Sennauniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassiaciliata Hoffmanns.; Cassiamonantha DC.; Cassiamucronulosa (Pittier) J.F. Macbr.; Cassiaornithopoides Lam.; Cassiasensitiva Jacq.; Cassiasericea Sw.; Cassiauniflora Mill.; Emelistamucronulosa Pittier; Sericeocassiauniflora (Mill.) Britton & Rose; Sericeocassiauniflora (Mill.) Britton);
SEN-nuh — Latin form of Arabic word for a thorny bush
yoo-nee-FLOR-uh — single flowered
commonly known as: single flowered senna
Native to: Mexico, Caribbean islands, tropical South America
India (I) 0]; Andhra Pradesh ; Karnataka; Kerala; Madhaya Pradesh ; Maharashtra & other countries as per ILDIS;
Plants have 3-5 pairs of leaflets and glands in lower two or all pairs of leaflets and the glands stalked.

Is this Senna hirsuta var. hirsuta ?:
This cassia was photographed
@ Pune on 21 st Aug 11.
Looks like Wooly Cassia.
Plz validate/ Identify.

Kindly go through the following response by me for … plant. It may help fixing your plant. Please note glands to decide finally:
Just for record, it must be mentioned that this species Senna multiglandulosa is the accepted name for species which was previously known under the name Cassia tomentosa. In fact there are two plants by that name: Cassia tomentosa L.f. and Cassia tomentosa Arn.
Cassia tomentosa L.f. is now correctly known as Senna multiglandulosa (Jacq.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby: is a a tall shrub up to 4 m tall, branches tomenose, 6-8 pairs, oblong, up to 5 cm long, yellowish tomentose beneath; racemes shorter than leaves; flowers deep yellow; fruit thick flat, up to 12 cm long. This should be your plant.
Cassia tomentosa Arn. is now correctly known as Senna hirsuta(L.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby. It is a perennial herb up to; leaflets usually 3-5 pairs, with a gland at the base of petiole, none on rachis between the leaflets, ovate lanceolate, up to 7 cm long, acute or acuminate, hirsute; racemes short, axillary; flowers yellow; fruit linear, up to 15 cm long, hirsute.
Here is the key I have tried to construct to separate the closely related species:
1a. Gland at base of petiole, none between the leaflets; leaflets 3-5 pairs, ovate lanceolate, hirsute; pod hirsute. 50-90 seeded ……….. Senna hirsuta
1b. Glands between pairs of leaflets, none on petiole; leaflets oblong pod glabrous…….(2)
2a. Glands sessile, between all pairs of leaflets; leaflets 6-8 pairs, yellowish tomentose beneath ……………. Senna multiglandulosa
2b. Glands stalked, between lower two lowest pairs of leaflets; leaflets glabrous or white-farinose beneath …….. (3)
3a. Leaflets 4-6 pairs; leaf 15-30 cm long, leaflets white-farinose (glaucous) beneath; pod 12-20 cm long, 20-30 seeded;
stalk of pod 10-20 mm long ……….. Senna sulfurea
3b. Leaflets 6-9 pairs; leaf 10-15 cm long, leaflets not glaucous beneath; pod 7-10 cm long, 20-25 seeded; stalk of pod 5-7 mm long ……. Senna surratensis

Thankssss … ..this information cleared my numerous doubts.
The features of Cassia I photographed r-

  • Glands r stalked. not sessile
  • Glands btw/n all pair of leaflets, none on petiole.
  • 4 pair of leaflets.
  • Branches / leaves tomentose.

Most features lead me to Senna multiglandulosa just stalked glands doesnt match. Attaching d cropped pic showing stalked glands

Your plant is turning out to be interesting. Wanted to know whether there are one or two Cassia species in your third photograph. I can see many larger leaves with five pairs of leaflets. More over in leaves with four pairs, I can locate stalked glands between lower three pairs, but not the fourth uppermost pair. Please check both things. Yes ,…, there was a mixing of plants …2 more plants are der in d 3rd photograph. The one with 5 pair of leaflets looked like Cassia but had no flowers on it. And yes U r correct here also -In the plant wid 4 pair f leaflets …there r 3 stalked glands and not four..uppermost leaf pair has none.

I have a feeling that if taller plant with 5 pairs of leaflets in your third photograph is different, the rest of plants with four pairs of leaflets could well be Senna uniflora in which plants have 3-5 pairs of leaflets and glands in lower two or all pairs of leaflets and the glands stalked. You may also look for pods which are very distinctive. Please go through this paper.

Agree with U Sir, It is Senna uniflora.
SEN-nuh — Latin form of Arabic word for a thorny bush
yoo-nee-FLOR-uh — single flowered
Nov 5, 2011 … along NH50 near Chakan, Maharashtra
commonly known as: single flowered senna
Native to: Mexico, Caribbean islands, tropical South America
more views: Nov 5, 2011 … along NH50 near Chakan, Maharashtra



Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae (Caesalpiniaceae) Week: Cassia uniflora Pune:
Cassia uniflora
Growing wild in open spaces Pune.

A complete set with all distinctive features: some leaves with 4 pairs of leaflets, stalked glands between most pairs, short fruit with less than 10 seeds.


Identification confirmation requested for this Cassia : Attachments (2). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Is it Cassia sophera; plant about 50cm tall, stem and adaxial surface of leaflets pubescent, ovary is also pubescent. common in road sides after rainy season. flowers about 1 cm across. the pod less than 5 cm long. the description agrees with Gamble – but in other books the number and shape of leaflets, pubescence is not agreeing.
pls confirm the identity.

Senna uniflora, I think.

Thank you … yes it is Senna uniflora; an exotic plant naturalised here.

You are welcome, …; and thanks for confirming the ID!


Senna uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby SN Mar 26 : Attachments (2). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Senna uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (= Cassia uniflora Mill.), Fam Caesalpiniaceae, looking similar to Cassia tora
undershrub roadside, near villages, recorded from Anada nagara way to Talagoppa near Shimoga,

This is a exotic invasive species of South America.


Senna (Caesalpiniaceae) for ID :: 240215 :: MK003 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)

Please help me in identifying this herb. Found quite dominant in roadsides and near canals.
Resembling Senna tora, sorry for the poor pictures.
Height: up to 1 m tall
place: Nanguneri, Tirunelveli dt., TN
Alt.: 150 m asl
Date: 18 Feb 2015

This is Senna uniflora of Caesalpiniaceae. Syn. is Cassia uniflora, this species also a grazing/ anthropogentic pressure indicator that is my observation during field visits.


Please confirm this Senna sp. found in drier habitat, height appx 1 ft tall.

Cassia tora

Yes, it is Senna uniflora.

Yes, agree for Senna uniflora– Invasive Alien species

Cassia absus:
Cassia absus
Family : Caesalpiniaceae
Erect annual herb. 6 – 18 inches.
Stems and branches hairy. Leaves long-petioled. Rachis viscous hairy grooved. Petiole 2-2.5 cm long.Stipules 3 mm subulate.
Leaflets 2 pairs Very oblique elliptic oblong- elliptic obovate.
Flowers Terminal/ Leaf opposed racemes. Pedicel short viscous hairy. Bracts and bracteoles present.
Calyx hairy 4mm segments oblong obtuse subequal.
Petals 6mm obovate cuneate, reddish yellow tender veined.
Stamens 5 all perfect equal.
I tried to match the above characters given in Cooke’s flora.
Only difference found: The flower above is solitary and it is not reddish.
Please comment.

This is not Cassia absus,
its Cassia uniflora.

Correct genus for this plant is Chamaecrista

Agree with …, it is not Cassia absus. If it is C. uniflora, then the correct genus is Senna (S. uniflora), but to me it doesn’t look like S. uniflora either. Pl c this link

all are C. uniflora

To me it again appears to be a case where we are discussing the identity of a plant without considering authority.
It also highlights the fact that many of us give our decisions without trying to justify our decision or negate others’ conclusion
Let me first point out that there is no accepted name such as Chamaecrista uniflora, nor any accepted species name Cassia uniflora
Now coming back to Cassia uniflora, there are two taxa by that name
1. Cassia uniflora Mill., characterised by 5-9 leaflets, flowers 2-6 together. This is now correctly known as
Sanauniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
2. Senna uniflora Spreng., a very distinct plant with four leaflets arranged like a cross and with single flower. this is now correctly known as Chamaecristaramosa (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
I think … is correct in saying that Senna uniflora is the plant already discussed on our website for which he has provided the link.
And till we find a better choice, the best match is still Cassia absus L. now correctly known as Chamaecristaabsus (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

Cassia absus never come in Single flower

Please keep a watch on
1. number of leaflets
2. number of flowers in each cluster/raceme/leaf axil
3. diameter of flower
4. most important number of stamens, their relative size, how many have well-developed anthers, how many with sterile staminodes
5. fruit size, rounded or flat, length and breadth
Well …., the aim of my detailed mail to negate what you had been trying to stress. I never concluded that it is S. absus, only that it is better match in light of your identification having been rejected.

I rechecked about similar plants in the vicinity.
I agree with … This appears to be a small plant of Cassia uniflora only.
Similar small plants were showing two leaflets each but the characters of leaves appear close to C.uniflora rather than C.absus.

Yes this is Cassia unifloranow known as Sennauniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby.
If you check the compound leaves carefully, you can see the stalked yellow glands on the rachis in between leaflets (mostly with basal 1-2 pairs). If they (stalked yellow glands) are not there in any of the leaves this can be some other species. 

Yes I remember … had told me about the commonest similar looking plant without glands is Cassia tora.

Thanks for your conclusion, but I would like you to consider a few things before taking a final decision.
I have not seen this plant in nature myself but judging from the available information, I fear it never has 4 leaflets, not to say of 2 leaflets that you write.
Senna uniflora is an American weed, and only recently introduced in India (Not reported in FBI), and we can’t expect it to undergo drastic changes in India over a short period of time.
From all sources of information the species usually has 4 pairs of leaflets (and not 4 leaflets) though the number may varry from 3-5 pairs. Some identifications get fixed in mind and difficult to forget. My colleagues would fight with me when I would tell them spinach they are using in their practicals is not Spinaceae oleracea, rather leafy vegetable a variety of Beta vulgaris. It took me more than 10 years to make them understand when they gave this plant in taxonomy classes. The description of two is poles apart.
I request you to kindly go through the attached paper, study the plants and then decide.
I am not saying that this is Senna absus, but just for infrmation S. absus is a species long established in India, has four leaflets and also a gland between the leaflets.
Senna unflora has been introduced in in many places in India including Pune, Karanataka and other places, and you and other members may soon find specimens with true S. uniflora characters.

Senna uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barne has several synonyms as per the plant list ( and Cassia sericea is one among them.
C. sericea has been mentioned in several flora books such as Flora of Coorg (Murthy & Yoganarasimhan, 1990), Flora of Udupi (Bhat, 2003) etc.
I too got this plant recently and photographed in detail from Bangalore. I shall upload them soon. I have identified my specimenby running the key as C. sericea and while checking the name in the plant list I found that this is S. uniflora now.

Here are my pictures from Bangalore

I think you have gone through the paper for which I have sent the link. When we are considering the introduced species we should rely more on the Books pertaining to that area and not local floras. If you have gone through the cited paper you will realize that key in the genus is often based on number of leaflets as one character (besides others). This plant as … has mentioned and seen in the photograph has only four leaflets, and … has seen some with only two leaflets. How can we believe an introduced weed which is supposed to have generally 4 pairs of leaflets (3-5 pairs) can have only 2-4 leaflets in our area, Please give serious thought to it. I am attaching the paper in case you did not read it.
And yes if I am providing you the detailed nomenclature I must be knowing all its synonyms including C. sericea,,

Yes … Your plant has clearly four pairs of leaflets. This is what I have been stressing all through.

Agreed … We and Science (I mean Scientific community) require many more people with similar mind as yours. Nothing should be taken for granted unless one personally checks and satisfied about it.
I am ready to check the plant further. You have a valid point there.
I have not gone in details of the paper but will do so.
Regarding my plant…..I want to stress that There are quite a few plants (So called Cassia uniflora; attaching a picture) with similar looking flowers and leaves. Some plants in the group are very small (^inches or so) producing flowers and leaves very similar to these but only with two twigs having two pairs of leaflets as in earlier posted picture. Can’t a plant have less number of leaflets? The pods are also seen in some which might be helpful.

The whole problem in this thread is because where there are four leaflets (two pairs) you are counting them as two leaflets, and where they are eight (4 pairs) you count them as 4. I had doubt about this after seeing …. photographs, but your upload now confirms it.

I too got 2 pairs of leaflets in my plants. I have checked several plants around and most of them having 2 pairs of leaflets as well. Now there are 2-4 leaflets (I havent seen 5 pairs yet) on the same plant.
I shall upload pictures if necessary.

How could you also make the same mistake.? Your first photograph clearly shows 4 pairs (8 leaflets) of leaflets, … first photograph 3 pairs (6 leaflets) and second 4 pairs (8 leaflets). He last two photographs of … are an abberation and should be taken as normal.

Here, in Bangalore also there are bigger and smaller plants both bear 2-4 paired leaflets.

Yes … That is what I had been impressing upon. 4 pairs is the prevalent number, range 3-5 pairs in S. uniflora, and 2 pairs a rarety or abberation. I think you must have gone through the paper enclosed and links of some American works.

Stamens 5, glands absent, leaflets 2 pairs is C. absus, whereas C. uniflora has stamens 7, glands present and leaflets 4-5 pairs.C. absus is a monsoon herb, flowers may have differed due to being out of season.

Yes, I read the paper and now while looking at the picture I suspect their plant also shows 2 paired leaflets (Plate 2 E right side uppermost leaf)

The plant that I handled has characters of C. uniflora as per the key that … given except the number of leaflets are 2-4.
Now if …  can tell us the number of stamens (it is cluttered hence counting the same from the picture is difficult) and glands (since the leaflets are closed glands are not seen in the pictures) in his plant with 2 paired leaflets things would be clear.

Only in the uppermost leaf. Our general description should always be based on lower or middle leaves. Upper most leaves in almost all plants are reduced in size as well as number on leaflets.

… you are repeatedly confusing between 2-4 pairs with 2-4 leaflets, what … has also been doing.

Sorry about that please read it as …. except the number of leaflets are 2-4 pairs.

Thanks …. My concern is that when we are identifying on the basis of photographs, the inputs from the person who uploads the photographs is very important in every species. I was really confused when … reported that in most plants he saw 4 leaflets, and in some 2 leaflets. Only when you uploaded your photographs I noticed that your plant had mostly 4 pairs of leaflets, and perhaps you ignored what … wrote, or else his and your plants were different. Only when I he uploaded his photographs I realized that he confused number with pairs, and that makes a lot of difference. Why books don’t mention (and we should also not) 2 pairs, the reason is that descriptions are mostly based on lower and middle leaves, and not uppermost leaves. Even some uppermost leaves in compound leaves be reduced to simple blade.

I wanted to mention 2 pairs of leaflets in some plants i.e. 4 leaflets in total in those small plants. It might have created some confusion. The label in recent pictures might be wrong but the pictures are self explanatory. Any way interesting discussion.


efloraindia: 200911 BRS33:
Pl. find the attached file contain photo for id.
Date/Time-Location- 18.09.2011, Codisia Road

Place, Altitude, GPS- Coimbatore, Near Air Port
Habitat- Urban
Plant Habit- Shrub
Height/- less than 1 ft.
Leaves Type/ Opposite

Flowers Size/ Colour/ yellow
Its look like Cassia sp. ? but I would like to know the species confirmation.. I found many plants along the road side with fruiting .

I think Senna tora (L.) Roxb. of Leguminosae family (Syn: Cassia tora).

Looking at the pod (flat and hairy), this seems to be Cassia absus.

Cassia tora and Cassia uniflora are the likely IDs. Don’t think it to be Cassia absus.

Not even C. unifloraC. tora and C. obtusifolia are two like candidates, differented on the basis of glands on leaves.

I think I was wrong with the id Senna tora.
Recollecting the discussion that …, … and … in a thread
Now, I think this plant is Senna uniflora. I could see the stalked glands in between the lower pair of leaflets.

My sentence is based on the fact that….
Cassia tora used to be the commonest weed by the roadside until the introduction of the weed Cassia uniflora which has replaced it at least in Maharashtra. This information was shared to me by somebody long back I think … Yes the differentiating character for these again is those glands. I am not much aware about Cassia obtusifolia.

I think we are again at the same confusion again. In Senna uniflora, the number of leaflets is four or more pairs. I had sent you the link last time also. here is the paper again.

This looks like Senna uniflora to me too.
S. obtusifolia is a glabrous plant with long slender pods: http://www.missouriplants.Cassia_obtusifolia_page.html

yes …, the pod seems to be decisive.
Sorry …, You were right.

Please don’t feel sorry about. Critical points and suggestions are always needed for critical observations and learning.

I had gone through the paper and other relevant literature as well. The number of leaflets are 3-5 pairs for S. uniflora and are having stalked (1-2 pairs) glands in between leaflets.



ID pls – unknowingly grown a butterfly host plant at my butterfly garden , Kolkata …. Found some white colored rice shaped small eggs on the leaves:
ID pls – unknowingly grown a butterfly host plant at my garden , Kolkata …. Found some white colored rice shaped small eggs on the leaves

This looks like Pot Cassia [Cassia tora] with Grass Yellow butterfly eggs.

Yes most probably Carris tora of Leguminosae family.

great for skin disease called daaad too!
…, this for is two for price of none… comes up as weed if some were growing in your neighbourhood…
good now you can enjoy the yellow flowers and then save unique seedpod and seeds since “agachha” filled land plots are disappearing, so would sources of their seeds…

It doesn’t look like Cassia tora (Senna tora) to me.
C. tora suppose to have 3 pairs of leaflets, but the posted plant uniformly has 5 pairs. It may be Senna uniflora.

I want to convey that the disease fighting agachha I was talking about is Cassia alata.. very common in Bengal wastelands and as volunteers in gardens…

Agree with … It is more likely to be Cassia unifloraa weed, a native of tropical South America.

Senna Species For ID : Nasik : 08DEC16 : AK-22 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Senna Species seen in Oct,15 in Nasik.
Initially, I had thought this plant to be Senna tora, but after observing closely, I find it has shorter pods, unlike Senna tora.
Experts kindly give your opinion.

Pl. Check comparative images at EFI.

Is this Senna uniflora?

Thanks, …, I think matches with images at Senna uniflora

Cassia Species for ID : Nasik : 13OCT20 : AK-24 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Cassia Species seen in Nasik.
It was a wild plant.

Senna uniflora

Cassia Species for ID : Nasik : 25NOV20 : AK-23 : 2 images.
Seen growing wild this week (25.11.20) in Nasik.

Senna uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby !


Senna Species for ID : Nasik : 27NOV20 : AK-30 : 2 images.
Seen growing wild.

Senna uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby


Senna uniflora from Anjana Layout, Bangalore-GS28012022-3: 7 very high res. images.
Senna uniflora photographed from Anjana Layout, Bangalore, 21-9-2015.


Request for id of Senna: 3 high res. images.
Request for I’d of Senna from Bilaspur. Photographed in January 2022.

Senna uniflora

Yes It’s Senna uniflora


I’d of Senna: 3 high res. images.
Request for I’d of Senna from Bilaspur. Photographed in January, 2023.

Senna uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby !