Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard , Ann. Inst. Bot.-Géol. Colon. Marseille III, 3: 9 1915. (syn. Kaukenia hexandra (Roxb.) Kuntze; Manilkara emarginata H.J.Lam; Mimusops hexandra Roxb.);
India to China (S. Guangxi) and Pen. Malaysia (Johor) as per WCSP;
Bangladesh; Cambodia; China Southeast; Hainan; India; Malaya; Myanmar; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life;
Ceylon Iron Wood, milk tree, wedge-leaved ape flower • Hindi: दृढ़ drirh, खिरनी khirni, क्षीरी kshiri, रायन rayan • Marathi: करणी karani, खिरणी khirni, राजण rajana, रांजण ranjana, रायण rayan, रायणी rayani • Tamil: உலக்கைப்பாலை ulakkai-p-palai • Malayalam: കൃണി krini, പഴമുന്പാല pazhamunpaala • Telugu: అంకాలు ankalu, నందివృక్షము nandivriqshamu, పాలచెట్టు palachettu • Kannada: bakula • Bengali: krikhiyur • Konkani: कर्णी karni, रांजण ranjana • Gujarati: ખિર્ની khirni, રાયન rayan • Sanskrit: क्षीरिणी kshirini, निम्बबिज nimbabija, राजादन rajadana; 
Evergreen tree. 15-18m tall.; bark deeply furrowed. Leaves 4-10cm bye 2.5-5.0cm. Obovate to obovate oblong, dark glossy green above, rounded or emarginate at apex, acute at base. Flowers whitish solitary, axillary or in fascicles; calyx rusty tomentose outside. Berries one seeded. Seeds ovoid, reddish shining.
(From Flora of Mah BSI )
Children really relish khirni fruits after they turn yellow. 

ID04032011PHK 1:
A big size tree, height up to 60-70 ft.
No flowers/fruits seen, Seeing the tree first time in around Alibag forest.

–  Yes, I agree with .. on Manilkara hexandra which is more popularly known as Khirni being used for grafting Chikkoo varieties.

manilkara hexandara:
manilkara hexandra or ranjan as it is known locally in alibaug
i have seen kids clambering for its fruit which is rather sweet
the green fruit ripens to a bright yellow
my place, zirad, alibaug


Manilkara hexandra:
Yesterday at Kanakeshawar,Alibag
Manilkara hexandra
Marathi names : khirni, Rayan, Rajan

isnt it Bakul?

No, … , it not mimusops elengi… in the last three months we had several discussions..

Although at first glance the flowers do remind one of a family resemblance to Bakul…
but look closely, the anatomy is very different….

Can you please give me some information regarding the altitude of the place, temperature, Humidity, and other such conditions….as at my place i.e. at Chandigarh the plant flowers around January end or February beginning….




manilkara hexandra:
Unfortunately I was unable to attach these to … mail
The first photograph illustrates the trunk and the second, a green fruit and leaves
Children really relish khirni fruits after they turn yellow.
photos were taken in march at my place in alibaug

… has posted photographs of the flowers in the original thread. These are mine.


Fruiting time from Sapling in Manilkara Hexandra.:
Would be grateful to know what is the fruiting time in years from a sapling in ‘Khirni/manilkara hexandra.’

I remember my childhood. During summer vacation all of us (children) go to our village to be with our grand pa. There was a large Khirni tree. During our stay (May-June ) we used to get of khirni plucked (known as Jhar karna) and eat the ripe -sweet and sticky fruits.

I have got reference only on flowering. Flowering of M. hexandra is during August- December.
I assume the fruiting would be around January-April.

I guess i needed to have reframed the question slightly. How long (years?) does Manilkara take to bear fruit from its birth as a sapling?

All I can tell you right now is that Sabeda is a Manilkara zapota… if grafted on old root stock … starts off early… I had a natural bonsai last year that had fruits by second year after grafting…  it died in the hands of my gardener when I was out of town for part of the year….sad…

nothing special about Manilkara… it is just that we have a sapling of Manilkara with us right now and we were just wondering by how many years it is likely to bear fruit or at least grow tall, give shade.

We have noticed a few Manilkara trees near our locality that been told to have not gone beyond 4 feet in 10 years so we were wondering if it is really that kind of a slow grower.

i ran into this story while searching for info on my chikku tree, but got got this
It says  it took this particular Manilkara hexandra 12 years to fruit. does not mention height though.
in the meanwhile canyou tell me if your sapling survived, how tall is it and did it flower?
this is august 2018

It is around 10 feet now. It survived a huge tin shed falling on it 5 years ago. Will try to share an image today.

great. its a survivor, then. looking forward to picture

ID 270911SB02:
Location – Mumbai
Is it Calophyllum ?

Negative. This looks like Manilkara hexandra locally called Rayan or Khirni.

Somehow it doesn’t look like any species of Calophyllum to me. Not sure of the id.

My thoughts that lead a conclusion why this not Calophyllum are that the venation in Calophyllum are always numerous and very tightly arranged and are generally not much visible in photographs. We can feel the veins by touching the leaf.

Second thing, bark of Calophyllum is always fissured (A long narrow opening; a crack or cleft) whereas, here the bark looks smooth.
When you cut the bark it would be very fibrous, thick and there are coloured or colourless gummy exudates. This is not clear from picture I a giving one more clue to check if you happen to see the plant again

I am giving characters for Manilkara hexandra, for a better comparison
Bark – Dark grey to Black, rough, furrowed (Does not Match, its light brown)
Leaves – 5-13 cm, shiny, stiff and leathery, rounded and often notched at the apex, dark green, paler beneath (Matches)
Did not cut the bark, so no idea whether its a gummy exudate (Calophyllum) or milky exudate (Manilkara)
Flowers and fruits not present.
So, still are not sure what it is..

Go with ….. its Manilkara hexandra (Ryan or Khirni in Marathi)

Manilkara hexandra:
Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.)
‘Khirni’ ‘Rajani’ Rayan खिरणी
Family :Sapotaceae
Pune 31Jul 2011
Evergreen tree. 15-18m tall.; bark deeply furrowed. Leaves 4-10cm bye 2.5-5.0cm. Obovate to obovate oblong, dark glossy green above, rounded or emarginate at apex, acute at base. Flowers whitish solitary, axillary or in fascicles; calyx rusty tomentose outside. Berries one seeded. Seeds ovoid, reddish shining.
(From Flora of Mah BSI )
The flowering and fruiting season is mentioned as Sep.-Nov. but I have captured this in Jul2011 even …  pictures are of Jul.

…, do you have picture of the bark/trunk. I want to verify one of my plant as well, which is creating a confusion (for me) with Calophylum!!

I know the thought came to me when I was compiling the description.
Somehow I am poor in capturing barks and stems of trees. Any way the tree is accessible to me and I am going to visit it in recent future to check for any fruits. I will take photographs of the bark at that time. Before writing the mail I checked some odd 16 mails with a tag of Manilkara including yours.

… perhaps some of my views may be of some help to you:

Problem actually i think is the bark! The picture i have, does not show any fissures or furrows on the bark.
Whereas, Calophylum and Manilkara both are expected to have dark and fissured or furrowed bark, respectively.

I agree. That is why even many senior botanists/taxonomist ask for flower picture/characters for Precise ID

Adding a picture of bark/stem of this huge tree from Pune.


Scrub: Clusiaceae tree for identification 011012MK02:
Kindly help me to identify this stunted tree found in a scrub forest. I have not noticed any flower or fruits but only buds as in picture. Lates is absent, so this cannot be a Sapotaceae.

Could this be Calophyllum inophyllum or any other Clusiaceae member?
Leaf: 15 x 5 cm long
Place: Tiruvallur dist., TN
Habitat: Scrub forest
Alt.: c.40 m asl
Date: 28 Sep 2012

But to me it looks like Manilkara hexandra, Sapotaceae

Yes, I agree with … id.

So, there is hardly any latex in young Manilkara sp.?


Plz id this tree: pa54 – 13dec2012:
Plz id this another tree on the way to Mankhurd. The leaves have latex. Tks.

This is Manilkara hexandra [Mimusops hexandra]. The local name is Khirni / Rayan.


Tree for ID : Oman : 130213 : AK-2:
A small cultivated tree seen in one of the farms here.
No flowers or fruits when the picture was taken.
Seems like a fruit tree.

Any chance for Garcinia livingstonei T.Anderson of Clusiaceae ?

Thanks for a possible id.
I have seen Garcinia livingstonei at Lalbagh, Bangalore.
It looks a bit different.

This is Manilkara hexandra locally called Rayan / Khirni.

Thanks for the id.


Attachments (5).
Please identify this plant details of which are as follows:
Date           : 15.05.14                                                             
Location     :Pulloothu, Nagamalai hills, Madurai
Altitude      :approx 500 ft

Habitat        :wild, near a natural spring
Habit           :tree
Height         :20 ro 30 ft
Leaves         :thick and leathery
Flowers       :white

I think it is Manilkara hexandra

Madhuka latifolia : For validation : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 310714 : AK-47: 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).
Just wanted validation of this id.
Or is this Khirni?
Pictures taken on 28/7/14 at Lalbagh.

They must be joking. This is Rayan/ Khirni  [Manilkara hexandra].

Are you sure the first 2 photos correspond to the next 2 flowers belong to this
Manilkara hexandra, (Roxb.) Dubard <=> Ceylon Iron Wood Tree 

I think so. Will go through my pictures again.

12022015 – Tree for ID – 03 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Kindly require ID help for this big tree. Possibly a Terminalia sp? Unfortunately there are no fruits or flowers and lots of broken branches with leaves on it were strewn around…
This is taken in Nandi hills, Bangalore on 12th Feb 2015.

Possibly Manilkara hexandra

Thanks … Yes, possibly Manilkara hexandra


MS/2016- 13/9 – ID of a tree. : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
What this tree could be. Photos taken in Mysore.

This looks like Mimusops hexandra. The local name is Rayan/ Khirni.

Manilkara hexandra (Sapotaceae)

Manilkara hexandra : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Sharing an image of Manilkara hexandra from Pune Maharashtra
Presently flowering.

Fruit for Id- ID25052017SH2 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Fruit for Id pl.
Location – Mumbai (near one of the mangroves)
Date – 14.05.2017

Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard [Sapotaceae].

As a child I use to eat the fruit. It is very sweet and sticky.

Thanks … Yes …, I tested it….it’s very sweet. But surprisingly i didn’t see any birds eating these fruits !

29112017BHAR1 : 8 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)- around 1 Mb each.
FOUND IN Forest near Chennai.

Thanks, …  Terminalia species?

It is not Terminalia but looks like Manilkara hexandra -the leaf is similar to that of Manilkara

Could you verify the suggested id?

I am not sure. But I came to know Manilkara hexandra was planted by forest department

I also think matches with images at Manilkara hexandra

ID request – 080316PC1 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Kindly identify this plant growing in Delhi; cultivated plant. The plant has white latex. 

I do not think Anacardium contains latex; it may be a Ficus species.

Thanks, … You may be right.

Can it be Ficus microcarpa L.f. ?

May not be Ficus macrocarpa. Leaves appear to be more like those of F. lyrata, but I am not sure.

Manilkara hexandra. Sapotaceae.

Thank you, … Yes, it does look like Manilkara hexandra.

This is not Ficus species, From vegetative features this should be Manilkara hexandra, due to over pruning leaves are large and it could be for grafting purpose for Cheeku.

Thank you … You are right, the tree has been pruned often to avoid shading a part of college garden. It does seem to be Manilkara hexandra.

Manilkara hexandra fruits and seedlings : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Collected the seeds from Mannur RF Chennai this summer.

happy to see these. a question and suggestion on the aside. are you documenting seeds. then sprouts etc. we do need a cataloger of well identified seeds

Conservation and propogation. Nothing else.

Manilkara hexandra : 12 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)- around 450 kb each.
Found in Puthupattu, near Marakkanam, TN

I feel the plant is of different species looking at the flowers/ buds

Thanks, … To me also looks different from images at Manilkara hexandra

Any image of full size leaf ?

This is Manilkara hexandra 200% sure. Please check for a near by tree. If you are in Chennai you can find the same inflorescence or flowers matching to mine.

Thanks, … But flowers look different from images at the give efi link.

yes It is Manilkara hexandra only.

Manilkara hexandra : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2) – around 500 kb each.
Found in Puthupattu near Pondicherry.

Manilkara hexandra from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra. : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (7)
Here am sharing some images of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra taken on  october2018.

19042014Al192 Tree for ID : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments(1 + 1)

Not easy !

Manilkara hexandra

Thanks … for this difficult ID.


Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Oct 18, 2009 · 11:45 AM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl


Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Apr 4, 2009 · JUN23 DV34: 1 image.

Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Apr 4, 2009 · 4:27 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
Could not get any better quality of the lone fruit in the dense foliage.


Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Dec 18, 2008 · JUN23 DV38: 2 images.
Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Dec 18, 2008 · 11:01 AM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl


Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard :: Waghbil, Thane :: Dec 29, 2007 · JUN23 DV289: 1 image.

Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard
Waghbil, Thane :: Dec 29, 2007 · 11:25 AM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
Observations of the same tree at different times: Dec 18, 2008 • Oct 18, 2009


Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard :: Waghbil, Thane :: Dec 25, 2007 · JUN23 DV297: 3 images.

Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard
Waghbil, Thane :: Dec 25, 2007 · 3:15 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl