Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. hymalaiensis Briq., G. A. Engler & K. A. E. Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a):322. 1897 (Syn: (=) Mentha longifolia subsp. royleana (Benth.) Briq.; (=) Mentha royleana Benth.) as per GRIN;
Horse Mint, Habek Mint, Biblical Mint, Cow-weed, Phileel, Jungali Podina; English: Horse mint, Biblical mint, Wild mint; hindi: Jangli pudina; Punjab: Baburi, Bellane, Kashu, Pudnakushma; Mumbai: Pudina vartalau; Kashmir: Brina; 

Mentha longifolia (Horse Mint) is a species in the genus Mentha (mint) native to Europe, western and central Asia (east to Nepal and the far west of China), and northern and southern (but not tropical) Africa.[1][2][3]

It is a very variable herbaceous perennial plant with a peppermint-scented aroma. Like many mints, it has a creeping rhizome, with erect to creeping stems 40–120 cm tall. The leaves are oblong-elliptical to lanceolate, 5–10 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, thinly to densely tomentose, green to greyish-green above and white below. The flowers are 3–5 mm long, lilac, purplish, or white, produced in dense clusters (verticillasters) on tall, branched, tapering spikes; flowering in mid to late summer. It spreads via rhizomes to form clonal colonies.[3][4][5]
It has been widely confused with tomentose variant plants of Mentha spicata; it can be distinguished from these by the hairs being simple unbranched, in contrast to the branched hairs of M. spicata.[4]
Like almost all mints, Mentha longifolia can be invasive. Care needs to be taken when planting it in non-controlled areas.
(From Wikipedia on 30.8.13)

Lamiaceae sp??20102010-PKA3:
Came across this herb at Chatadu. (On the way to Chandratal, Spiti).. Date/Time: 30-09-2010 / 03:45PM
Location: Chatadu (Altitude: 11100  ft approx.), Manali region
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Herb

i think Mentha longifolia 

I think .. is correct its Mentha longifolia

Amarnath Yatra – Polygonaceae for ID (NSJ-01 – 19/08/2013) : Attachments (2). 9 posts by 6 authors.
Polygonaceae for ID on the way to Amarnath yatra from Pahalgam
Location – On the way from Chandanwari to Pissu top
Habitat – wild
Altitude – 10000′

Seems a Lamiaceae member; may be Mentha sp.

Yes, Lamiaceae indeed, may be Mentha piperita, we also found this near Tiger Fall, Chakrata, flowers as well as foliage are highly aromatic..

Nice to know that you had completed Amarnath yatra safely. Yes this looks like some Mentha sp. Nice catch..

looks like Mentha longifolia

Yes agree with … It looks M.longifolia.

Thanks … for correct id.. I will post mine..

Yes, it is Mentha longifolia, quite common in high-altitudes of Kashmir

Mentha longifolia from Uttarakhand : Attachments (2). 5 posts by 2 authors.
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. (Lamiaceae) is a common herb in Badrinath- Mana area growing along streams or in moist areas.
It is strongly aromatic wild mint commonly called as ‘Horse Mint’ with cottony white leaves below.
It is also frequent in upper valleys of Uttarakhand which are heavily glaciated.

Himalayan plants is Mentha royleana I hope

Thank you sir for bringing to current status of this plant. The European and African specimens in Herbcat have distinctly narrow linear leaves while plants here have wider leaves.
However, the literature I have indicate it as M.longifolia, so mentioned it accordingly.
Yet to see it as M.royleana in Indian floras.

Here are some links …

If we accept the latest nomenclature of 2007 it should be Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. hymalaiensis Briq.

Thank you Sir for important links which I checked immediately and now accept it as: Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. hymalaiensis Briq.
The change in name is also needed in our database eFL.

Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae Week: Lamiaceae, Mentha royleana subsp. royleana from Manali:
Mentha royleana Benth. in Wall., Pl. As. Rat. 1: 29. 1830 syn: Mentha longifolia subsp. royleana (Wall. ex Benth.) Briq.;  Mentha sylvestris var. royleana Hook.;
Often identified as M. longifolia this Himalayan plant is distinct in its leaves with 2-15 mm long petioles, leaves covered with prominent indumentum and 1.5-2 mm long calyx.
Photographed from Manali

Further reference as per efi thread


Mentha royleana from Harwan, Kashmir:
Mentha royleana Wall. ex Benth., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1: 29 1830.

Syn: Mentha longifolia subsp. royleana (Wall. ex Benth.) Briq.
Similar to and formerly included under M. longifolia but easily differentiated by its narrower, petiolate leaves, slender flower clusters and shorter calyx; perennial herb, stems ascending; leaves oblong-elliptic, whitish hairy, distinctly petiolate, petiole up to 8 mm long; remotely serrulate or dentate; flower clusters distant, forming terminal spikes; calyx 1.5-2 mm long with subequal lobes; corolla mauve to white.
Common along streams and wet places. Photographed from Harwan, Kashmir

Further reference as per efi thread


Mentha royleana Wall. ex Benth., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1: 29 1830.
Syn: Mentha longifolia subsp. royleana (Wall. ex Benth.) Briq.
Similar to and formerly included under M. longifolia but easily differentiated by its narrower, petiolate leaves, slender flower clusters and shorter calyx; perennial herb, stems ascending; leaves oblong-elliptic, whitish hairy, distinctly petiolate, petiole up to 8 mm long; remotely serrulate or dentate; flower clusters distant, forming terminal spikes; calyx 1.5-2 mm long with subequal lobes; corolla mauve to white.
Common along streams and wet places.
Photographed from Harwan, Kashmir

wild flower from nubra valley, mm4 10 06 2011:
These photographs were taken in july 2008 during a trip to ladakh. This particular flower is from Nubra valley
Would really appreciate an id

This is Mentha longifolia (lamiaceae)……………very nice photo I must say !

Yes … I have been seeing this plant since I was a child of 4 years, locally called as Breena in Kashmir.
We used to make chutney in the same way as Pudina.

Himalayan plant is more correctly M. royleana

This Himalayan plant is now known as Mentha royleana, distinct from M. longifolia by its petiolate leaves (sessile in M. longifolia).

Further reference as per efi thread


ID request- Ladakh plant–251111-PKA1:
Seen this Lamiaceae herb at Village Turtuk (Ladakh).
Date/Time: 18-09-2011 / 04:30PM
Location: Turtuk, Ladakh (Altitude: Approx: 11000ft).

Plant habit: Herb
Habitat: Wild?

Looks like some Mentha sp.

Mentha longifolia ssp. himalayensis

I also thought of that, but then leaves looked broader to me. Any way the correct name now is Mentha royleana Benth.

Further reference as per efi thread

VoF Week :: DV :: 31 JUL 12 – 0349 :: terminal spiked gregarious herb at Tapovan near Joshimath:
31 JUL 12
Tapovannear Joshimath, about 6000 ft

Habitat: mountain slope
Habit: gregarious herb, about 1 – 1.5 m high, flower size not sure

Looks like Lamiaceae member, could be Mentha sp?

Could not get any Mentha sp. matching from FOI database.

Close up of flower should help but perhaps Mentha royleana, though whitish tinge in leaves is not seen.

These plants were too far away.
The cropped photos are attached – but the quality is very poor – not sure it will help.

I think yes

Thanks … – you were correct too, and Mentha royleana is listed at FOI.

After studying FBI, theplantlist and other searches that it is Mentha royleana Wall. ex Benth.

Further reference as per efi thread


Mentha royleana Wall. ex Benth.
at Tapovan on July 31, 2012

I think the plant is M. incana as the infl. is interrupted throughout. Indeed I treat the incana and royleana as vars. of M. longifolia. I am providing key here for clarification.
1a. Spikes slender, interrupted throughout; calyx 1 / 1.5 mm long, teeth less than half the length of the tube   M. incana
b.  Spikes relatively stouter, uninterrupted or interrupted only at base; calyx 1.5 – 2.5 mm long, teeth more than half the length to as long as the tube     2
2a.       Leaves sessile or nearly so; spikes compact rarely interrupted at base     M. longifolia
  b.       Leaves petiolate; spikes usually interrupted at base   M. royleana

Thanks, …
GRIN (Updated in 2012)  gives Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. hymalaiensis Briq., G. A. Engler & K. A. E. Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a):322. 1897 (Syn: (=) Mentha longifolia subsp. royleana (Benth.) Briq.; (=) Mentha royleana Benth.) with distribution in India [n.w.]; Nepal; Pakistan [n.]
Accordingly we have been folllowing our species from North West Himalayas as Mentha longifolia subsp. hymalaiensis as per efi thread. (Pl. also see Flora of Pak)
As per WCSP, Mentha longifolia subsp. hymalaiensis (Briq.) Briq. is a syn. of Mentha royleana var. royleana with distribution from Pakistan to W. Himalaya
WCSP treats Mentha incana Willd. as a syn. of Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia. with distribution in Himalayas (? but does it show any distribution in India). Flora of China does not show any distribution of Mentha longifolia (Linnaeus) Hudson in India.
Pl. clarify.

I am to check my thesis and other lits. as I did this work almost 20 yrs back. I’ll verify in the leisure time (as we are busy in arranging Biodiversity day 22nd May). Definitely I’ll clarify this complicate group problem.

I thought better not to postpone, so I referred my thesis (ofcourse not Lits. as Library is closed).
Before going to detail again I reiterate the WCSP and GRIN etc. are compiled work, based on lits. they upload the data.
In my thesis I wrote, (only required portion I am reproducing, actually 3 page notes was written)
Mentha longifolia is exceedingly polymorphic due to which innumerable number of specific or infra-specific taxa were described throughout its range. Briquet  in Engler & Prantl’s Pflansenfamilien (1895 – 97) recognized 21 subspecies and 150 varieties.
In India, with the available substantial amount of herbarium specimens, the choice is, either to recognize unending number of ill-defined taxa or to admit that such a recognization is hopelessly artificial and that for general purposes easily circumscribed and well-defined taxa are the only practical solution. In this case, it is felt reasonable to recognize formally only one species with the following 3 variants since they appear to be some extent holding well.

Thanks, … It is certainly a great input.

Thank very very much … for elaborating your thoughts. I will revise my notes at flickr appropriately, in some time.


ANNOV46 Lamiaceae for identification : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (9)

Tiger Falls, Chakrata, Uttrakhand
2nd November 2014

Some Mentha species. May be Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae).

Agree with … seems to be Mentha longifolia

HP, Oct 2014 :: Requesting ID – pink flower spikes :: ARKDEC-01 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
Requesting to please provide ID of this small shrub with pink flower spikes captured near Manali, HP in October 2014.

Seems Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae).

Yes  it is Mentha longifolia Syn: M. sylvestris– Popularly known as Chachri in Kangra – Mandi.

Commonly found in dry nalas, roadsides in patches, moist ravines- from Shivalik regions to as high as in Cold Deserts of Spiti.
also called as Jangli Pudina.. A fine paste of its leaves is applied on painful mand swollen joints. Thick paste on the other hand will cause blisters in the skin.


Attached are pictures of Mentha longifolia captured at Manali in October 2014.
Was posted on the forum earlier and identified.

It is Mentha longifolia only. In true sense, M. longifolia var. longifolia.


Lamiaceae (Incl. Verbenaceae) Fortnight: Mentha for id from Chakrata- NS May 13/13 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
This aromatic herb was growing in a wet place near Tiger fall area of Chakrata…
Is this Mentha longifolia ? Please help to conclude..

This is Mentha longifolia var. royleana, the other vars. are incana and longifolia. 10 days ago I provided the key for these vars.

It is M.longifolia of Indian floras.

M. spicata?? : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
I have some more pics of Mentha. Please check if all are same or different May be M. spicata??

Please ignore DSC_0767.JPG

I think Mentha longifolia subsp. hymalaiensis only.

It is Mentha longifolia, but variety cannot be identified based on photos, but seems to be royleana.

ok. thank you


at ‘Aru’ ‘अडू’ wildlife sanctuary, Lidder Valley, Jammu & Kashmir- 05th August 2009; Botanical Garden near Cheshmashahi on June 26, 2010; Request for ID 050809 Lidder Valley 2 – indiantreepix | Google Groups Mentha longifolia from Kashmir – efloraofindia | Google Groups


Mentha longifolia subsp. hymalaiensis: 2 images.
Location:Ganderbal j&k.

Please check Mentha longifolia (L.) L.

As leaves are clearly petiolate, it should be M. royleana, they are sessile in M. longifolia and infl. very dense.


SK 3016 05 October 2021: 6 very high res. images.
Location: Jumla, West Nepal
Altitude: 2153m.
Date: 17 August 2021
Habit : Wild
Lamiaceae…. ???

Resembles Teucrium

I do not think it is Teucrium, as per comparative images herein.
Maybe some other genus.

Some Buddlejaceae /Loganiaceae members also looks like this. Please check that too.

I checked all Loganiaceae from Nepal but could not find a match.
I guess it should be from lamiaceae!

May be some Mentha.

It appears close to images at Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. hymalaiensis Briq.

Request for further opinion.
Mentha longifolia subsp. hymalaiensis is not found listed in Nepal.
However, Mentha longifolia is listed in the Book of Karnali.

There is a lot of taxonomic confusion between the two.

As per keys in Flora of Pakistan,
4 (3) Leaves sessile or almost so 4 Mentha longifolia
+Leaves with a 2-8 (-15) mm petiole (5)
5 (4) Calyx 3-4 mm; stem and leaves with a thin indumentum; plants sterile 3 Mentha X piperita
+Calyx 1.5-2 mm; stem and leaves with a prominent indumentum; plants fertile 5 Mentha royleana
I can see the petiole in your images. So it should be Mentha royleana (syn. of Mentha longifolia subsp. hymalaiensis)

POWO and GBIF says M. longifolia subsp. hymalaiensis  and M. royleana are different and both not having distribution in Nepal.


SK 3599 11 August 2022: 2 very high res. images.

Location: Dunai, Dolpa,  Nepal
Altitude:  2200m.
Date: 17 June 1022
Habit : Wild
Lamiaceae …??

Appears something like Tulsi.

It could be Mentha sp. 🌿
Please check https://efloraofindia.com/2011/03/13/mentha/

Only Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. has got distribution in Nepal according to the POWO, GBIF, CoL,
eflora Nepal and in the book of that area. Mentha royleana var. royleana has got no distribution.

Nepal has both.
Pl. check syn. at mentioned here in Checklist of Nepal
Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia looks different as per POWO.

Typical M. longifolia (M. longifolia var. longifolia) according to both Fl. Pakistan and Fl. China is characterised by nearly sessile leaves. Here we can see 4 distinct petioles. M. royleana does not have distribution in Nepal but M. asiatica now considered as synonym of M longifolia var. asiatica does have wide distribution from Afghanistan to China, that may cover Nepal although it may not be reported locally, because taxonomy for this complex has been much misunderstood.


HP, August 2022 :: Mentha longifolia subsp. hymalaiensis (?) :: ARK2022-185: 3 high res. images.

This was at Deepak taal, Himachal Pradesh in August 2022
I assume this to be Mentha longifolia subsp. hymalaiensis.
Requested to please validate

Yes, it appears close to images at Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. hymalaiensis Briq.


Synonym of Mentha royleana according to both TPL and WFO, both POWO and COL are silent about this subspecies