Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell. – Hybanthus enneaspermis is a variable species; the leaves are highily variable from ovate to linear; margin entire to serrate. 

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Hybanthus puberulus M. Gilbert. (Violaceae) – A new record for India by Sasi, R.; Sivalingam, R.; Rajendran, A.- ZOOs’ Print; Dec2011, Vol. 26 Issue 12, p30- Abstract- The article reports on the documentation of two new species of genus Hybanthus puberulus in India. It notes the four species of the plant in which two of them namely, H. enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell and H. travancoricus Melch, were included in the Flora of India. It also mentions the characteristics of the plants, as well as their ecology and distribution pattern.

Hybanthus verticillatus (Ortega) Baill.- Violaceae: a new record for India by Francisca, G.; Rajendran, A.; Parthipan, M.- ZOOs’ Print; Mar2013, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p16-
Abstract: The present paper reports a new record of Hybanthus verticillatus (Ortega) Baill known only from U.S.A recorded for the first time from India. An amplified taxonomic description, distribution, illustration of this newly recorded species are provided.

ABSTRACT : A new species of Hybanthus Jacq. (Violaceae), namely, H. vatsavayii Ch. S. Reddy  is described from Andhra Pradesh, India. 
INTRODUCTION :The  genus Hybanthus Jacq. is distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, Australia and America with about 150 species. Grey-Wilson (1981) discussed the identity of different  taxa of Hybanthus occuring in Trop. Africa. Two species of Hybanthus are found in India, viz. H. enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell. and H. travancoricus (Beddome) Melchior. Hybanthus enneaspermus is variable species and occurs as a common weed throughout India. H. travancoricus is endemic to southern  Western Ghats of Kerala and Tamil Nadu (Banerjee & Pramanik 1993). In course of botanical exploration of elangana region of Andhra Pradesh, India, some interesting specimens of Hybanthus Jacq. (Violaceae) were collected from rocky terrains.  After critical  examination and perusal of literature, these specimens were determined as belong to a distinct new taxon, which is being described here.

Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell. (India: Commonly seen in plains and coastal areas in grassy places in cultivated fields, roadsides, railway tracks, wastelands and open forest lands. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal Assam, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Tropical Asia, Africa, Australia and America)
Hybanthus travancoricus (Beddome) Melchior in Engler & Prantl (India: Hills of Tirunelveli and Travancore at 650 to 1000 m. Tamil Nadu and Kerala)


Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution Common name

(L.) F. v. Muell.
Herb or
Plains, Moist
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
All districts Orilai thamarai,
Purusha rathnam
Hybanthus travancoricus (Bedd.) Melch. Herb
or Shrub
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983


Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Hybanthus enneaspermus Ionidium suffruticosum Violaceae Spade Flower

Species with description & keys in Flora of China (Distribution other than China):
Hybanthus enneaspermus (Linnaeus) F. Mueller [tropical Africa, tropical Asia, Australia].

An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details-
Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah, D. Muralidhara Rao, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2003)- Details-
Biodiversity in India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006)- Details-
Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details-

Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000)- Details-

Hybanthus (‎Violaceae) : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Hybanthus (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide updated complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

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