commonly known as: three-veined neuracanthus • Gujarati: મોટા ગંઠેર mota ganther • Kannada: ನೀಲಿ ಹೂವು ಕಡ್ಡಿ nili huuvu kaddi • Marathi: निळगोंडा nilgonda
Names compiled / updated at https://dineshvalke.blogspot.com/2023/11/neuracanthus-tetragonostachyus-subsp.html

[image: Neuracanthus trinervius Wight] <http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2115040164/>
[image: Flowers of India] <http://www.flowersofindia.Nilgonda.html>
[image: Discussions at efloraofindia] <https://groups.google.com/indiantreepix/Neur…>
[image: more views in flickr] <http://www.flickr.com/search/m=tags&z=m>
[image: more views on Google Earth] <http://api.flickr.com/&tags=Neuracanthustrin…>

NYUR-uh-KANTH-us — spiny vein
try-NER-vee-us — three-veined

commonly known as: three-veined
Marathi: निळगोंडा

botanical names: Neuracanthus tetragonostachyus subsp. trinervius (Wight) Bidgood
[unresolved] … synonym: Neuracanthus trinervius Wight ———-
Plant in photo at Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai on 16 DEC 2007

if N. trinervis is synonym, than what is the correct name..

It is Neuracanthus tetragonostachyus subsp. trinervius (Wight) Bidgood  [unresolved] … synonym: Neuracanthus trinervius Wight … as put at The Plants List.
Preferred to put Neuracanthus trinervius Wight because we are yet familiar with this name rather than the unresolved name.

Neuracanthus tetragonostachyus subsp. trinervius (Wight) Bidgood is an unresolved species name according to “the plant list” but has listed Neuracanthus trinervius as a synonym of this species.

The type of Neuracanthus is N. tetragonostachyus and in The Plant list it is put as the unresolved name or synonym with some Justicia species i guess which is mistaken for N. tetragonostachys instead of N. tetragonostachyus Nees.
now coming to the name N. trinervius Wight, i consider it is the correct name instead of putting under species tetragonostachyus

The combination was made in an important paper in 1998 by Sally Bidgood <http://pubget.com/search?%22&from=pgtmp…>  and R K Brummitt <http://pubget.com/search?rom=pgtm…>  Kew Bulletin <http://pubget.com/search?qjstor4110453>  53 (1): 1-76 <http://pubget.com/search?ue%3A1&from=p…>  (1998)
in which they revised the whole genus. Simply because The Plant List have not been able to resolve it (not rejected it) it is logical that we follow the combination
Neuracanthus tetragonostachyus
Nees <
http://www.ipni.org/ipni/idAuthorSearch.page=>  subsp. trinervius (Wight <http://www.ipni.org/ipni/idAuthorSearch.back_page=> ) Bidgood <http://www.ipni.org/ipni/idAuthorSearch.page=>
& Brummitt <
Here is small summary from the revision
The genus Neuracanthus is divided into 3 sections; 30 species are recognised, with a further 5 subspecies and 3 varieties. From tropical Asia (India to Vietnam) 4 species and one subspecies are recognised, all referred to sect. Neuracanthus which also has two species in north and northeast Africa. Fr…

¿ nyur-uh-KANTH-us ? — Greek: neuron (vein, nerve); ákantha (thorn, spine); spiny vein … Dave’s Botanary
¿ tet-ra-gon-uh-STAK-ee-us ? — from the Greek tetragono (four-angled) and stachys (flower spike) … Dave’s Botanary
¿ try-NER-vee-us ? — three-veined … Dave’s Botanary

commonly known as: three-veined neuracanthus • Gujarati: મોટા ગંઠેર mota ganther • Kannada: ನೀಲಿ ಹೂವು ಕಡ್ಡಿ nili huuvu kaddi • Marathi: निळगोंडा nilgonda

botanical namesNeuracanthus tetragonostachyus subsp. trinervius (Wight) Bidgood & Brummitt … homotypic synonymsNeuracanthus trinervius Wight … POWO, retrieved 21 November 2023

Bibliography / etymology
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~~~~~ ENGLISH ~~~~~
written and spoken widely, in most parts of India
three-veined neuracanthus
  • name coined, for want of name; derived from the epithet trinervius, three-veined, referring to the leaf
~~~~~ GUJARATI ~~~~~
written in: Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) … spoken in: GujaratDadra & Nagar HaveliDaman & Diu
મોટા ગંઠેર mota ganther
  • name coined, for want of name; મોટા mota = big; ગંઠેર ganther = name given to Neuracanthus sphaerostachyus Dalz.
~~~~~ MARATHI ~~~~~
written in: Devanagari (मराठी) … spoken in: Maharashtra, Karnataka
निळगोंडा nilgonda
  • name coined, for want of name, by Shrikant Ingalhalikar, the author of Further Flowers of Sahyadri, the second among the three field guides to identify plants of northern Western Ghats of India, based on flowers
~~~~~ KANNADA ~~~~~
written in: Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) … spoken in: Karnataka
ನೀಲಿ ಹೂವು ಕಡ್ಡಿ nili huuvu kaddi
  • name coined, for want of name; many thanks to Dr Mahadeswara Swamy for help with this name … efloraofindia … ನೀಲಿ ಹೂವು ಕಡ್ಡಿ nili huuvu kaddi = blue flower stick
Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra; endemic
~~~~~ Last updated: 21-11-2023 ~~~~~
Names compiled / updated at

Kannada name & English transliteration are correct..


Herb for ID : 27112012 : DV 1:
Found this small herb flowering in large number in wild in CEC, Goregaon East, Mumbai. About 12 to 18 inches tall. Please help to ID it.

Looks like Neuracanthus trinervius


Herb ID request – RK61 – 17-Dec-2012:
Request identification of this herb seen in Tungareshwar. It is around 1 to 1.5 feet tall and is flowering now.

Neuracanthus trinervisSpike elongated

Agreed. My photographs of this for comparison are available at this link


Neuracanthus trinervius:
Photographed 3rd Feb.,12 at Matheran.


neuracanthus tetragonostachyus : Attachments (3).  3 posts by 3 authors.

neuracanthus tetragonostachyus, karnala
yesterday (26.2.12)
flowering is coming to an end and many of the plants have dried up.

Nice photographs … The new name is Neuracanthus trinervius. Sending a few of my photographs.

Very nice picture …
Somehow I missed observing this when I had visited Karnala last year in Feb.
Karnala is a nice place with vast Biodiversity of flora and fauna.


Came across this herb at Nagla Bundar, Thane dist.

Botanical name:

Neuracanthus  trinervius



Local name (Marathi):



14-03-2010 / 09:30 AM

Location- Place, Altitude, GPS-  

Nagla Bundar,  Thane Dist.,  10 ft

Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- 


Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-  

Herb,  (stem erect & slender)


~ 40cm  

Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- 

Opposite, almost sessile, elliptic, acute

Inflorescence Type/ Size- 

Flowers occur in a axillary spiny spike,  4 to 10cm

Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts-


~ 8 t0 10mm across, Blue coloured , corolla 2 lipped with yellow centre  

Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- 

Do not know..

Neuracanthus trinervius Wight
at Sanjay Gandhi National Park on December 16, 2007

Superb pics…thanks …


Neuracanthus tetragonostachyus subsp. trinervius -for sharing and validation : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)- around 350 kb each.
photos taken at Aambyvalley Rd.,Off Lonavala,Pune in jan.17

I guess it is matching.

at SGNP, Mumbai and at Karnala in december’08; 22nd Dec., 2009- Tungareshwar WLS (Maharashtra); 14-03-2010 / 09:30 AM- Nagla Bundar,  Thane Dist.; 

Nilgonda-170310-PKA1 – efloraofindia | Google Groups
Neuacanthus trinervius – efloraofindia | Google Groups
neuracanthus trinervius – indiantreepix | Google Groups


Haplanthodes plumosa: 2 images.
Observed in Karnala forest 6 Feb 2011
I think this matches close to what has been shown in FOS.

Neuracanthus trinervius


Neuracanthus tetragonostachyus subsp. trinervius on trek to Matheran: 5 images- 1 high res.
On trek to Matheran (around 2500 ft.) from foothills, Maharashtra on 4.2.23.
Found at many points on the way.

The id is correct. Sometimes the inflorescence spikes become extremely long.


Kannada coined name for Neuracanthus trinervius … synonym of Neuracanthus tetragonostachyus subsp trinervius:

Please help me with coining a Kannada name for Neuracanthus trinervius Wight … synonym of Neuracanthus tetragonostachyus subsp. trinervius (Wight) Bidgood & Brummitt
I propose ನೀಲಿ ಹೂವು ಕಡ್ಡಿ nili huuvu kaddi with intent to mean blue flower stick.
Please help if you have a good name for this plant.

Thank you very much. I fully agree with your proposed name..