Keys as per Flora of Bhutan
1. Leaves up to 1.5cm across, glabrous on upper surface; umbels 2-3mm diameter . . . . .. 3. H. sibthorpioides
+ Leaves more than 2cm across, usually pubescent on upper surface with thick hairs; umbels 4-15mm diameter . . . . .. 2
2. Leaves round in outline; umbels always solitary; fruiting pedicels more than 2mm . . . . .. .. 1. H. himalaica
+ Leaves somewhat angular in outline; umbels usually several in leaf axils; fruiting pedicels less than 2mm .  .. 2. H. nepalensis


Hydrocotyle conferta Wight (Image by Siva Siva (ID by Santhosh Kumar), photographed in Sri Lanka)

Hydrocotyle himalaica P.K. Mukh. (Images by Ashwini Bhatia (Validation by Mahadeswara Swamy & Ushadi) & Saroj Kumar Kasaju (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))


Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. (Images by A.Shivaprakash and Anurag N.Sharma & D.S. Rawat(For more photos & complete details, click on the links))


Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (Images by D.S.Rawat (1,2) and Nidhan Singh (3,4 -ID by Gurcharan Singh))



Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. (Images by Alka Khare 1,2-ID by Gurcharan Singh) and Gurcharan Singh (3,4))


Hydrocotyle species in India:

  1. Hydrocotyle conferta Wight
  2. H. himalaica P.K.Mukh.
  3. H. hookeri (C.B.Clarke) W.G.Craib
  4. H. javanica Thunb.
  5. H. nepalensis Hook. [synonym of H. javanica as per The Plant List 2013
    but distinct species vide
  6. H. podantha Molk. [synonym of H. himalaica P.K.Mukh.]
  7. H. prolifera Kellogg. [synonym of H. verticillata Thunb.]
  8. H. ramiflora Maxim.
  9. H. siamica Craib
  10. H. sibthorpioides Lam.
  11. H. verticillata Thunb.


  1. Karthikeyan, S., Sanjappa, M. and Moorthy, S. 2009. Flowering Plants of India, Dicotyledons, vol-I (Acanthaceae- Avicenniaceae). Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. pp.111.
  2. eFI page


Pl. go through Hydrocotyle (Araliaceae) page with images of species (done by …) in efloraofindia.

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, it will be really nice.

Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.