Hymenodictyon obovatum Wall., Fl. Ind. 2: 153 1824. (Syn: Hymenodictyon obovatum Wight [Illegitimate]);
India as per Catalogue of Life;
Common name: Kadwa Sirid • Kannada: gandale, bogimara, hire mara, gandele • Marathi: kadwa-sirid, kurvi, sirid • Tamil: yellamalakkai, ilaimergay, yellamalla

Deciduous trees, to 15 m high, bark 6-7 mm thick, grey-black, rough, exfoliations small, brittle; blaze red; young parts pubescent. Leaves simple, opposite; stipules 3.7-5 cm, interpetiolar; petiole 2-12 cm, slender, glabrous, grooved above; lamina 4-24 cm x 2.5-10 cm, obovate, elliptic-obovate or elliptic, base attenuate, acute, oblique or subtruncate, apex acuminate, obtusely acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, pubescent below, chartaceous; lateral nerves 5-8 pairs, pinnate, prominent beneath; intercostae reticulate, prominent; domatia present. Flowers bisexual, white, subsessile, terminal racemes; bracts 2, leafy; bracteoles; calyx tube short, lobes 5, puberulous without, ovate, acute; corolla tube short, expanding in a campanulate bilobed limb, lobes 5, ovate, glabrous, valvate; stamens 5, inserted between the lobes; anthers lanceolate, sagitate; ovary 2-celled, inferior, ovules many; style slender, exserted; stigma fusiform. Fruit a capsule, 10-12 mm long, 2 valved, erect, ovoid, brown; seeds 5-6 mm long, narrowly winged.

Flowering and fruiting: June-October
Semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests
Western Ghats
(Attributions- Dr. N Sasidharan (Dr. B P Pal Fellow), Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi from India Biodiversity Portal)
Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane; Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga, S. Kanara; Kerala: Idukki, Kollam, Palakkad, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur; Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Kanniyakumari
(Attributions- G. Renu, Sanjana Julias Thilakar, D. Narasimhan, Centre for Floristic Research, Department of Botany, Madras Christian College, Tambaram)

Confirmation of the Tree:
wanted to confirm the identification of the tree
Habit: tree
Location: Nashik district near Trimbakeshwar
Bark Peeling and greyish white
Leaves: totally leafless in January
Fruits/Flowers: had structures as shown in the picture was not sure if it were flowers or fruits
On Appearance I thought it was Boswellia serrata

… fruits of Hymenodictyon sp.

I am agreed with … To me it looks like Hymenodictyon orixense

yes, its an fruit of Hymenodictyon orixense (Rubiaceae),

If it is possible Keep a watch for flowering. I have not observed this around Pune.

I have seen it on the platue of Dhak-Bahiri spread behind Khandala and Karjat but did not see the flowers.

This is H.obovatum, as H. excelsum bears fruits on decurved peduncle,


Rubiaceae Week: Hymenodictyon obovatum at Matheran Hills:
Came across this tree at “Hasha Chi Patti” Matheran hills.
Bot. name: Hymenodictyon obovatum
Family: Rubiaceae

Really amazing capture…very clear and clean pics, they depict the rich diversity around…very beautiful place indeed..

Yes … This place is one of my favorite and i keep visiting this very often.


Hymenodictyon obovatum, leaves and flowers :  1 post by 1 author. Attachments (4).
Hymenodictyon obovatum
july 2014
two weeks ago


Specimen for Identification : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
A tree species associated with Ficus species. looks like initial parasite. Please help with Id.
Habitat –Tropical grassland along the boundaries of evergreen forest. Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, August 2017.

Hymenodictyon obovatum Wall. (Rubiaceae medium sized tree)

Tree for identification : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Tree, ca 6 m high, in edges of dense evergreen forests in North Goa (Western Ghats) at about 3000 feet altitude.
Flowering month: August.

Hymenodictyon obovatum

This plant was seen at Panaroma Point in Matheran, Maharashtra. It was growing near the edge on the left side near Panaroma Point.
The flowers had a fragrance reminiscent of Mango blossoms. The photo was taken on 15 August 2010.
Any help in its identification is appreciated.

Could this be any Lauraceae?

Nice photographs of Kuthan [Hymenodictyon obovatum].

This is Hymenodictyon obovatum kindly refer to the description from the link below

Thank you everyone 🙂  Strangely there was only one specimen of this tree in that location.
The fragrance was heavenly, that’s how we were able to find the plant.

Is it Hymenodictyon obovatum ?
Pl. validate
Today (8.8.10) at Sagargad,Alibag

I think you are right

Can’t be sure of this. Would you have more shots of complete leaves and stipules?



Sending photgraphs of leaves

Thanks … for additional pictures. Somehow these leaves are more wavy than normally seen. Thanks for putting both the species so we can compare.


Plant id:
This tree with dark red tender leaves is very often seen in June-July. I have taken these photographs at Tamhini ghat and Raigad fort.
Can someone help me identify the tree?

Please check Hymenodictyon orixense of Rubiaceae family.

yes, even i think its Hymenodictyon orixense

These are the recent photographs of Hymenodictyon orixense (taken yesterday), at Chandragad, near Poladpur… showing the emergent red leaves turning green.
Earlier photographs were taken a week back. ad

I think it may be Hymenodictyon obovatum as appears flat topped.

Not so clear but looking like pubescens in leaves below – Hymenodictyon orixense (Roxb.) Mabb.

Hymenodictyon obovatum. The habit is distinctive.

Hymenodictyon orixense, new leaves : Attachments (4).
Hymenodictyon orixense

july 2014
two weeks ago

I think it may be Hymenodictyon obovatum as in another thread also.

It is always good to reach confirmation with mature leaves. These are young leaves and hence the characters may not have fully developed.

I think leaves are glabrous – Hymenodictyon obovatum Wall.


ID of a fruiting tree – indiantreepix | Google Groups : 2+2+2 images.


in Sahyadri forest; id pl. – efloraofindia | Google Groups

This tree was seen on the edge of a cliff in Tamhini ghat near Pune, MH in Aug 2019.
I guess this is Hymenodictyon obovatum.
Could not not take close up shots.

leaves and the overall arrangement is comparable with our page illustrations

Hymenodictyon obovatum–Malvan, Maharashtra:: NS August 2022 (04): 5 images.
This tree was found flowering, thus sharing the pics, I hope the identification is right..



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