Moringa oleifera Lam., Encycl. 1: 398 1785. (Syn. Anoma moringa (L.) Lour.; Guilandinamoringa L.; Hyperanthera arborea J.F.Gmel.; Hyperanthera decandra Willd.; Hyperantheramoringa (L.) Vahl; Hyperanthera pterygosperma (Gaertn.) Oken; Moringa domestica Buch.-Ham.; Moringa edulis Medic.; Moringa erecta Salisb.; Moringa moringa (L.) Millsp. (ambiguous synonym); Moringa moringa (L.) Small (ambiguous synonym); Moringa nux-eben Desf.; Moringa octogona Stokes; Moringa parvifolia Noronha; Moringa polygona DC.; Moringapterygosperma Gaertn.; Moringa robusta Boj.; Moringa sylvestris Buch.-Ham.; Moringazeylanica Burmann);

India: Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andaman Islands; Bangladesh, Myanmar, Vietnam, Philippines and Pakistan as per BSI flora of India;

N-India (Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu), Sikkim, Nepal, E-Pakistan (Sind (introduced), Rawalpindi, Pakistani Punjab), Bangladesh, Costa Rica (introduced), Australia (introduced) (Queensland (introduced)), trop. Africa (introduced), Java (introduced), Bahamas (introduced), Cayman Isl. (introduced), Cuba (introduced), Hispaniola (introduced), Jamaica (introduced),
Puerto Rico (introduced), Virgin Isl. (introduced) (St. Croix (introduced), St. John (introduced), St. Thomas (introduced), Tortola (introduced), Virgin Gorda (introduced)), Lesser Antilles (introduced) (Antigua (introduced), Barbados (introduced), Grenada (introduced), Grenadines (introduced), Guadeloupe (introduced), Martinique (introduced), Montserrat (introduced), Saba (introduced), St. Barthelemy (introduced), St. Eustatius (introduced), St. Kitts (introduced), St. Lucia (introduced), St. Martin (introduced)), Bonaire (introduced), Curacao (introduced), Isla Margarita (introduced), Panama (introduced), Belize (introduced), Nicaragua (introduced), Mexico (introduced), Guatemala (introduced), Honduras (introduced), El Salvador (introduced), Venezuela (introduced), Brazil (c), Colombia (introduced), Seychelles (introduced), Somalia (introduced), New Caledonia (introduced), Fiji (introduced), Christmas Isl. (Austr. (introduced)), Palau Isl. (introduced) (Koror (introduced), Namoluk (introduced), Pohnpei (introduced)), Society Isl. (introduced) (Tahiti (introduced), Raiatea (introduced)), Southern Marianas (introduced) (Saipan (introduced), Rota (introduced), Guam (introduced)), Niue (introduced), Mauritius (introduced), Réunion (introduced), Rodrigues
(introduced), Madagascar (introduced), Cameroon (introduced), Burkina Faso (introduced), Central African Republic (introduced), Zimbabwe (introduced), Chad (introduced), Mozambique (introduced), Benin (introduced), Togo (introduced), Botswana (introduced), Angola (introduced), Sudan (introduced), South Sudan (introduced), Yemen (introduced), Oman (introduced), Cape Verde Isl. (introduced) (Santo Antao Isl. (introduced), Sal Isl. (introduced), Ilha de Maio (introduced), Ilha de Sao Tiago (introduced), Fogo Isl. (introduced)), Ryukyu Isl. (introduced), Andamans (introduced), Nicobars (introduced), Myanmar [Burma] (introduced), Vietnam (introduced), Bhutan (introduced), Sikkim (introduced),
Sri Lanka (introduced), Laos (introduced), Philippines (introduced), Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives) (introduced), Maldives (introduced), USA (introduced) (Florida (introduced)), Virgin Isl. (introduced), Bolivia (introduced), Trinidad & Tobago (introduced)
as per Catalogue of Life;

Sonjna/ Moringa/ Drumstick tree/ Horseradish tree/ Ben oil tree/ Murungakka/ Munuga/ MURUNG/ Murung-a-kai/ shewga, Horseradish tree, Senjana सेंजन (Hindi), Muringai (Malayalam), முறுங்கை Murungai (Tamil), Shevga शेवगा (Marathi), Mashinga मशींग (Konkani);


Leaves mostly 2-pinnate- Moringa concanensis

Leaves 2-3 (-4) pinnate- Moringa oleifera
Thick leaflets with distinct veins- Moringa concanensis
Thin with obscure with obscure veins- Moringa oleifera
M.concanensis flowering and fruiting -November to April
M.oleifera – February to June.
Both young pods and flowers used as vegetable. Pods are commonly put in sambar preparations. The drumsticks are a rich source of Calcium.

Images by tspkumar



TSP-JAN2016-11-11 : Images of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) : 1 post by 1 author.

It is my pleasure to share few images of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae


Habit: Tree

Habitat: Cultivated

Sighting: Tumkur, Karnataka, about 800 msl

Date: 09-2014 and 05-11-2015











Sharing pictures of Moringa oleifera in Kothrud area in a private society garden at Pune
Family Moringaceae
Common name Shevaga in Marathi
Interesting flower structure
Each flower has 2 sepals and 1 petal remaining erect and the other 3 sepals and 4 petals reflexed at right angles. The front reflexed petals function as a landing platform for insects. The shape and position of petals and stamens is related to a pollen presentation mechanism with bowl-shaped anthers on different levels. The pistil is above anther level and also receptive period of stigma and anther dehiscence differ each other favouring cross pollination. The flowers of M .oleifera are visited by different types of bees, wasps and insects. These visitors forage the flowers and pollen gets attached to their bodies.
The information on this plant was compiled from the following link

Additional information on Moringa (Aleco (Konsogna), ananambo, ben oil tree, benzolive tree, cabbage tree, clarifier tree, drumstick tree, ewe-igbale, horseradish tree, Kalan’gi (Hamer-Bena))****&entityDisplayCategory=full****&entityDisplayCategory=eArticles

The drumsticks are a rich source of Calcium.






Moringa oleifera/ABFEB05 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)

This is another tree abundant in south India deriving its name from the Tamil word ‘murungai’.
It is well-known for its nutritional value and its leaves, flowers and seedpods (drumsticks, triangular in cross-section) are edible.
I photographed this in Andhra Pradesh but the tree is also commonly seen in Delhi where one can buy the flowers (called sonjna) in the market. In Delhi, I bought some and my sister-in-law made a savoury dish out of them.
A powder derived from its dried leaves is given to pregnant women in Africa as a nutritional supplement and given to infants to curb malnutrition.
It’s a beautiful tree and its flowers have a sweet smell.
Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera)
17 Jan. 2015

Andhra Pradesh

Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) finds major use in south India in culinary, where it is largely cultivated on homesteads. Does it astonish one that major proportion of the wild populations of this very useful tree (thanks … for bringing out its varied uses) are found in the sub-Himalayan tracts.

This tree, along with Bombax ceiba, can be seen in flowering during February every year in lower hills in Himachal Pradesh also.
Local people make vegetable preparation (known locally as sainjan de phulan di bhurji) of the flower buds of this tree.

I have though not noticed any one in the hill states using its pods in culinary. Perhaps the pods obtained from wild trees are slightly bitter in taste! Any further comments pl…..

Thank you … I will talk to a few friends here and find out about its use. I have never seen these flowers on offer at the local markets in Dharamshala but perhaps, it’s more abundant in Kangra and the lower hills.



Fruits & Vegetables Week: Moringa oleifera, the drumsticks and Soanjna: Moringa oleifera, the drumsticks tree or and Suhanjna tree Horseradish tree, with both young pods and flowers used as vegetable. Pods are commonly put in sambar preparations.

Local names
Hindi: Mungna, Sainjna, shajna
Beng: Sajina
Mar: Achajhada, shevgi
Guj: Midhosaragavo, saragavo
Tel: Mulaga, munaga, tellamunaga
Tamil: Murugai
Kan: Nugge
Mal: Mirinna, Sigru, moringa
Pun: Soanjna 

In bengal both the flower and fruits are taken as food


– In bengal we eat the flower and fruits

– We use the leaves and flowers as vegetable.  Drumsticks are also used in Sambhar.




Kalatope Dam side tree id Al041112: A flowering tree in season right now …
Location Kalatope, Chamba
Altitude 1200 mts
Habit Tree
Habitat wild
Height 5 mts
Season April

This looks like Moringa oleifera to me..

Yes, ‘drumstick’ !
[Pl also check it for Moringa concanensis, though I doubt its occurrence in Chamba. The latter species is not used as vegetable due to its bitterness. Leaves bipinnate here (tripinnate in M. oleifera)].

Leaves mostly 2-pinnate- Moringa concanensis

Leaves 2-3 (-4) pinnate- Moringa oleifera
Its bit confusing so it is better to try this difference
Thick leaflets with distinct veins- Moringa concanensis
Thin with obscure with obscure veins- Moringa oleifera
Taste is best way to differentiate.
Just ot add M.concanensis flowering and fruiting -November to April

M.oleifera – February to June.

Thanks …, for providing additional diagnostic features.
Flower-petals of M. concanensis have reddish/purplish streaks. Young plants have tuberous root. Bark is thicker, and deeply, vertically fissured.

Thanks for your reply.

“reddish/purplish streaks” or “red streak” is not mentioned in keys by many authors.M. concanensis is very large tree whereas M.oleifera is medium sized tree.

During surveys I have observed many intermediate types. Hoping that our Young researchers will work on it and establish these types as new species.

Thank you so much … for this very detailed and accurate differentiation between the two species…. Going by your guidance I would think that this is probably M.oleifera… since it is not a very large tree, did not notice any flowering before march … but the bark of the tree is vertically fissured… and thus I am still confused…



Drumstick ID 30-12-11 Surajit: 2 images.

It is a well known vegetable, drumstick in English & DANTA in Bengali.
There are two types available in our locality – the one is called SOJINA / SOJNE (Moringa oleifera) and the other one is called NAJINA (Najney) in Bengali.
Do the both varities of drumsticks come from the same plant species?
Plant – Moringa oleifera ???
Date/Time- 04/12/2011 @ 8.20a.m.
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Nalikul (Hooghly District), West Bengal (lat 22.830459346159003N, long 88.16768646240234E)
Habitat- Backyard cultivation, vegetable
Plant Habit- Tree
Height- 15 ft. approx.
Leaves Type- compound
Inflorescence Type- NA
Flowers Colour- yellowish white
Fruits Type/ Shape- simple, elongated (tubular)

Other Information like Fragrance, Pollinator, Uses etc.- flowers, fruits & leaves are used as vegetable, also has medicinal properties

Yes Moringa oleifera



SYMBIOSIS :121: Attaching an image of the 121st member of the series. In this female of a Purple Sunbird is on the flowers of Moringa oleifera. This is the famous Drum stick tree.



SYMBIOSIS : 292: Attaching an image of a White Eye on the flowers of Moringa oleifera. The tree is commonly known as DRUMSTICK..


SYMBIOSIS : 293: Attaching an image of a bumble bee on the flowers of Moringa oleifera..

It is a Carpenter Bee.


SYMBIOSIS : 128: Attaching the image of the 128th member of the series. In this a male Purple Sunbird is on the flowers of Moringa oleifera (commonly known as Drum Stick)


SYMBIOSIS : 745 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).
Attaching an image of a White Eye on flowers of Moringa oleifera (DRUM-STICK).



Photos for ID : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2) – 2 mb and 3 mb.

Please identify the plant in the picture. The shots were taken near Modinagar.

Thanks, … It’s beans are used in Sambhar. Unable to recall the name now.

Thanks … It is Moringa oleifera– the Drumstick. I have seen the healthy trees with beens. But this was a lanky grown up plant with lovely flowers. I stoped and took few snaps.

Thanks, …  You are right.




Fwd: New use found for ‘world’s most useful tree’ – efloraofindia | Google Groups : 7 posts by 5 authors. 1 image. Attachments (1)- Bioremediation of Turbid SurfaceWater using seed extract of Moringa oleifera.pdf
New use found for ‘world’s most useful tree’
Water purification method offered for free download By Lewis PageGet more from this author
Posted in Biology, 4th March 2010 08:02 GMT
A recipe for using “the world’s most useful tree” to purify water is being offered for free download, in the hope that this will help get clean drinking water to billions of poor folk around the world.
The Swiss Army knife of the tree world
The tree in question is the Moringa oleifera (“oily moringa“) aka the horseradish or drumstick tree (also “Mother’s best friend” in some places). The Moringa is cultivated across the tropical world and furnishes food in the form of apparently highly nutritious pods, leaves and flowers.
It also yields oil which can be used as lighting or cooking fuel (or to make biogas). You can even make a highly effective crop fertiliser out of the miracle Moringa. Handily, the trusty tree is also drought resistant and tolerant of poor soil.
But that’s not all, it turns out. You can also use Moringa products to inexpensively purify dirty drinking water.
Moringa oleifera is a vegetable tree which is grown in Africa, Central and South America, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. It could be considered to be one of the world’s most useful trees,” says Michael Lea, a Canadian water-purification researcher. “Perhaps most importantly, its seeds can be used to purify drinking water at virtually no cost.”
The method in outline involves crushing the tree’s seeds to powder and making a solution with this. When the solution is added to turbid, dirty water it causes the suspended gunge to rapidly stick together into bigger flecks and so sink rapidly. Almost all contamination is thus carried down quite quickly into a sludge at the bottom of the container, allowing nice clear water to be decanted or siphoned off from the top.
The Moringa-seed technique, according to Lea, isn’t foolproof – there are various bacteria and viruses which will not be affected by it. But it makes water much safer and more pleasant to drink, and Moringa treatment is hugely better than no treatment at all, which is the norm for far too many people.
“This technique does not represent a total solution to the threat of waterborne disease,” concedes Lea. “However, given that the cultivation and use of the Moringa tree can bring benefits in the shape of nutrition and income as well as of far purer water, there is the possibility that thousands of 21st century families could find themselves liberated from what should now be universally seen as 19th century causes of death and disease.
“This is particularly mind-boggling when you think it might all come down to one incredibly useful tree.”
According to Lea, despite the fact that Moringa is widespread in the very regions where bad water is a serious problem, the seed-paste purification method is little known. Thus his paper on just how to do it is being published for free online.
Now all that’s needed is for the knowledge of the recipe to spread. We don’t suppose we have all that many readers in regions where it would be useful, but perhaps some of you can pass it on. ®
The leaves of the Moringa are said by some sources to be several times as rich in the relevant desirable vitamins and minerals as orange juice, bananas, carrots and milk.

Nothing new in it … It is Traditional knowledge of India.Our natives are using it since time immemorial. At first Nagpur based environment institute conducted research on it and in this way branded this Traditional knowledge as their knowledge. Now researchers outside India are on same path.

Does it belong to the same family as baobab? It is written that it is found naturally in South Asia. Where exactly? One feels that its natural habitat should be Rajasthan. Is it propagated by seeds?

This plant of which we use both flowers (suhanjna ke phul) and fruit (suhanjana ki phali) belongs to family Moringaceae where as the baobab plant belongs to family Bombacaceae (or sometimes under Malvaceae).

I think we are jumping to conclusions here. This paper makes no claim of discovering this method. It explicitly mentions that this method
has been traditionally used to make water potable, in poor areas. It merely quantifies and describes in detail the method being used
traditionally. Infact CSIR has a journal called Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, whose aim is to put on record the indigenous
knowledge related to various disciplines. People who fear that some traditional method can be stolen and patented, should write articles
about those methods in this journal.

Nothing is new in said paper. It is just “Re-search.” The Indians know much more on this aspect.
Said journal has published many papers on this aspect earlier but still new patents on Moringa and water purification are coming by one and another way.
If one thinks that publication in such journals can prevent patents, he or she is far from ground realities.

These things are really worrysome. My understanding is that if something is proven to exist in traditional knowledge, it cannot be patented.

SYMBIOSIS : 1460 : 1 image.

Attaching a collage of Carpenter bee visiting flowers of Moringa oleifera

SYMBIOSIS : 1461 : 1 image.
Attaching a collage of Common Pierrot visiting flowers of Moringa oleifera (Drum stick)

SYMBIOSIS : 1464 : 1 image.

Attaching a collage of Striped Albatross visiting flowers of Moringa oleifera (Drum Stick).

SYMBIOSIS : 1465 : 1 image.

Attaching a collage of Common Emigrant ( female ) visiting flowers of Moringa oleifera (DRUM STICK).

Attaching a collage of Blank Swift visiting flowers of Morinda oleifera (DRUM STICK).
1 image.

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