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Jhand, Khejri, Sangri, Kandi, Sumri, Chaunkra, Jat, Jhand झंड (Hindi), Semi (Gujarati), Perumbai (Kannada), Shemi (Marathi), Jambu (Tamil), Jammi chettu (Telugu), Shami (Oriya), Kandi (Sindhi);
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Tree with curved prickles on branches; leaves bipinnate; pinnae 1-2 pairs; leaflets 7-12 pairs, 3-5 mm long, oblong, oblique; flowers creamy-white in pedunculate spike 5-12 cm long; calyx truncate or obscurely 5-lobed; petals -4 mm long, oblong with recurved tips; stamens 10, anthers with glands; pod 14-25 cm long, slender, drooping, cylindrical, 10-15 seeded.
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It is common to see insect galls hanging from the branches. 
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Very important species of the arid zones, known as wonder tree, “kalp taru” or golden tree of Indian deserts. Played key role in socio-economic development of the arid regions. It is also worshipped by many people. It is drought resistant, requires minimal amount of water.
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The two are very distinct when in flower. Prosopis spicigera (syn. of Prosopis cineraria) has pale yellow flowers in long slender spikes. Moreover the flower has just ten stamens which are free.
Acacia leucophloea flowers are in globose heads, light in colour almost appearing white, stamens numerous and monadelphous.
in Vegetative condition you can differentiate on the basis of leaves having 1-2 pairs of pinnae and 7-12 pairs of leaflets (in each pinna) in Prosopis spicigera; Acacia leucophloea has more than 3 pairs of pinnae and up to 30 pairs of leaflets.
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Asia: Afghanistan (N); India (N) ; Andhra Pradesh ; Bihar ; Delhi ; Gujarat ; Haryana; Karnataka; Madhaya Pradesh ; Maharashtra ; Orissa ; Punjab ; Rajasthan ; Tamil Nadu ; Tripura ; Uttar Pradesh ; West Bengal; Indonesia (I); Iran (N) ; Jawa (I); Pakistan (N); Middle East : Oman (N) ; Saudi Arabia (N) ; South Yemen (N) ; United Arab Emirates (N) as per ILDIS;
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Prosopis cineraria from Delhi: Prosopis cineraria from Delhi, A medium to tall tree with short scattered
spines, occurring singly, inflorescence slender, lax and yellow, fruits long, slender, cylindrical, rounded galls hanging from branches. 

–  .. i for sharing another xerophytic plant


Hope you are very well. This is to request you for using the pictures of Prosopis cinerea of yours with due credit; also I am requesting to help me with high quality pictures if available with you.


Did you get the images?
You can see my images at
https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:J.M.Garg_TreesP
If require require high resolution images, I can send you. 


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Khejri tree – native to arid regions of Rajasthan. It is a drought resistant tree
Uses : Good shade tree. Khejri leaves are fed to livestock in Rajasthan. Green pods used in curries and pickles.
Place : Jodhpur
Habitat : Cultivated


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Fabaceae-Mimosoideae (Mimosaceae) Week: Prosopis cineraria from Panipat: This one is Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce, popular as “Jandi“, “Khejri“, shot from near IOCL Refinery, Panipat.
Very important species of the arid zones, known as wonder tree, “kalp taru” or golden tree of Indian deserts. Played key role in socio-economic development of the arid regions. It is also worshipped by many people. It is drought resistant, requires minimal amount of water.


Thanks for sharing this tree. It is called as “Shami” tree in Marathi. It has historical importance.

Pandavas hid their weapons in a hole of this tree before entering the “Adnyatwas
If anybody from Pune knows any location of Shami tree in Pune I am interested in observing it.



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*Prosopis cineraria ABFEB01/02 : 3 posts by 2 authors. 9 images.

While researching the keekars and babools in Delhi’s public parks with my elder brother we chanced upon a tree I had wanted to see for some time. While looking for the tell-tale spines of babool we found something we were not expecting—a Jhand (aka Khejari, Shami) tree. Consulting our Trees of Delhi we confirmed a few identification keys but were not certain in the absence of flower or fruit although my brother remembered being confused by seeing galls on another tree before. Another walk and another park, we found a tree with galls confirming one more trait of this tree.
Khejari is the state tree of Rajasthan and Telangana, and the national tree of UAE. The tree’s survival on arid and saline soils makes it an essential tree of deserts where nothing else grows. The leaves make excellent fodder and the pods are eaten both by humans and cattle. Pradip Krishen (Trees of Delhi p. 277) says that the flour made from the bark of this tree saved many lives in the Great Rajputana Famine of 1868-69.
Bishnois of Rajasthan protect this tree and started what is now known as the Chipko Movement in 1730 when more than 300 members of the community hugged Khejari trees to prevent them from being cut by the men of Maharaja of Jodhpur.
The tree is considered sacred by many Hindus and is associated with Goddess Durga and Parvati. Some seals found in Mohen-Jodaro depict a female figure seated on this tree while a tiger nearby looks at her, perhaps the earliest appearance of Durga. The sanskrit name of the tree is Agnigarbha, indicating its association with fire. It’s believed that the primordial fire was created by rubbing a branch of Peepal with that of Shami (Khejari) with Shami placed below the Peepal. The tree provides excellent firewood and charcoal. Another story has it that when asura Taraka was terrorising the gods and could not be slain by any of them because of a boon that only the offsprings of the gods could kill him. Now the gods had been cursed by Goddess Uma that they could not have any offsprings. Agni, the god of fire, had escaped the curse by hiding inside the trunk of a Shami tree and his son Skanda finally slayed the asura and saved the gods. Ram is supposed to have worshipped the tree after slaying Ravan. Pandavas are also believed to have hidden their weapons during the thirteenth year of their exile when they were supposed to be incognito. (Sacred Plants of India, Nanditha Krishna & M. Amirthalingam, Penguin Books)
There are several other associations and I could keep on going. Shami or Khejari is second in import only to Peepal and has been mentioned in ancient texts and symbols. It is still worshipped as a fertility tree in parts of Punjab (where it is known as Jhand).
I am happy to share a few photos here.
Prosopis cinerariaIndian Mesquite, Jhand, Shami, Khejari
19-20 February, 2016
New Delhi
Solitary spines unlike other Mesquites;  And the galls; 

Wonderful write up & presentation, …


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During my quick visit to Delhi a couple of days back my brother took me to show these trees flowering and I took some photos to share with you here.

Prosopis cineraria

Paschim Vihar, New Delhi

03 April 2016. 3 images.


Thanks, … Wonderful close ups.



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Plant I’d please LUDHIANA. 4.2 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)

Please help me to identify the plant


I think Prosopis cineraria


Yes, it’s Prosopis cineraria !!



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Fabaceae-Mimosoideae (Mimosaceae) Week: Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce from Panipat:  Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce from Panipat IOCL Road

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Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) Druce in Rep. Bot. Exch. Club. Brit. Isles. 1913
syn: Mimosa cineraria Linn.; Prosopis spicigera Linn.
Common names: ghaf
Hindi: janum-chettu, khejri, jand, kandi
Tree with curved prickles on branches; leaves bipinnate; pinnae 1-2 pairs; leaflets 7-12 pairs, 3-5 mm long, oblong, oblique; flowers creamy-white in pedunculate spike 5-12 cm long; calyx truncate or obscurely 5-lobed; petals -4 mm long, oblong with recurved tips; stamens 10, anthers with glands; pod 14-25 cm long, slender, drooping, cylindrical, 10-15 seeded.
It is common to see insect galls hanging from the branches.

Often planted on roadsides and parks. Photographed from Vikas Puri, New Delhi.


Galls are looking beautiful!!!!! But destroying trees


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How to differentiate between Prosopis and Acacia?:   I’ve seen people using the same term babul for trees in both groups. In particular, how to differentiate Acacia leucophloea and Prosopis spicigera?


The two are very distinct when in flower. Prosopis spicigera has pale yellow flowers in long slender spikes. Moreover the flower has just ten stamens which are free.
Acacia leucophloea flowers are in globose heads, light in colour almost appearing white, stamens numerous and monadelphous.

in Vegetative condition you can differentiate on the basis of leaves having 1-2 pairs of pinnae and 7-12 pairs of leaflets (in each pinna) in Prosopis spicigera; Acacia leucophloea has more than 3 pairs of pinnae and up to 30 pairs of leaflets.


Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) Druce in Rep. Bot. Exch. Club. Brit. Isles. 1913
syn: Mimosa cineraria Linn.; Prosopis spicigera Linn.
Common names: ghaf
Hindi: janum-chettu, khejri, jand, kandi
Tree with curved prickles on branches; leaves bipinnate; pinnae 1-2 pairs; leaflets 7-12 pairs, 3-5 mm long, oblong, oblique; flowers creamy-white in pedunculate spike 5-12 cm long; calyx truncate or obscurely 5-lobed; petals -4 mm long, oblong with recurved tips; stamens 10, anthers with glands; pod 14-25 cm long, slender, drooping, cylindrical, 10-15 seeded.
It is common to see insect galls hanging from the branches.

Often planted on roadsides and parks. Photographed from Vikas Puri, New Delhi.


Galls are looking beautiful!!!!! But destroying trees


Beautiful photographs. I think 3rd and 4th photographs are showing Insect gals.


I would like to know the name of the insect responsible for inflorescence galls in Prosopis cineraria, if any one knows it.


I hope by Lobopteromyia prosopidis

http://www.springerlink.com/content/5x12625361754h08/


How this species can be differentiated from other species of Prosopis.


This species is differentiated by the presence of prickles on the internodes, only 1-2 pairs of pinnae, leaflets 7-12 pairs,



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Doubt reg. Prosopis cineraria : SPC-024 : 28-11-2012 : Baroda: I saw this tree which I think is Prosopis cineraria. I have one doubt though after reading … description of this tree which mentions that this tree has “curved” prickles. I would appreciate to know more about this because I did not see any spines that are curved.


From what I have noticed, the twigs of Prosopis cineraria are dotted with solitary, internodal, conical spines that are straight or just a tad bit bent. Have attached a picture from Kachchh.


Many thanks … for the precise description and photograph of the spines.


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Which tree is Shami? :  2 posts by 2 authors.

Can you please suggest which plant is SHAMI (Banni in Kannada)? Whether it is Acacia ferruginea or Prosopis cineraria ?


Prosopis cineraria.


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Re: hello sir i live in delhi sir i want prosopis cinenaria(jammi tree) fruits for aayurvedic treatment can u tell me where i can find it near delhi,,,,,,,,,please reply as soon as possible :  5 posts by 2 authors.

hello i want prosopis cinenaria tree fruits for some ayurvedic purpose
…pease tell me where i can find this tree in delhi or nearby area

The details at Prosopis cineraria will help you in the matter.


can u please tell me the exact location in delhi………….and also tell me it has fruits or not….. if yes it is of green colour n


You will find this plant in many places in Delhi, but if you want exact location from where I have photographed the plant, you may visit the park near Gurdwara C Black Vikas Puri. On outer Ring road (coming from Janak Puri/Najaf Garh Road) at PVR red light you turn left, move straight for about 200 m and enter into the park opposite PVR cinema (on your left side). inside the park you will find the tree about 100 m away from gate on right side. You can easily identify it by insect galls hanging from branches.

efi Link


sir can u please tell me the jammi fruit in delhi is called sangri (green colour)


Pl. see Prosopis cineraria


sir please one more help …. as i have searched on internet prosopis cinenaria is state tree of rajasthan can u tell me where it is available in jaipur


Prosopis cineraria : sir please once again need your help …..please can u tell me
prosopis cinenaria exact location in north maharashtra…. like in nashik, dhule, jalgaon city


Prosopis cinenaria (Common name Saundad) In Jalgaon District recorded at Eklanga forest and Dhule & Nandurbar at Chimthane and Mordad.



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Small tree seen on 20/6/14 in Muscat, growing wild.

No flowers.

Is this Prosopis cineraria or something else?


only 2 pairs of pinnae confirms Prosopis cineraria


Where I can get the key to differentiate the prosopis species. I confused with various floras.



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Hail the Banni Tree

(acacia ferruginea (?))  

At Kanuganahalli village, Mysore district and in our Ex Minister’s paddy fields there are five of these Banni trees. The minister is proud to have them in their fields and pointing to those trees (in aproximate direction, for he is now blind) says “they are five -pancha padavas and have grown on its own”.  

During the Vijaya dashami festival, following a age old tradition, people exchange the Banni leaves or branches with each other saying “Lets exchange Banni for gold” or “Lets exchange gold for Banni”

(In some place in North Karnataka , people used to exchange gobbali tree branches/leaves as they could not find Banni branches)  

In Mysore, soldiers used to perform banni pooja seeking victory before going into war.

During the Vijayadashami festival, the Maharaja’s elephant procession ends in a place called Banni Mantap where the King used to perform banni tree pooja and could take a banni branch back to his palace.  

In our epic Mahabharata, it is believed that the Pandavas hid their weapons during their one year of concealed exile under this banni tree and reclaimed it back once they were free from their exile.  

Hail the Banni Tree, a symbol of prosperity and peace!


As far as I know, Banni mara (Kannada) or Vanni maram (Tamil) is Prosopis spicigera. This is indigenous in the arid zone of Rajasthan, said to be very useful and saved hundreds of lives during a bad famine. This species is considered sacred and can be seen in some temples in TN as Sthalaviruksham. But most of the time Acacia ferruginea, a common species found in the tropical forests of southern India. Pl. correct me if i am wrong.


I think Raman is right and the tree is Prosopice cineraria.

Yes … it is Acacia ferruginea DC.

the hooked spines in pairs and 3-6 pairs of pinnae and the flat
reticulately veined pod confirms.
i have collected it from Buldhana and Akola.


Thanks … for the confirmation.
It will be good to see and compare pictures of both Prosopis cinerea (= P. spicigera) and Acacia ferruginea. Any of you have them pl.? The latter sp. is often mistaken for the former sp.

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i am attaching pics of Prosopis specigera, i collected it in Mumbai at a nursery.


sorry i posted Prosopis cineraria pix.
right now don’t have pics of P. specigera.


Thanks …, both are same; Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce is the accepted name and P. spicigera L. is synonym. (as you know, P. juliflora is a different species native to America but widely naturalized here).


‘Acacia ferruginea’ is called ‘Ker’ / ‘Kaigar’ ‘केर’ / ‘कैगर’ in Marathi.


I think it is खैर rather than  केर.


you are right… ‘Acacia ferruginea’  some people call it ‘पांढरा खैर’ and some call It ‘केर / ‘कैगर’.

‘Acacia catechu’ is called ‘Khair’ ‘खैर’ / ‘Kat’ ‘कात’ / ‘Kath’ ‘काथ’ in Marathi. 
‘Acacia fernesiana’ is called ‘Durgandha Khair’ ‘ दुर्गंध खैर’ / ‘Shenya Khair’ ‘शेण्‍या खैर’ / ‘Gandha Babhul’ ‘गंध बाभूळ’ / ‘Gandh      Hinvar”गंध हिंवर’ / ‘Kankar’ ‘कंकर’ in Marathi. 
‘Acacia jacquemontii’ is called ‘Chhota Kikar’ ‘छोटा किकर’  in Marathi. 
‘Acacia latiosum’ is called ‘Kase Babhul’ ‘कासे बाभूळ’ in Marathi. 
‘Acacia nilotica’ is called ‘Kikar’ ‘किकर’ in Marathi. 
‘Acacia pennata’ is called ‘Velya Khair’ ‘वेल्‍या खैर’ / ‘Kanti’ ‘कांटी’ in Marathi. 
‘Acacia suma’ is called ‘ Sone Khair’ ‘सोने खैर’ / ‘Kamtiya’ ‘कामटिया’ in Marathi. 
‘Acacia sundra’ is called ‘Lal Khair’ ‘लाल खैर’ in Marathi.

 


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Prosopis cineraria at Sudasari Sand Dunes, Rajasthan : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (8)
This tree was one of the most common tree spotted at various places near Jaisalmer, Rajasthan.
Locals were referring this as Khejri..
Could this be Prosopis cineraria (Family:  Mimosaceae).. Pl. validate..
The reddish coloured small spherical shape formation  are fruits or some Insect gals??
Location: Sudasari sand dunes, Rajasthan..

Very nice pictures, …

Those must certainly be galls. I too think it must be Prosopis cineraria.
Prosopis cineraria is the state tree of Rajasthan.



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Clicked this tree near Patan, GJ in March 2018.
Is this Prosopis cineraria?

Yes to me also appear close as per images at


For me the ID is correct.



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sultanpur (near delhi) on 18.4.08; Haryana, 23.5.09; Afri Nursery, Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur, Rajasthan; Trees of Delhi- Flowers late March to early May. Often a second flush after the rains.
Flowering trees in delhi–Jhand(Prosposis cineraria) – indiantreepix | Google Groups Vanni Tree – Prosopis cineraria – indiantreepix | Google Groups Prosopis cineraria from Haryana – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Khejri tree – efloraofindia | Google Groups
Reg: Seeds of Prosopis Cineraria – efloraofindia | Google Groups
Prosopis cineraria- khejri, jand, sangri (Rajasthan), jand (Punjabi), kandi (Sind), sami, sumri (Gujarat) – indiantreepix | Google Groups


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Seeds of Prosopsis Spicigera Linn. or Prosopsis cineraria Linn.: I am looking for seeds of this tree it is called Vanni in Tamilnadu. Heard that this grows widely in Rajasthan, could anyone of you help me to get me 50-100 ns of seeds.


-You may write to Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding Coimbatore (link  www.icfre.org).  You may also contact the  institute of Traditional systems(?)  (check the correct name)  located on Kotturpuram Road. In fact, the tree is available in Gurunanank’s College Campus, Chennnai.  Now, I am not in Chennai.  Otherwise,  I would have arranged.


– I think it may be available at TBGRI, Trivandrum. Please write to the Director of this Institute.
Also Centre for Indian Knowledge Systems have seeds collection. Here is the contact details for CIKS: CHENNAI OFFICE

30 Gandhi Mandapam Road,
Kotturpuram, Chennai – 600085.
TAMIL NADU. INDIA.
Tel : 91-44-24471087 / 24475862 e-mail : …..


I wish to give few Shami tree or P. Cineraria seedlings to few temples in villages, back here near my village and also near by Hyderabad. Shami is auspicious and especially worshipped at the time of Dasara or Vijaya dasami, and also for ecological and various reasons across the globe. I’ve tried for procuring the seeds but unsuccessfully.
I’ve learnt few things on the shami tree characteristics from my friend who is a botanist, and also found out that the shami tree is frequently mistakenly identified with acacia ferrugenia.
I’ve confirmed the same fact from this group itself few days back. I’ve also noted that there was a request for seeds of the same in 2010, by one sir, and wish to put same request agin before the group members again.
I’ve tried to contact the phone numbers of few institutes but didn’t work. I’ve had negative experiences with government  institutes.
So, I’d like to have the shami tree seeds even a few from anyone sir/ madam, if you’ve them in collection.
I promise that I’d not use the seed for any personal gains.


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Jodhpur  Guda Bishnoiyan

Date: October 24, 2018 … Altitude: about 230 m (750 feet) asl
¿ Prosopis cineraria ?  
I think this must be Prosopis cineraria. Please help validate the ID. At this time, there was no flowering / fruiting; I hope the trunk and leaves give some hint.

Thanks, … To me also appear close to images at first glance at /species/a—l/f/fabaceae/prosopis/prosopis-cineraria



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Identification request for these two growing trees : 10 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (11)
Date/Time- 17/10/18, 4 .00 pm
Location- Place — Telangana forest nursery cum forestry research station, near Mulugu (V), near Hyderabad
Habitat- Type- Wild (suppose)
Plant Habit- supposedly growing Tree
Height/Length- 1.5 m

Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- Small Bipinnate, pic enclosed
The Incharge person said that this is auspicious tree. Actually there are 3 small trees of this kind. I’ve taken pictures from two of these small trees.

Pl. check

Looks different from Prosopis cineraria
Pl. check comparative images at Acacia

Pictures are very poor, no flower or fruit, may be Mimosa hamata 

Looks different from images at Mimosa hamata Willd.

In my opinion, this is Prosopis cineraria. Leaves are bipinnate but only single pair of pinna. Thorns distributed all over, not paired.

Yes, it is Prosopis cineraria only; the spines, bark, leaf suggests it as P.cineraria



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Prosopis variety : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Would it be possible to identify the variety of Prosopis from the pictures attached? It’s a very small plant. So no flowers or seeds yet.
A nursery near Hosur was selling this as Banni/ Shami sapling

Looks like Acacia dichrostachys

In all probabilities it is Prosopis cineraria.
Common name: Khejri Tree • Gujarati: Semi • Hindi: Jand जंड, Khejri खेजड़ी Khejri • Kannada: Perumbai .
It is  the state tree of Rajasthan. This is called ‘vanni maram’ in Tamil Nadu. It is a sacred tree for them. Many people mistakenly say banni in other regions. The correct Banni mara for Karnataka people is Acacia ferruginea (the shami vriksha) a branch of which used to be cut by the erstwhile Maharaja of Mysore after Dasara procession on Vjaya Dasami day, as a sign of victory.
Please check this link for Banni mara (Acacia ferruginea) :


I agree with … id of Prosopis cineraria



Some legume: 2 images.
Kindly tell me the name of species found in Salem Tamilnadu


I think Prosophis sp.


Check with Prosopis glandulosa


I think Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. as per comparative images at Prosopis


I think it is Prosopis cineraria


I found the pods of P.cineraria a bit different.


The pod of P.julifera somewhat flat and in P.cineraria as cylindrical
it is also used as a vegetable.


No Way for juliflora …,  it’s another one,



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References:

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