Limnophila aquatica (Roxb.) Alston, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Peradeniya) 11: 205. 1929 (syn: Cyrilla aquatica Roxb.; Diceros aquaticus (Roxb.) Moon; Limnophila racemosa Benth.);  
Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh as per Catalogue of life

Stem rooting at lower nodes, then erect and up to 40 cm high, with basal part usually submerged, thick, tumid at nodes. Upper leaves opposite or in verticils of 2-3, ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 2.8-6.6 x 0.8-1.9 cm, rounded and semi-amplexicaul at base, acuminate at apex, finely spinulose-serrate, strongly 3-5-nerved at base, glabrous on both surfaces, punctate above; lower ones in verticils of more or less 10-12, pinnately dissected, upto 5.8 cm long, often deflexed and root-like. Flowers numerous, in terminal racemes 5-18 cm long; peduncles finely glandular-hispid. Bracts ovate to broadly lanceolate, 5-7 x 3-4 mm, subacuminate at apex, finely glandular-pubescent on both surfaces. Pedicels 2-6 mm long, finely glandular-pubescent. Calyx tube 2-3 mm long; lobes more or less equal, ovate-lanceolate, 2-3 x 0.75 mm, long acuminate, scarious at margins. Corolla tube pale greenish white to white, 7-10 mm long, puberulous without, villous within at throat; limb white or pale blue or pale mauve; lobes of upper lip broadly orbicular with a pale purple blotch at centre of each; lower lip 9-17 mm across, midlobe broader than lateral ones. Posterior filaments 2-3 mm long, anterior ones longer; anther cells horizontally placed. Style glabrous. Capsule globose, 3-4 x 2-3 mm, enclosed by longer calyx lobes, tipped by withered style, glabrous; seeds oblong-cuneate to globular, 0.5-0.7 mm long, quadrangular, muricate. 

Flowering and fruiting: July-March
Flooded paddy fields, ponds, etc
Indo-Malesia and East and South China 



Hooghly Today : Limnophila cana Griff.: 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (10).
This seems to be the Limnophila cana Griff. of the Bengal Plants and the Flora of British India.

As per document, ‘Scrophulariaceous taxa in Bangladesh’, Limnophila cana is endemic to Bangladesh. So, please, correct the ID, as in my other post, as, either –

  1. Limnophila aquatica (Roxb.) Alston (Link)
  2. Limnophila racemosa Benth.
Thank you

I think it should be Limnophila chinensis as per references herein and as per keys at Flora of China.

Let us keep it as Limnophila aquatica only in view of description and specimens at Flora of Peninsular India 

I agree with you, Sir.





[EfloraIndia_211212PD03_Limnophila aromatica_Flora of Odisha]: please find the images of limnophila aromatica taken from Ranpur
name of the species: Limnophila aromatica

Family: Scrophulariaceae
Place of collection: Ranpur, nayagarh,Odisha
Habit: Aromatic Herb
Habitat: Wild in swampy grasslands, pools, agricultural fields

I like your habit of showing the smaller components of the flower too.

How was the smell? Something similar to Foeniculum vulgare ?

Great set of photos, I have collected Limnophilla rugosa and was interested in seeing this species.

Yes … the smell of the leaves are very sweet and aromatic.

I think it should be Limnophila chinensis as per references herein and as per keys at Flora of China.

On further scrutiny, I find it more closer to Limnophila aquatica in view of description and specimens at Flora of Peninsular India 

Limnophila sp. Hooghly: This is Limnophila sp., found in a marsh beside railway-tracks, yesterday (22/12/12). It is still unclear to me which species of the “Bengal Plants” it might be :-

Page 762 and 763 of “Bengal Plants” describe Limnophila, the links are –

Could this be Limnophila cana?

I think L. heterophylla

Thank you … Also received an earlier personal email suggesting ID as L. heterophylla, but –

Description of L. heterophylla in 1) F. B. I. iv. 270. and 2) Bengal Plants ii. 763. informs :-
  • stem always glabrous
  • uppermost leaves (the 2 uppermost) usually opposite, … the next below 4-6 nately whorled pinnate, the lowest submerged long capillaceo-multifid
I think my species lacks the above features.
Description of L. heterophylla in FoC states :-
  • aerial stem with sessile glands or pilose or nearly smooth and glabrous…..
  • (in) rice-fields, brackish water….
I am not sure if my species is pilose or hirsute, the later being a feature of L. cana
There is a post of L. heterophylla in our group, but in L. heterophylla flowers are sessile or subsessile.

Yes it is Limnophilla heterophylla

…, Might be you remember this plant is also we collected from Joka mashes with polymorphic leaves.

Thank you very much Sir, i think “Bengal Plants” and “F. B. I.” must have missed some features while describing L. heterophylla Benth. Alternatively L. cana Griff. is included in L. heterophylla Benth.

Yeah, I agree …- it was the same aquatic plant.



I find that this post has been placed under Limnophila heterophylla (Roxb.) Benth. of eFI site.

I beg to differ, it cannot be Limnophila heterophylla (Roxb.) Benth.
  • the description of Limnophila heterophylla Benth. in F. B. I. can be found at link.
  • the description of Limnophila heterophylla Benth. in “Bengal Plants” can be found at link
  • relevant entry of Limnophila heterophylla Benth. in F. I. can be found at link and it continues at link
I think either it is Limnophila cana Griff., as i suggested before, or it is Limnophila racemosa Benth. (, source – The problem with the later is that “Bengal Plants” mentioned, “…. pedicels as long as or longer than calyx….”, what is not found in the pictures in this post.
As per “Bengal Plants” and “Flora of British India” Limnophila heterophylla Benth. should have at least 4-nate leaves.
Attaching one more photo for your kind perusal.

I can only say that if presently any or both of Limnophila cana Griff. and Limnophila racemosa Benth. is/are included in Limnophila heterophylla (Roxb.) Benth. then only it can be the same.
You may find the following links, on Limnophila racemosa Benth. and others, interesting –
On L. cana Griff. i couldn’t find anything in the net, except the description in Bengal Plants and F. B. I.

I think this is Limnophila aromatica. You may feel a karpur like smell from the leaves. Flower 1-2 cm. Stem without hair; long above water. Usally in small patches.

A reply from … in another thread:
“About a fortnight ago i received a mail from Taiwan. …………………. We had a few correspondence regarding various Limnophila species.

Regarding other two species i copy (highlighted in yellow) part of her mails –
1) …………………………….
I also think there are some different thinking about Limnophila between most people from India and me. But I think yours is quite correct. As I see in this discuss. 

In my point of view, I would say it’s Limnophila aquatica, with densely long hair and bigger flower. Please see the attachment. It’s Limnophila heterophylla that I think which is shortly hirsute and with much smaller flowers.”
Please, note that in another subsequent mail she writes –
About L. aquatica or L. cana, it’s also a thorny problem for me. In my point of view, I think they might be same species. Do you think the length of pedicels is stable enough? I thought sometimes they can be pedicellate, sometimes they can be sessile or sub-sessile. Or depend on different part of inflorescence. If you have time, you can observe it nearby. Regretfully, my images mostly come from specimens.
Just like one of my friend from Europe who is desirely willing to come to Taiwan, I wish I could go to south Asia and southeast Asia to botanize around someday.

I think it should be Limnophila chinensis as per references herein and as per keys at Flora of China.

Let us keep it as Limnophila aquatica only in view of description and specimens at Flora of Peninsular India 

Thank you. Sir for the updated id.


Limnophila indica (L.) Druce SN Dec 21 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2)

Limnophila indica (L.) Druce, wild herb in the water canal, near Siddhapur area of Karnataka

This should be Limnophila aquatica as per images and details herein.



5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
earlier uploads – efi thread 1 & efi thread 2

Thanks, …
My understanding for earlier threads was that they are Limnophila aquatica
Now it appears that I have wrongly placed them.
As Limnophila racemosa Benth. is unresolved in the plant list, I find it to be a syn. of Limnophila indica (L.) Druce as per the book link.

…, the book shows Limnophila indica (Lam.) Bruce ….. I couldn’t find it in TPL or in GRIN or in IPNI.

I think you are right. The same mistake was in earlier The Plant List
But it now seems to have been corrected in The Plant list Ver. 1.1

…, TPL at least thinks that L. racemosa Benth. and Cyrilla aquatica Roxb. can be synonymous. Check the illustrations of both, please –

One reason for ‘unresolved’ maybe due to lack of clear description in old lit.. discrepancies in those lit. … complicated in later days works…. We have seen such cases, recent examples are Aponogeton and Leucas, earlier it was several genera of Scrophulariaceae – ex., Bonnaya-Gratiola-Vandellia complex; Lindenbergia …etc. I hope oneday all will be resolved by our taxonomists.
However, you accept it as you like, I continue to record what I think ….. it’s not necessary that both end should meet at end, for there is no ‘end’ at all.

I think it should be Limnophila chinensis as per references herein and as per keys at Flora of China.

Let us keep it as Limnophila aquatica only in view of description and specimens at Flora of Peninsular India 

Can it be Limnophila polystachya as per discussions at Limnophila polystachya in FOI ?

Yes Sir, it’s L. aquatica (Roxb.) Alston.


Limnophila polystachya in FOI : 4 posts by 2 authors.

Images of Kasim ji at Limnophila polystachya in FOI should be of
Limnophila aquatica as per images, details and references herein.
I further examined both descriptions of these from Flora of Peninsular India at Limnophila aquatica and Limnophila polystachya
Leaves are linear with flowers in branched spikes in Limnophila polystachya, while leaves are ovate-lanceolate to oblong lanceolate and flowers in terminal racemes in Limnophila aquatica.
I also examined few specimens from GBIF.
So … plant should be Limnophila aquatica (Roxb.) Alston and not Limnophila polystachya Benth. (syn: Limnophila aquatica (Willd.) Santapau).
Pl. correct.

Thanks …, I think you are right. The inflorescence particularly agrees more with Limnophila aquatica.



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