Toona ciliata M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 1: 139 1846. (syn. Cedrela microcarpa C.DC.; Cedrela serrulata Miq.; Cedrela toona Roxb. ex Rottler ……….; Surenus australis Kuntze; Surenus microcarpa (C. DC.) Kuntze; Surenus toona (Roxb. ex Rottler) Kuntze; Swietenia toona (Roxb. ex Rottler) Stokes; Toona ciliata var. pubescens (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. ….; Toona febrifuga var. griffithiana Pierre .; Toona hexandra M.Roem. (Unresolved); Toona kingii (C. DC.) Harms; Toona microcarpa (C. DC.) Harms; Toona mollis (Hand.-Mazz.) A. Chev.; Toona sureni var. cochinchinensis (Pierre) Bahadur .; (=) Cedrela velutina DC.; (=) Toona australis (Kuntze) Harms);
China (Guangdong, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan), Pakistan (introduced), Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), India (widespread), peninsular Malaysia (Langkawi Isl., Perak), Australia (NE-Queensland, E-New South Wales), Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra (incl. Bangka Isl.), Borneo, Java, Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro), Lesser Sunda Isl. (Flores, Timor), Moluccas (Ternate, Tanimbar), New Guinea, Bismarck Arch. (New Britain), Myanmar [Burma] (Kachin, Sagaing, Bago, Mandalay, Shan, Yangon), Sri Lanka (introduced), Nepal, Bhutan, USA (introduced) (Maryland (introduced)), Afghanistan (introduced), Costa Rica (introduced), Brazil (introduced), South Africa (introduced), South Africa (Transvaal (introduced), KwaZulu-Natal (introduced)), Puerto Rico (introduced), Cuba (introduced), Peru (introduced), trop. Africa (introduced), Mozambique (introduced), Sao Tome (introduced), Zambia (introduced), Zimbabwe (introduced), Mauritius (introduced), Hawaii (introduced) (Kauai (introduced), Oahu (introduced), Lanai (introduced), Maui (introduced), Hawaii Isl. (introduced)), Micronesia (introduced) (Pohnpei) (introduced)) as per Catalogue of Life;
Australian red cedar, bastard cedar, Burma cedar, Indian cedar, Indian mahogany, moulmein cedar, red cedar, toon • Assamese: পমা pama • Bengali: তূণ tun • Hindi: नन्दी nandi, नन्दिक nandik, तुन tun, तुन्न tunna • Kannada: ಬೆಳಮ್ದಿ belamdi • Kashmiri: द्रब् drab, द्रावी drawi, तूनी tuni • Malayalam: ചന്ദന വേമ്പ് candana veemp, ചുവന്ന അകില് cuvanna akil, മദഗിരിവേമ്പ് madagiriveemp, പടുകരണ patukarana • Manipuri: তাইৰেল tairel • Marathi: नांदुरकी nandurki, तुन्न tunna • Mizo: teipui • Nepalese: तूनी tunee, तुनि tuni • Oriya: teipui, mahalimbo • Pali: कच्छक kacchaka • Punjabi: ਚਿੱਟੀ ਸਿਰੀਂਹ chitti sirinh, ਚਿੱਟੀ ਸਰੀਂਹ chitti sarinh, ਦੱਲੀ dalli, ਦਰਲ daral, ਦੋਰੀ dori, ਤੁਣ tun • Sanskrit: कच्छपः kacchapah, नन्दी nandi, नन्दिकः nandikah, तुन्न tunna • Tamil: ஆயில் ayil, மலயப்பூத்துன்னமரம் malaya-p-pu-t-tunna-maram, மதகரிவேம்பு matakari-vempu, தூணாமரம் tuna-maram • Telugu: నందివృక్షము nandivrikshamu • Urdu: نندي nandi, نندك nandik, تون tun, تن tunna;
One interesting point in the ‘Bengal Plants’ –
(i) leaves usually 7-jugately pinnate, panicles glabrous; sepals ovate-acute; capsule sub-globose…… ————- Cedrela toona Roxb. (Syn. of Toona ciliata)
(ii) leaves usually 9-jugately pinnate; petiole long; panicles puberulous; sepals orbicular; capsule ellipsoid…. —— Cedrela microcarpa C. DC. (is a synonym of Toona ciliata M.Roem.)
Semi-deciduous trees, to 30 m high, bark 10-15 mm thick, reddish-brown, rough, exfoliating in large flakes; fibrous; blaze pink red with white streaks and strong smell. Leaves paripinnate, alternate, clustered at the tips of branchlets, estipulate; rachis 13-90 cm long, slender, grooved above, glabrous, swollen at base; leaflets 12-30, opposite or subopposite, estipellate; petiolule 7-20 mm long, slender, grooved above, glabrous; lamina 7-16 x 2-7 cm, ovate, ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, base oblique, apex acuminate, margin entire or serrate, chartaceous, glossy above, pale beneath; lateral nerves 10-15 pairs, pinnate, slender, prominent, intercostae reticulate, faint. Flowers bisexual, 8 mm across, white, in terminal or axillary drooping panicles; peduncle to 2 cm; pedicel to 2 mm long; calyx cupular; lobes 5, ovate, tomentose, margin ciliate; petals 5, white, 5 x 3 mm, oblong, spreading, ciliate, imbricate; stamens 5, free, inserted on the top of disc; filaments subulate; anthers oblong, versatile; disc thick, 5-lobed, pubescent; ovary superior, ovoid, 2 mm long, pubescent, 5-celled, ovules 8-12 per cell, pendulous; style short, stigma discoid. Fruit a capsule, 1.8-3 x 1.5 cm, 5-valved; seeds many, oblong, thin, winged at both ends.
Flowering and fruiting: February-May
Semi-evergreen and evergreen forests
Indo-Myanmar; cultivated in Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Africa and the Hawaiian Islands
Australian red cedar (called also toon, tun, suren, surian cedar or Indian mahogany), Toona ciliata, is a forest tree in the family Meliaceae which grows throughout southern Asia from Afghanistan to Papua New Guinea and Australia. In Australia its natural habitat is now extensively cleared subtropical rainforests of New South Wales and Queensland. The Australian population was formerly treated as distinct species under the name T. australis. The species can grow to around 60m in height and its trunk can reach 3m in girth. The largest recorded T. ciliata tree in Australia grew near Nulla Nulla Creek, west of Kempsey, New South Wales and was felled in 1883.
It is one of Australia’s few native deciduous trees. The timber is red in colour, easy to work and very highly valued. It was used extensively for furniture, wood panelling and construction, including shipbuilding, and was referred to as “red gold” by Australian settlers. Heavily and unsustainably exploited in the 19th Century and early 20th Century, almost all the large trees have been cut out and the species is essentially commercially extinct.
(From Wikipedia on 7.7.13)
It is my pleasure to share few images of Toona ciliata (Meliaceae)
Sighting: Chikmagalur and Hassan, Karnataka, about 1000 msl
Date: 12-12-2014 and 06-03-2015
Is it Toona hexandra?:
Fruits & Vegetables Week: Spondias pinnata, the Hog-plum (mixed thread):
The last 2 photographs are of the Toon Tree [Toona ciliata].
Flora of Panipat: Toona ciliata from Herbal garden panipat:
Toona ciliata from Herbal Garden Samalkha Panipat
Request Tree ID 53 – Bangalore – RA:
Looks like one of the Meliaceae member closely related to mohagany.
I haven’t seen the flowers yet
The fruits have some similarity with Spondias sp. (may be S.mangifera). This is only a guess.
Could it be Toona ciliata? (Family – Meliaceae)
Could be T.c.
yes Toona ciliata
Toon is a large deciduous tree generally with a wide spreading and handsome crown attaining a height of 45 m and a stem diameter of 2 m. In cities may be of a much smaller stature. Also known as Red Cedar,
Toon is famous for it’s fragrant red wood that is much sought after for use in furniture making, building and ornamental woodwork. The soft wood is easily worked and polishes to a rich red that is enhanced with age.
Flowers are white, fragrant, in a large pyramidal panicle at the ends of the branchlets. Individual flowers about 5 mm long. Flowering period is in spring.
Leaves are alternate, pinnate, consisting of five to seventeen leaflets. Leaflets opposite or irregularly alternate, ovate-lanceolate, 4-13 cm long, often drawn out to a long point at the tip, unequal at the base. Green both surfaces, paler beneath, red and downy when young.
Ref. Flowers of India
Interesting tree species. Please upload pictures of branch and a habit picture as well, if you have the same.
Hooghly : Cedrela toona Roxb. : 11 images. 18 posts by 7 authors.
The images at identify this species as Cedrela toona Roxb. (= Toona ciliata M.Roem.).
“Bengal Plants” has one more.
Fine pics. Flowers seems quite robust. It has started blooming in Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) also (16.3.13).
I imagine why you dont call it Toona cilliata M.Roem.
I was also wondering it as a different plant until I read … mail.
Thank you very much …
One interesting point in the ‘Bengal Plants’ –
(i) leaves usually 7-jugately pinnate, panicles glabrous; sepals ovate-acute; capsule sub-globose…… ————- C. toona Roxb.
(ii) leaves usually 9-jugately pinnate; petiole long; panicles puberulous; sepals orbicular; capsule ellipsoid…. —— C. microcarpa C. DC.
I was hesitant and wanted to go for the C. microcarpa. I am very sorry for not providing its Bengali names, the names are confusing though. The ‘Bengal Plants’, ‘Flora Indica’ and ‘Hortus Suburbanus Calcuttensis’ refer it as তুন (TOON). But, local people call it মহানিম (MAHAANEEM), though according to the ‘Bengal Plants’ MAHHANEEM is Melia azedarach L. Some people also call it as পাঁউ (PAU).
the local name Mahanim is shared by three trees with similar looking pinnate leaves
Ailanthus excelsa in Oriya
Toona ciliata (Cedrella toona) in Hindi and Bengali
Melia azedarach in Bengali
Thank you very much Sir for the interesting information on regional names of plants.
Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) is also known as Ghora neem (Ghora meaning horse) in Bengal and Assam. But I don’t know its exact relationship with horses.
Yes, Melia azedarach L.is also known as GHORA-NEEM in Bengali.
But, sometimes i think that actually it could be GORA-NEEM in older days. GORA in the sense of either Bigger or More (bitter tasted), as we have PATI-LEBU (NEBU) and GORA-LEBU (Citrus aurantifolia and C. medica).
toona ciliata, chandigarh : Attachments (5). 2 posts by 2 authors.
photographed in chandigarh
in the months of may and june
Thanks … for sharing another Meliaceae member observed during your recent visit to Chandigarh.
D request – 03082013PC3 : Attachments (5). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Could this plant be the Toon tree – Toona ciliata (Meliaceae)?
These trees are growing as avenue trees in Delhi. They flower in April.
Und : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2).- 1 Mb each.
pls help to identify this meliaceae member
It is Toona ciliata as far as I can see from the thumbnails. Smaller attachments would be great!
From dehiscence of capsules(fruits) and inflorescence it seems Toona ciliata. The floral parts are quite aggregated and overshadowing and do not give a clear vision of leaf structure.
Und : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2). – 1 Mb each.
Pls help to identify this meliaceae member leaves n fruit image I have attached here
It is Toona ciliata Roem. Tree, tall tree usually found in the altitude around 1200m
Tree For ID : Jim Corbett,Uttarakhand : 050614 : AK-11 : 3 posts by 2 authors.
Tree seen in the Corbett area with green fruits.
Is it Toona Species?
Toona ciliata is known to occur in the area. Entire leaflet margins suggest it T.ciliata. Locally called as “Tun“, “Toni“, “Sun“.
Thank you. I guess Toona id was given to me by the guide.
Tree For ID : Jim Corbett,Uttarakhand : 080614 : AK-21 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
Tree seen inside the forest area on 17/5/14.
A guess, is this Toona ciliata?
Yes it is the same species posted earlier.
SYMBIOSIS : 742 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Which tree? ABAPR01/19 : 3 posts by 2 authors.
Yesterday, on a drive to a nearby dam, I saw many of these growing by the roadsides. I photographed two different specimens to get all the details. Could it be an Ailanthus sp.? Please advise.
14 April 2015
This is more likely to be Cedrella toona..
Evergreen Meliaceae Tree for ID :: MK APR-004 2016 : 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (7)
Please help me in identifying the tree found on roadside (moist deciduous forest adjoining). I could not see the flowers. Is is an Chukrasia sp.?
Height: 15 m
Location: Mettupalayam – Conoor ghat road (NH 67)
Date: 04 April 2016
There is mix up. First 2 pictures are of Symplocos and the rest would belong to the family Simaroubaceae
I doubt Symplocos… Don’t think that. The pictures look like that of Toona ciliata.
Toona ciliata for me too
They are not of Symplocos or Simaroubaceae,
Thank you …, I will do my best to develop the field botany expertise. I am sorry for the mixing up of plant pictures, my computer has little sw problem and so many of my recent posts are with mixed photos. I will be correcting it in the future. Thank you.
Lalbagh Botanical Gardens Bangalore
Date: 19 FEB 2017 … Altitude: ~ 906 m (2972 ft) asl
Cedrela odorata L. … (family: Meliaceae) … exotic
We have no postings on this plant so far in efi.
We have a few postings of from Lalbagh, Banglore of Toona ciliata (and from many other places in India), a different species as per detail below:
Trees of Lalbagh – Bangalore – RA – Toona ciliata, M. Roem. <=> Indian Toon Tree
Pl. have a re-look.
Thanks … I have labelled the photos as per the tree bearing the placard; though of course, it is well known that the placards can very well be wrong.
For me the ID is correct. Nevertheless, it is better to watch out for the flowers and fruits and any close up of leaves would also help for confirmation..
it is Toona ciliata.
Thanks very much … for the ID. Will correct my notes.
¿ neem-like fruits ? – indiantreepix | Google Groups : 8 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (2)
…. not sure what these fruits are. ID please.
Place: Matheran (bazaar street)
Date: 18 FEB 09
it could be toona ciliata
Toona cilaita (synonym Cedrela toona more popular) … commonly known as: Australian red cedar, bastard cedar, Burma cedar, Indian cedar, Indian mahogany, moulmein cedar, red cedar, toon • Assamese: পমা pama • Bengali: তূণ tun • Hindi: नन्दी nandi, नन्दिक nandik, तुन tun, तुन्न tunna • Kannada: ಬೆಳಮ್ದಿ belamdi • Kashmiri: द्रब् drab, द्रावी drawi, तूनी tuni • Malayalam: ചന്ദന വേമ്പ് candana veemp, ചുവന്ന അകില് cuvanna akil, മദഗിരിവേമ്പ് madagiriveemp, പടുകരണ patukarana • Manipuri: তাইৰেল tairel • Marathi: नांदुरकी nandurki, तुन्न tunna • Mizo: teipui • Nepalese: तूनी tunee, तुनि tuni • Oriya: teipui, mahalimbo • Pali: कच्छक kacchaka • Punjabi: ਚਿੱਟੀ ਸਿਰੀਂਹ chitti sirinh, ਚਿੱਟੀ ਸਰੀਂਹ chitti sarinh, ਦੱਲੀ dalli, ਦਰਲ daral, ਦੋਰੀ dori, ਤੁਣ tun • Sanskrit: कच्छपः kacchapah, नन्दी nandi, नन्दिकः nandikah, तुन्न tunna • Tamil: ஆயில் ayil, மலயப்பூத்துன்னமரம் malaya-p-pu-t-tunna-maram, மதகரிவேம்பு matakari-vempu, தூணாமரம் tuna-maram • Telugu: నందివృక్షము nandivrikshamu • Urdu: نندي nandi, نندك nandik, تون tun, تن tuna
Cedrela toona is a soft wood tree. I wonder why is it called Indian Mahogany. Mahogany is known to be a hard wooded.
compiled few lines from internet … … the wood resembles mahogany:
… it’s fragrant red wood that is much sought after for use in furniture making, building and ornamental woodwork …
x x x x x x x x
… The timber is red in colour, easy to work and very highly valued. It was used extensively for furniture, wood panelling and construction, including shipbuilding, …
x x x x x x x x x
… The tree is termite resistant …
x x x x x x x x
… This species is the most widely distributed Toona. It is commonly cultivated as an avenue tree in India. The timber is highly valued, especially in India and Australia, and is frequently used by carpenters in Yunnan. Worldwide, the wood of this species is used in house and boat construction, for high-grade furniture and carvings, and to make tea-chests, oil casks, pencils, and musical instruments. …
x x x x x x x x
The wood is hard and durable, reddish, and is the best furniture wood in Northern India
Small tree Id from Bangladesh_SM_1404 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Pl. Post other images.
Check for Meliaceae.
Pl. check /species/m—z/m/meliaceae
Pl. check Aglaia edulis (Roxb.) Wall. and other species of this genus found in Bangladesh.
it may be Toona ciliata… I am not sure. Specimen should match with herbarium sheet.
Thanks, … You may be right as per images at Toona ciliata
MS May, 2019/01 Shrub for id (Rutaceae ?) : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Location : Ailawng, Mizoram
Altitude : ca 1,150 m.
Date : 10-05-2019
Habit : Shrub or small tree
Habitat : Wild
Meliaceae can also be considered…
Thanks, …, for the family id.
Pl. check Toona ciliata M.Roem.
To me appears close.
Toona ciliata M. Roem.: 1 very high res. images.
Location: Surkhet, West Nepal
Altitude: 786 m.
Date: 28 June 2021
Habit : Wild
Toona ciliata M.Roem.
Matheran :: Apr 1, 2023 · 12:09 PM IST :: about 800 m (2,625 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach for correcting the ID at iNaturalist
Toona ciliata M.Roem.: 6 high res. images.
Location: Panera Pakha, Jajarkot, West Nepal
Date: 30 May 2023
Habit : Wild
Biodiversity In India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (Description- Toona hexandra (Wall. ex Roxb.) Roem. with Toona ciliata Roem. as one of the synonyms) Flowers of India Wikipedia India Biodiversity Portal Biotik PIER species info