Phyllanthus simplex Retz., Observ. Bot. 5: 29. 1789; Müll.Arg. in DC. Prodr. 15(2): 391. 1866; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 295. 1887; Gamble, Fl. Madras 2(7): 1289. 1925 (repr. ed. 2: 902. 1957). Macraea oblongifolia Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 5(2): 27, t. 1902, f. 1. 1852. Phyllanthus simplex var. oblongifolius (Wight) Müll.Arg. in Linnaea 32: 32. 1863 & in DC., Prodr. 15 (2): 391. 1866; Hook.f., l. c. 295. 1887. P. virgatus auct. non G.Forst., 1786: Chakrab. & N.P.Balakr. in J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. Addit. Ser. 9: 98. 1992.;
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Asm.: Bon-babri; Guj.: Motibhonyaanmali; Mar.: Bhuiavali; Sans.: Tandameral; Tel.: Uchchiyusirika.
.
Herbs, annual or perennial, up to 20 cm high.
Fl. & Fr. – Jan. – Dec.
.
Common weed in waste places, cultivated fields, roadsides, riverbanks, grasslands, forest undergrowth, up to 1500 m altitude; almost throughout the country including Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
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Distrib. India; Sri Lanka (and India) to SE. Asia, S. China, Indo-China and Malesia.
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Webster (in Pacific Science 40: 94. 1986) indicates that the populations in Asian regions including India and Sri Lanka are P. simplex Retz. and separable from P. virgatus which appear to be restricted to Pacific Islands.P. simplex has strongly papillate ovaries and entire female disc, whereas P. virgatus has smooth ovaries and irregularly dissected female disc.
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Phyllanthus simplex :  Attachments (1).  2 posts by 2 authors.
Family Euphorbiaceae
Botanical name Phyllanthus simplex
Location Jim Corbett NP

30072013 BRS 492 :  Attachments (2). 4 posts by 4 authors.

Pl. find the attached file contain photos for id. request.

Date: 30.07.2013
Location:  Adyar, Chennai
Habitat: Urban

Habit: Herb.


phylanthus


This looks like Phyllanthus virgatus


Phyllanthus virgatus 



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Phyllanthus sp. for ID: AVD01 – 04082013 :  Attachments (1- 4 MB +1). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Need help in identifying the attached Phyllanthus sp.
Apologies for posting such a bad image. But this is what I could manage.
Following are the details.
Habit: Herb
Overall plant height : 30 cm
Leaves: oblong, elliptic, rounded at apex, sub-sessile, glabrous, 1.5 x 0.5 cm
Pedicels 1 cm long, solitary, axillary
Calyx: 6 segments – with distinct white margins
Fruits : globose,
Seeds: black, trigonous

Almost all details match with P.maderapatensis except for the pedicel length.


Sorry for sending a heavy attachment with previous post. Attached herewith please find the re-sized image.


Phyllanthus virgatus (= P. simplex), I suppose.



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Phyllanthus simplex synonym Phyllanthus virgatus.
Leaves: oblong, elliptic, 1.2 cm x 0.7 cm almost Sessile 
Male flowers: extremely minute, sessile, axillary, yellowish white
Pedicels of flowers shorter than fruit pedicels. 
Calyx: 6 segments, segments with white margins 
fruits: pedicels : 1 cm long, fruits globose, distinctly 3 lobed, very smooth.

Thank you … for identifying this in earlier post.


.


Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst.

in Goregaon on 25 AUG 08


Webster (in Pacific Science 40: 94. 1986) indicates that the populations in Asian regions including India and Sri Lanka are P. simplex Retz. and separable form P. virgatus which appear to be restricted to Pacific Islands.  P. simplex has strongly papillate ovaries and entire female disc, whereas P. virgatus has smooth ovaries and irregularly dissected female disc.


OK … Will make change to name the plant as Phyllanthus simplex Retz.

Thank you very much for the clarity.



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Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. is an occasional wild herb in Pantnagar.


No. It is Phyllanthus simplex.



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Sharing the images of

Phyllanthus virgatus from Adyar, Chennai.


Phyllanthus simplex.


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Phyllanthus virgatus at Matheran Base.


Phyllanthus simplex.


Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst.
Synonym: P. simplex Retz.
PS: Note the variation(?) in number of flowers per leaf axil.

Collected from: The plant in the first 3 pics was collected in Orissa and the last 2 pics were shot at Tirunelveli, TN. I hope they belong to the same species.


Webster (in Pacific Science 40: 94. 1986) indicates that the populations in Asian regions including India and Sri Lanka are P. simplex Retz. and separable from P. virgatus which appear to be restricted to Pacific Islands. P. simplex has strongly papillate ovaries and entire female disc, whereas P. virgatus has smooth ovaries and irregularly dissected female disc.

The first three photos are an unnamed variety.


Thanks a lot … for the information and your expert opinion.
It is very interesting!


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EUPHORBIACEAE FORTNIGHT:: Phyllanthus for id from Chakrata NS-62 : Attachments (6). 3 posts by 2 authors.

This is one more Phyllanthus from Chakrata.. can this be P. simplex..??


Phyllanthus simplex.


 


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Euphorbiaceae fortnight :  Attachments (2). 1 post by 1 author.

These are two varieties of Phyllanthus virgatus 1 with creamy yellow flowers, leaves rather thin, lateral veins conspicuous
the second one with red flowers, leaves rather thicker than creamy yellow flowered variety. leaf apec clearly mucronate.

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4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).

Kindly help identification, collected from coimbatore on 13-9-13.


I think Phyllanthus sp..


Probably Phyllanthus virgatus?


Kindly consider Phyllanthus simplex here, as per Flora of India Volume 23.



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Herb ID from Bangladesh SM111 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).

Habit: Herb
Habitat: Wild

Location: Rajshashi
Date: 27.6.2014

Phyllanthus simplex.



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ARJUL39 Phyllanthus sp. for ID : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3).

Bangalore 20th July


This seems to be Phyllanthus virgatus.


Nice photos of typical Phyllanthus simplex.


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Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst. from Assam KD 02 Sept. : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8).
Attached images may be Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst.. Please validate.
Date :31.08.2014
Location: Assam
Family :Euphorbiaceae
Genus& species : Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst.
Habitat: Grows wild on side of the ditches

Habit : Herb, prostrate on the ground    


Phyllanthus simplex.


Thank you very much Sir for validation. I hope Phyllanthus simplex Retz. is a synonym of Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst. (According to The Plant list)


No, Please have a look at Fl. of India Volume 23. Phyllanthus virgatus does not occur in India at all. It is a Pacific species.



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Herb for ID Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu NAW-OCT-28 :  2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4).

Kindly identify this fine herb with phyllantus-like fruit photographed at the Arunachala Reserve Forest, Tamil Nadu in September 2014.
The red-tinged thin leaves about 2-3 mm. wide and 8-10 mm long, much lighter green on the underside. The miniature fruit about 2-3 mm in diameter.

Phyllanthus virgatus (= P. simplex).


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ANNOV49 Phyllanthus sp. for identification : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5).

Nelliyampathy, Kerala
November 2014

Phyllanthus simplex?


can p simplex be identified without microscopic exam, without any doubt?


The long fruiting pedicels bending downwards and the minutely tuberculate capsules are sufficient to identify Phyllanthus simplex.



Phyllanthus species for ID from Karnal, Haryana-GS06012020-1 : 11 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3)

Phyllanthus species for ID from Karnal, Haryana, September 15, 2011.


…, most probably Phyllanthus virgatus. Let us wait for validating comment(s).  


This and one from Chikmagalur , both look to me as Phyllanthus virgatus. (Or should we say P. simplex ?)


Thanks …, … has confirmed that two are now conspecific. Four members have confirmed P. virgatus.


Not represented in our database.

P. simplex if considered distinct from P. virgatus.


Catalogue of Life considers it synonym P. virgatus proper. So does World Flora Online (New version of TPL). Also eFlora of China


Webster (in Pacific Science 40: 94. 1986) indicates that the populations in Asian regions including India and Sri Lanka are P. simplex Retz. and separable from P. virgatus which appear to be restricted to Pacific Islands.P. simplex has strongly papillate ovaries and entire female disc, whereas P. virgatus has smooth ovaries and irregularly dissected female disc.

Phyllanthus simplex Retz., Observ. Bot. 5: 29. 1788; Roxb., Hort. Bengal. 69. 1814 & Fl. Ind. 3: 654. 1832. Type citation: “E Tranquebaria mi Sit Honor, KÖNIG.” Type (lectotype, designated by Fischer, 1932: 65): India, Koenig s.n. (LD1742457!). Syntypes: India, Koenig s.n. (C10011341!, C10011342!, C10011343!). Distribution: Sri Lanka and India to SE Asia, S China and Malesia (in Melanesia intergrading with P. virgatus G. Forst.).

Recently Verwijs et al. (2019: 247) applied a wide concept and treated P. simplex as well as P. narayanswamii Gamble, a South Indian endemic as synonyms of the Pacific species P. virgatus G.Forst., though resorting to a narrow concept in maintaining P. gardnerianus (Wight) Baill. as a closely allied distinct species. I have, however, followed here the concept of Webster (1986: 94–95, 1997: 213) who considered P. simplex as a distinct species differing from P. virgatus in the in the larger seeds, longer fruiting pedicels, papillate ovaries and undissected disc of female flowers. In this context, it may be mentioned that recent collections of P. narayanswamii are now available (Satish & Rao, 2019: 20) which show that P. narayanswamii is different and distinct from P. simplex in the relatively broader coriaceous leaves, slightly thickened along margins and the lateral nerves being much stronger and conspicuously raised on the undersurface. In these characters, P. narayanswamii apporoaches closer to P. gardnerianus which, however, does not exhibit such strong lateral venation of the leaves and therefore it seems possible that these two species may ultimately be united, at least as varieties, when further gatherings are made available.

The publication of Werwijs et al. is attached herewith.
Attachments (1)- 1 mb- phyllanthus_subg_macraea_1572009943498


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References:

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