Ginkgo biloba L., Mant. Pl. 2: 313 1771. (Syn: Ginkgo biloba f. aurea (J.Nelson) Beissn.; Ginkgo biloba var. aurea (J.Nelson) A.Henry; Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Makino; Ginkgo biloba var. fastigiata A.Henry; Ginkgo biloba f. fastigiata (A.Henry) Rehder; Ginkgo biloba var. laciniata (Carrière) Carrière; Ginkgo biloba f. laciniata (Carrière) Beissn.; Ginkgo biloba f. microsperma Sugim.; Ginkgo biloba f. parvifolia Sugim.; Ginkgo biloba f. pendula (Van Geert) Beissn.; Ginkgo biloba var. pendula (Van Geert) Carrière; Ginkgo biloba var. variegata (Carrière) Carrière; Ginkgo biloba f. variegata (Carrière) Beissn.; Ginkgo macrophylla K.Koch; Pterophyllus salisburiensis J.Nelson [Illegitimate]; Salisburia adiantifolia Sm. [Illegitimate]; Salisburia adiantifolia var. laciniata Carrière; Salisburia adiantifolia var. pendula Van Geert; Salisburia adiantifolia var. variegata Carrière; Salisburia biloba (L.) Hoffmanns.; Salisburia ginkgo Rich. [Illegitimate]; Salisburia macrophylla Reyn.);
Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree • Nepali: बाल कुमारी Bal kumari;

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; in Chinese and Japanese 銀杏, pinyin romanization: yín xìng, Hepburn romanization: ichō or ginnan), also spelled gingko[3] and also known as the maidenhair tree, is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The ginkgo is a living fossil, recognisably similar to fossils dating back 270 million years.

Native to China,[4] the tree is widely cultivated and was introduced early to human history.
It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food.
Ginkgos are large trees, normally reaching a height of 20–35 m (66–115 feet), with some specimens in China being over 50 m (164 feet). The tree has an angular crown and long, somewhat erratic branches, and is usually deep rooted and resistant to wind and snow damage. Young trees are often tall and slender, and sparsely branched; the crown becomes broader as the tree ages. During autumn, the leaves turn a bright yellow, then fall, sometimes within a short space of time (one to 15 days). A combination of resistance to disease, insect-resistant wood and the ability to form aerial roots and sprouts makes ginkgos long-lived, with some specimens claimed to be more than 2,500 years old.
Ginkgo is a relatively shade-intolerant species that (at least in cultivation) grows best in environments that are well-watered and well-drained. The species shows a preference for disturbed sites
The leaves are unique among seed plants, being fan-shaped with veins radiating out into the leaf blade, sometimes bifurcating (splitting), but never anastomosing to form a network.[6] Two veins enter the leaf blade at the base and fork repeatedly in two; this is known as dichotomous venation. The leaves are usually 5–10 cm (2–4 in), but sometimes up to 15 cm (6 in) long. The old popular name “maidenhair tree” is because the leaves resemble some of the pinnae of the maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris. Ginkgos are prized for their autumn foliage, which is a deep saffron yellow.
(From Wikipedia on 11.12.13)


The giant Ginkgo_RKC01_21112011:

Sharing the images of a giant Ginkgo tree planted at the Naganupsong area of S. Korea.
Name: Ginkgo biloba L.
Family: Ginkgoaceae
Loc.: Naganupsong, Sucheon province, SW of S. Korea.
Date: 19th Nov., 2011.
Hope you like it.

I have observed a lone tree in Manali which is natural.
There are many in California. Now many are planted in botanical gardens by vegetative propogation in India.

Thanks for the information sir! The trunk was unusually big for me… so thought of sharing it!

The poster talks about the age of the tree which may be around 400 yrs.

GYMNOSPERMS FORTNIGHT :: Ginkgo biloba from Patiala-NS 10 : Attachments (2). 2 posts by 2 authors.
This rare tree is planted in Botanical garden of P.U. Patiala. Sharing the pics of maiden hair tree, Ginkgo biloba


Gymnosperms Fortnight:Ginkgoaceae- Ginkgo biloba from California -GS-21 : Attachments (3). 1 post by 1 author.
The tree earlier had few counted specimens at least in India, but now cultivated at many places. Most specimens in India and elsewhere are usually male trees as ripe berries of female trees emit foul smell and as such not preferred. I found a whole avenue of female trees with berries in Sunnyvale, California, turning yellow when mature. The leaves turn yellow in autumn (last photograph) and look very attractive.


Gymnosperms Fortnight:: Ginkgo biloba Manali :: SMP 23 :  Attachments (1).  4 posts by 3 authors.
This is said to be the only naturally occurring Ginkgo biloba tree from India.

Second most ancient (next to Cycads) of the surviving seed-plants which first appeared in the fossil record around 260 million years ago again in the Permian. In the past there have been many species, which were highly various. But only one is left to us: the ginkgo or maiden hair tree. (Ginkgo biloba) with its curious and absolutely characteristic half moon shaped leaves.
The Chinese gather its seeds for cooking.
Peter Raven, director of the Missouri Botanical gardens in St.Louis, and one of the botany’s most original thinkers, says that if you want to save a plant from extinction, you should put it into horticultural trade: and the gingko is the case in point. This option doesn’t hold true for the animals though. No one could give a satisfactory home to a blue whale.
Ref ……..THE SECRET LIFE OF TREES by Colin Tudge

Nice to see this picture…
You’re right …, this one as well as many of the Cycads are now very very few in their natural habitat…to be true I have never seen any…
If they had not been in cultivation, perhaps would have been in text books only..

Yes a living fossil probably known only in cultivation now, no wild populations in the world.

in Manali on way to Hadimba temple; Botanical Garden near Cheshmashahi; California; Berkeley, USA; 

Ginkgo biloba from Kashmir – efloraofindia | Google Groups
PLANT 70 SMP JUN 09 – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Ginkgo biloba or Maidenhair tree is a living fossil cultivated as ornamental, edible and medicinal plant.
This cultivation has probably saved it from extinction.
As suggested by specific epithet ‘biloba’ the leaves are distinctly bilobed.
More recently it has become popular for its medicinal uses.
Photographed at Nainital, Uttarakhand. 

Ginkgo biloba from Kashmir.
Earlier a single tree was growing in the Garden of Govt. Museum at Lal Mandi. Now it has been planted at many places.
First three photographs are from Botanical Garden near Cheshmashahi on June 24, 2010. The last one with berries was taken in California in September, 2009
Common name: Maidenhair-tree

Very beautiful pictures Sir….thanks..

Gymnosperms Fortnight :: 12122013 ARK-18 :: Gingko biloba from Chicago, USA : Attachments (5). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Attached are pictures of young leaves of Gingko biloba from Chicago Botanic Gardens, Chicago, USA captured in May 2013.

Beautiful spring growth in this living fossil.


Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae)
The ginkgo is a living fossil, recognisably similar to fossils dating back 270 million years.
Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated and was introduced early to human history.
It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food.
Place: Morton Arboratum, Illinois, US
Date: 8th June, 2013


Ginkgo biloba female tree from Srinagar, Kashmir-GSNOV06/06 : 10 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
I had earlier uploaded female tree of Ginkgo biloba from California.
Found one female tree outside Srinagar Airport in J & K

very nice. how tall was this tree and how old do you think ?
how large were these fruits and did they stink up the roadway etc
there must also be several male plants around

This was a single tree planted in the compound. In fact almost all plants in India are isolated planted in gardens. There was only one tree in Kashmir up to way back 40 years. Now there must be around 20 or so in different gardens in Kashmir. Most are male trees raised from cuttings. This is the first I found as female tree. Must also be raised from cuttings.

so how does it develop the fruits? or does it need pollen?

The so called fruit or berry in this plant is a matured ovule (seed) and not matured ovary (fruit). Being a gymnosperm it does not have ovary, rather naked ovules. The ovule in this plant has two layers: inner sclerotesta which would produce seed if fertilized, and outer sarcotesta which is fleshy, does not depend on fertilization for maturing into orange-yellow pulp (producing rancid smell).

is that why sometimes seeds we used to buy in nyc chinatown old ladies to grow them did not sprout? they did not sell them willingly, one had to cajole them…

I think yes. By the way, my this post on Facebook Indian Flora has already attracted 310 likes, 3 shares and nearly 40 comments in last three days.

that’s nice but how do i see it?

For that you have to sign in Facebook, locate Group Indian Flora and give a request for joining. I can add you directly also provided you are on Facebook and I know your profile name.

well then. i’ll just have to remain ignorant of that group’s activities.
nice of you to say you’ll  add me directly but not interested in Fb. ever have been
some of my friends who want me to see their wall for the particular entry or something they send me a link that allows me to see it. may be your group is not configured that way. that’s ok

Ginkgo biloba L. (accepted name) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Location: Kathmandu, Nepal
Date: 5 July 2014
Altitude:  4400 ft.

Ginkgo biloba L. : 4 posts by 2 authors. 2 images- 6 mb each.

Location : Gyaneswor, Kathmandu, Nepal
Elevation : 1300 m.
Date : 03 May 2020
Habitat : Cultivated

Yes. I have photographed this in Stanford University, California  when I visited U S A. There are many there. I will post the photographs after digging out from my archives,+30-Oct-2020+11:23:13+GMT,+30-Oct-2020+11:23:33+GMT,+30-Oct-2020+11:23:55+GMT

Gingko biloba : For Validation : Atlanta Botanical Garden : Atlanta : 18JUN20 : AK-21 : 8 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Seen in the garden during my visit in October, 2018.
For validation.

Looks closure to it. But cannot confirm. I will upload the tree photographs taken in Stanford University Campus a few years back for comparison, in a day or two. It is grown as an  avenue tree there.

A suggestion from … is it could be Ginkgo biloba Tubifolia.
Need to check further.


Ginkgo biloba: 3 high res. images.
Location Forest research institute Ganderbal J&K

Ginkgo biloba


Maidenhair Tree: An Ornamental, Sacred and Medicinal Living Fossil:
A beautiful blog by Anil Thakur ji:
Maidenhair Tree: An Ornamental, Sacred and Medicinal Living Fossil