Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. (syn. Acacia niopo Litv.; Inga timoriana DC.; Mimosa biglobosa auct. non Jacq. (misapplied); Mimosa peregrina Blanco; Parkia africana auct. non R.Br. (misapplied); Parkia biglobosa auct. (misapplied) ; Parkia calcarata Lecomte; Parkia grandis Hassk.; Parkia javanica auct. (misapplied) ; Parkia roxburghii G.Don);
India (N): Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Karnataka; Meghalaya; Mizoram; Tamil Nadu; Tripura; West Bengal and other countries as per ILDIS;
Australia; Bangladesh; Benin; Brunei; Burkina; Burma; Cameroon; Caribbean-TRP;
Central African Rep.; Chad; Costa Rica; East Timor; Gambia The; Ghana; Guinea;
Guinea Bissau; Guyana; India; Indonesia; Irian Jaya; Ivory Coast; Jawa;
Kalimantan; Lesser Sunda Is; Malaysia; Mali; Moluccas; Myanmar; Niger; Nigeria;
Peninsular Malaysia; Philippines; Sabah; Sao Tome & Principe; Sarawak;
Senegal; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sulawesi; Sumatera; Taiwan;
Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Zaire as per Catalogue of Life;
As per The Indo-Pacific Species of Parkia (Leguminosae : Mimosoideae) Helen C. Fortune Hopkins Kew Bulletin Vol. 49, No. 2 (1994), pp. 181-234:
Leaflets acute at apex; overall shape either oblong but narrowing towards the apex or somewhat sigmoid. Leaflets small, 6-10-5 x 1-2 mm, 52-72 pairs per pinna; valves of pods usually not indented between the seeds. Capitula 5-5-6 7 cm long, somewhat biglobose at anthesis, for Parkia timoriana
Leaflets 68-115(-130) pairs per pinna, opposite, linear, 5-8 x c. 1 mm, margins of adjacent leaflets imbricated, bearing a few white hairs; apex acute, base obliquely truncate; one-nerved. Capitula clavate with a short cylindrical part at the base for Parkia biglandulosa;
Tree Bean • Hindi: सपोटा sapota, Khorial • Manipuri: যোন্গচাক Yongchak • Kannada: Shivalingada mara • Marathi: Unkampinching • Assamese: Khorial;
Parkia timoriana is a species of flowering plant in the legume family. English common names include tree bean. Common names in other languages and regions include petai hutan in Borneo, yongchak in Manipur, India, nitta tree and riang in Thailand, kedawung and peundung in Java, alai in Sumatra, petai kerayong and batai hutan in Malaysia, and kupang and amarang in the Philippines.
It is widely cultivated for food and wood, and as an ornamental.
This plant is a tree growing up to 30 meters tall. The leaf is bipinnate. It is divided into 20 to 30 or more leaflets called pinnae, which are up to 12 centimeters long. Each pinna is divided into 50 to 60 pairs of smaller, narrow leaflets each up to a centimeter long. The inflorescence is a head of flowers dangling at the end of a peduncle up to 45 centimeters long. The flower head is a few centimeters wide and contains several flowers with five-lobed corollas. The fruit is a long, flattened legume pod up to 36 centimeters long which contains up to 21 hard, black seeds each around 2 centimeters long.
The flowers of this tree are pollinated by Old World fruit bats, especially Eonycteris spelaea, which feeds on the nectar. Bats are more efficient pollinators of the flowers than are the insects that also visit.
There are a number of human uses for this tree. The wood is used for firewood and lumber. In Africa the wood is not generally used, but the tree is often planted for ornamental purposes. It is a popular garden tree in India, particularly in Assam, where it is a “characteristic feature” of Meitei backyards. It is tolerant of sun and shade.
Products of the tree are well known in many areas as foods. The long pod is eaten as a vegetable. It can be added to salad and chutney. In Thai cuisine this vegetable is known as nitta sprout, and it is added to curry. The hard, black seeds are eaten fresh, or they can be dried and stored. The seeds have a strong sulphur smell, which is due to the presence of thioproline. Some find this smell and similar taste so appealing that they consider the seeds a delicacy. In some areas, the seeds of the related tree species Parkia speciosa are much more popular, and tree bean will be consumed as a second choice.
(From Wikipedia on 13.12.13)
Mimosoideae (Mimosaceae) Week_Parkia sp._RKC03_02012012: Parkia biglandulosa or P. timoriana??
Loc.: Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh
P. biglandulosa has 7-12 pairs of pinnae and 60-100 pairs of leaflets (ref: Flora Maharashtra, Vol 2, page 223) and may not fit he bill though other characteristics are very similar.
P. timoriana seems more likely.
Further comments awaited.
yes very good photograph,, one of my best tree..
excellent set of photographs of the pods. I have never seen this before thanks for sharing
I have seen only Parkia biglandulosa so far. The images here match with those of Parkia timoriana on net.
Parkia timoriana, (DC.) Merr. <=> Tree Bean Tree – Bangalore – RA: Tree Bean is a very large tree, 25-40 m in height, found in North-East India.
The leaves are evenly bipinnate and 30-80 cm long. The pinnae are 40-60 in number, and 8-20 cm long. The leaflets are 60-140, linear-oblong, 6-12 mm long, close-set, shining above, and pointed at the tip.
The flower-heads are dense, obovoid or perform, up to 6 cm long, hanging from leaf axils like old-fashioned electric bulbs, on long cable-like stalks. The flowers are white and yellow, about 1 cm long.
The pods are 25-30 cm long, about 3.5 cm wide, rather thick, pendulous, and black and shinning when mature, and contain from 15-20 seeds.
The pods are edible, and are considered a delicacy in Manipur. Their pulp is golden yellow, with a sweetish taste and an odor like that of violets. The roasted seeds are used in certain parts of Africa to make an infusion like coffee, for which reason they have been called soudan Coffee. tip of a long thick stalk – the reason for its common name.
The fruits that are flat are in clusters at the tip of long thick stalks. Known to grow quite fast. The entire inflorescence has a very soft appearance. However, once the flower is dry the core is pretty hard. Please do not even for fun try flinging it at any one. It really hurts
what a nice write up and complete set of pictures
Please refer to the trailing mail where you posted some photos of Parkia timoriana. i wanted to ask you whether the plant is still available in the area where you had reported it from??
I think it may be from Lalbagh and may still be there. … may pl. confirm.
Yes its still in 80 ft Road, 6th Main Road, Defence Colony, Indiranagar, Bangalore
Thank you … Actually i needed the pods and the leaves of this tree for my research. thats why i asked. but somehow now i have managed to source it from North East India (Manipur)
The Plant List Ver.1.1 ILDIS Flowers of India India Biodiversity Portal Wikipedia
dkimages – discover – plants – Parkia roxburghii
ENVIS Bulletin on Himalayan Ecology, Vol 13(1) – GBPIHED, Almora