura), China, Russian Far East, Japan (Honshu, Kyushu), Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, Myanmar [Burma] (Kachin), Nepal, Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life;
Prickly water lily, fox nut, foxnut, makhana, gorgon plant • Manipuri: Thangjing;
Euryale ferox, a common aquatic plant, completely clothed with prickles (handle with care, it hurts!). the petioles are used as vegetable (don’t know the handling & recipe but) and the fruits (scared to touch?) enclose edible (yummy!) seeds.
Thanks to Dr.Ravikumar, FRLHT for his help in identification of several plants and support during collection trips.

Yes … Popped up seeds are delicacy and seeds (makhana) are part of most vegetable preparations (especially korma).

Yes this is Makhana, In many mandirs they give as prasad along with dry fruits, indian style pop-corn, i really love them. I many Foods like in Chiken or Mutton Rezala, and in curry Makhana in spread over it before serving, mainly in Rezala i have seen it better to say ate it ha ha ha.

Sending two more photographs from Herbal Garden, Delhi. One with young crumpled leaf and another with mix of young crumpled and old flat leaves.

Great to see the diversity in the leaf morphology In E foreox with age. Thanks for the photos sir.


Water lilly in sanjeeviaya park – indiantreepix | Google Groups :
This particular water lilly is available in Sanjeeviaha park. Is this victoria water lilly which is said to have the largest leaf? It is told that it can carry small baby on it. Can any one identify it. There are more than 25 types of water lilly in the park.

I think you are right. To me it appears to be some Victoria species. See the links: &
Experts may pl. confirm.

Your picture looks more like Euryale ferox. The seeds are used as food for fasting days. Perhaps it is knowm as Makhana??? 
Victoria amzonica will have the edges curved upwards,
You can see them at the Indian Botanic Garden at Howrah.

You may be right. See the link for details of Prickly water lily, Euryale ferox:

I had taken a few photographs of amazon lily when I went to Kolkta Botanical garden a couple of years back. 3 images.

i carefully checked the sites on the net for Euryale forex and amazon llily. In comparison is also my photographs taken at Howrah. I also think that the plant at Sanjivayya Park is Euryale. As pointed out, amazon lily has curved edges. Then I see that Euryale forex leaf is always green at the top which is not the case with Amazon lily. the flower I have snaped is not purple but light pink.

ID requested:DS08062011_SN1:
This shot was taken by one of my friend –  …
We are interested to know the id of this large acquatic plant on which the parakeet was nibbling.

My first response is to say it looks like the underside of a water lily leaf…

    but then looking close… all leaves have the spicules/thorns…. all leaves could not be upside down, unless a nearby pond was just cleaned out and rubbish thrown, where the underside of all the leaves  is now on top…
but then I may be missing something… and may be there is a frakensteinine aquatic plant that has such numerous thorns/ spicules on top surface….  some more astute or experienced botanists would know…
Secondly, the parakeet seems to be muddy head to toe… some sort of mishap, may be… intriguing….
may be your friend may yet tell us the story attached to this tableau…

It is Euryale ferox, the foxnut, the source of MAKHANA so commonly used in so many Korma veg. preparations.

it goes to show what a lot I have to learn, ….changing personal interest from cancer to botany is not an easy task , at least in the beginning….

   Only last week I discovered that makhana is “Lotus seeds popped like a popcorn”…. from the net…. once it said lotus seed… i stopped…. lotus is a lotus…I thought…never realizing that the people who sell makhana on
the net or give recipes are not there to give accurate information, but only to boost their sales or get google ads for least effort for their website…….
I should have searched on a little more.. but never mind… I was destined to learn the truth… and who better
from… thank you…
but why thorns on the upper surface, what possible defense can it do?

Here are mine from Delhi, grown in Herbal Garden in Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi
2 images

Oh, nice – seems the young leaves are crunched but becomes smoother when ages.


Manipur market fruit ID:
Does anyone recognize this fruit? Sold in Ukhrul open market.

Looks similar to Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Sapindaceae).
My earlier post from Arunachal Pradesh:

But color and shape of the fruit look different….any possibility to get the photographs of tree habit and leaves?

That stalk with the fruit is very strange. Actually except for stalk it does look like Nephelium lappaceum.
Very common in China and tastes good too…

This is Euryale ferox of Nymphaeaceae.
Here are mine from the same place, Manipur: efi thread

Ohh….have never seen Euryale ferox being sold like this. Just knew it as ‘Makhana’ only. Thanks for the ID dear …

This is Euryale ferox Salisb. fruit.

Now I know what it looks like before all that handling, processing , drying and popping… that gets sold in bazaars as Tal-makhana…. or Dal-Makhana….

Menispermaceae, Berberidaceae, Nymphaeaceae and Nelumbonaceae Fortnight: Nymphaeaceae- Euryale Ferox from Delhi-GSOCT13 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2).

Euryale ferox Salisb. in Kon. & Sims, Ann. Bot. 21.74. 1806.
Makhana in Hindi
Equatic perennial herb with orbicular peltate leaves up to 1 m in diam, strongly corrugated especially beneath, veins very prominent, prickly along veins on both surfaces; sepals 4, triangular-ovate, concave, violet pink inside, prickly outside; petals many,, outer dark violet, inner successively fading to white; stamens numerous, outer longer than inner; fruit a berry, globose-ovoid, prickly, up to 10 cm across.
Photographed from Herbal Garden, Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi 

very nice leaves’ details, … I wish you also have flower inconspicuous thought it may be and an ugly duckling of the lily family I would love to see some
I understand there are hundreds of acres of these planted as a farming community is now organized and selling packaged hygienic processed makhana.
SO our botany members from Bihar should have access to a lot of the area ?

Yes, really nice leaves, .. Thanks … for sharing..

Euryale ferox Salisb. from Assam KD 08 Mar 2020 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
Attached images are Euryale ferox Salisb.
Date : 08.03. 2020
Location: Assam
Family : Nymphaeaceae
Genus & species : Euryale ferox Salisb.
Habitat: True aquatic
Habit :  Herb

Very beautiful upload …
I am yet to see this plant..thanks for sharing..

Thank You … This is flowering time for Euryale sp. So come again to my place. We will arrange a trip.


Euryale ferox SN2623: 2 images.
Euryale ferox cultivation in Semapur area of Bihar