Large Leaf Periwinkle, Large Periwinkle, Greater Periwinkle, Blue Periwinkle;
Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia), Rhodos, Cyprus (C-Mountains, N-Cyprus), East Aegaean Isl., European Turkey, Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon), Sicily, Italy, former Yugoslavia, Albania, Slovakia (introduced), Portugal (introduced), Spain (introduced), France, Corsica (introduced), Sardinia, Malta (introduced), Crimea (introduced), Greece (introduced), Crete (introduced), Austria (introduced), England (introduced), Ireland (introduced), Switzerland (introduced), Morocco (c), Algeria (c), Ukraine (introduced), Northern Caucasus (introduced), Transcaucasus (introduced), Kazakhstan (introduced), Tajikistan (introduced), Uzbekistan (introduced), Costa Rica (introduced), Australia (introduced) (Western Australia (introduced), South Australia (introduced), Queensland (introduced), New South Wales (introduced), Victoria (introduced), Tasmania (introduced)), Peru (introduced), Argentina (introduced), Venezuela (introduced), Uruguay (introduced), Juan Fdz. Isl. (introduced), Chile (introduced), Mexico (introduced), Ecuador (introduced), Bolivia (introduced), Colombia (introduced), New Zealand (introduced), Chatham Isl. (introduced), South Africa (Cape Prov.(introduced)), China (introduced) (Jiangsu (introduced), Yunnan (introduced), Zhejiang (introduced)), Taiwan (introduced), Lord Howe Isl. (introduced), Norfolk Isl. (introduced), trop. Africa (introduced), Madagascar (introduced), Azores (introduced) (Flores Isl. (introduced)), Madeira (introduced) (Madeira Isl. (introduced)), Canary Isl. (introduced) (Gran Canaria (introduced), Tenerife (introduced), La Gomera (introduced), Hierro (introduced), La Palma Isl. (introduced)), Hawaii (introduced) (East Maui (introduced)), India (introduced), Pakistan (introduced), USA (introduced) (Alabama (introduced), Arkansas (introduced), Arizona (introduced), California (introduced), Georgia (introduced), Idaho (introduced), Illinois (introduced), Kentucky (introduced), Louisiana (introduced), Massachusetts (introduced), Maryland (introduced), Mississippi (introduced), North Carolina (introduced), New Mexico (introduced), New York (introduced), Ohio (introduced), Oregon (introduced), Pennsylvania (introduced), South Carolina (introduced), Tennessee (introduced), Texas (introduced), Utah (introduced), Virginia (introduced), Washington State (introduced)), Canada (introduced) (British Columbia (introduced)) as per Catalogue of Life;

Vinca major and V. minor – efloraofindia | Google Groups : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)
A few months back there was a lot of discussion on this group and some confusion primarily because of representation of the two species at FOI. Whereas the specimens of V. major are not typical of the species, the true specimens of V. major are depicted under V. minor. I have collected a lot of V. major in Kashmir, Manali and other hill stations. The plant is much lax with trailing branches reaching several metres, leaves which are usually ovate, almost as broad as long, truncate or cordate at base,  flowers nearly 1.5-2 cm across borne on almost 3-5 cm long stalks. The leaf margins and calyx lobes are ciliate.
I could not find V. minor in India but was lucky to find it growing in California here. The plant is with shorter branches, smaller nearly elliptic-oblong leaves which are narrowed at both ends, smaller flowers nearly 2.5 cm across on nearly 1-2 cm long stalks. Leaf margins and calyx lobes are glabrous
I am uploading both V. major from Manali and V. minor from California to show better comparison so that V. minor could be searched in India and brought to our databases.

I am posting pictures which I have. Attachments (3). The first two I believe to be of Vinca minor. I have put a cropped picture showing leaf margin, which is supposed to be hairless in Vinca minor.
In the 3rd picture, which I believe to be Vinca major, the leaf margins are prominently hairy.
According to Flora of China, Vinca minor has the following characteristics: “Leaf blade oblong, ovate, or elliptic, 1-4.5 X 0.5-2.5 cm, base rounded or cuneate, margin not ciliate”.

You have to see the two growing in nature to appreciate the differences. I believe your first two specimens are V. major and third V. probably V.minor (though not typical).

Found V. major also in California. Attaching leaf margin blow up to highlight differences between the two species. The flower size of V. major is almost twice (nearly 5 cm diam.) as compared to V. minor.  Attachments (2)

Having found more of Vinca major as well as Vinca minor in California here. I find the following clear differences:

Vinca major                                                                                  Vinca minor

1. Plants loosely spreading on ground with longer internodes    Plants compactly spreading on ground with shorter internodes
2. Leaves broadly ovate, 5-9 cm long, 3/4 to as broad                Leaves elliptic to oblong, 2-4 cm long, about 1/2 as broad
3. Leaf base truncate or subcordate, margin minutely ciliate   Leaf base rounded or cuneate, margin not ciliate
4. Pedicel 3-5 cm long                                                                  Pedicel 1-2 cm long
5. Flower 3-5 cm in diam                                                              Flower 2.5-3 cm in diam.
I am attaching more photographs from California. Attachments (8)


Apocynaceae for id 010311MK1 :
Please help to id this roadside plant found in Ooty town, Nilgiris.
Is this any Apocynaceae member?

Date/Time- 06-12-2011 / 03:15 PM
Location- Place, Altitude, GPca.2100asl; Ooty, TN
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- roadsides
Plant Habit-herb
Height/Length- 1 m long
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- ca.6 x 3 cm; opposite
Inflorescence Type/ Size- axillary
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts- violet; c. 5 cm across


id again:
please help me with the id of this flower.


Flora from Srinagar 24072013 CS 3 : Attachments (2). 5 posts by 3 authors.

Name: Vinca minor
Family: Apocynaceae
The first image is the wild one and hopefully the second image is the cultivated variegated form of the same. Please confirm

I believe both are cultivated

Rather Vinca major
I have seen V. minor in California, looks different.

These mails of mine should help

Sir ji I did tag it as Vinca major as you had identified the image from my last trip. Then when I was browsing I came across many sites indicating this as V. minor. I thought I had saved your ID wrongly. Your expert eye catches the distinction.  So I will change this back to V. major. Thank you.


What flower?/ABMAR31 :  6 posts by 4 authors.
I have a feeling that I should know this flower that looks a bit like the Morning Glory. The white edged pentagon at the centre is almost symmetrical. Please advise.
Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
27 March 2015

looks like Vinca major of apocynaceae
I have only seen them as prostrate gound cover … was it?

Thank you … Yes, there was quite a spread of these on the ground. You are spot on–a Vinca major it is.

Vinca minor? A garden escape that has become naturalized in the hills.

Thank you … I am including a tight crop of the earlier picture of leaves to show the hairy margins. I took this info from the www.flowersofindia.net which says that hairy leaf margins point to the Vinca major. Please advise. Attachments (1)

Yes Vinca major
This upload of mine in 2010 should help.

I found a slope covered in these periwinkles and photographed it to share here.
Vinca major (Large-leaf Periwinkle)

Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
11 April 2015
Attachments (2)

it the leaf margin confirms v major
… that link is a good reminder.. all your pictures show the differences
its funny all the vinca major I have seen were in corners of front yards in new england states, spreading sprawling and coming back year after year..
and the v minor in hanging baskets, not really hanging like in long trellis but hanging freely in the breeze…
looks great…
I have yet to see them in nurseries to buy them in this ganges delta.


Flora of Himachal Pradesh: Vinca minor from Summer Hill Road Shimla : Attachments (4). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Vinca minor from Summer Hill Road Shimla

Very beautiful pics…

Should be Vinca major as per Vinca major and V. minor – efloraofindia | Google Groups 


Plant for ID–PC-14-13.10.2015 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
please identify the plant from Ranikhet, Uttarakhand.

The flower appears to be Vinca minor (Apocynaceae). However, Let’s wait for confirmation.

efi pages on Vinca minor & Vinca major  

Yes Vinca minor. A common ornamental in hill stations of Uttarakhand.

Should be Vinca major as per Vinca major and V. minor – efloraofindia | Google Groups

Thanks … I think your ID is correct. The plant in picture is Vinca major. I will correct the ID.



Ground Cover for ID, Dalhousie, Himachal Pradesh, NAW-JUL17-09 : 10 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)

Kindly identify this ground covering plant with purple flowers photographed in Dalhousie, Himachal Pradesh in May 2017.
Flowers about 3 cms. wide.

…  major or… minor?

Pl. check in efi site with these words as I am unable to recall genus name right now.

Pl. check with images & keys at Vinca minor

I think, it should be Vinca major

Kindly see the differences between V. major and V. minor as provided by … Sir.

I think I checked them before giving I’d.

As per comparative images and keys by … at Vinca, it should be Vinca minor

Yes, … It is Vinca minor
Vinca major has long trailing branching even more than 1m in length and mostly dropping down the hill slopes or retaining walls. It has long internodes and slightly larger flowers.
I have large number of photographs of V. minor with me. But seen V. major always in vegetative

On further scrutiny, it is Vinca major  only as per keys at Flora of China
We do not have Vinca minor from India so far in our database. I think it is also not reported from India. 

…, long pedicel in photographs is indicative of Vinca major.

Thanks, … You were also initially right.

Hair on the leaf margins is supposed to indicate Vinca major – i think these do have a hairy margin tho the pictures are not very clear.

Id for Chamba plant: 1 image- 1 Mb.
Pl. id. plant from Chamba district in HP

I believe the violet flower is from Vinca minor 

Yes it is Vinca minor. The wrinkled cordate leaves should be ignored. They belong to different plant.

On further scrutiny, it is Vinca major  only as per keys at Flora of China
We do not have Vinca minor from India so far in our database. I think it is also not reported from India. 


SK1082 11 APR-2018 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Location:  Nagarkot, Nepal  
Date: 3 April 2018
Altitude: 6000 ft.
Habit: Cultivated

Thank you …! Vinca major ‘Variegata  ???

Yes, … To me also appear close to images at Vinca major 


Vinca major L. : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6) – around 600 kb each.
Location:  Godawari, Nepal  
Date: 18 April 2018
Altitude: 5000 ft.
Habit : Cultivated


Vinca major AT/MAY 2018/04 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Vinca major
Bigleaf periwinkle, Large periwinkle or Greater periwinkle
April 2018
This species has leaves with ciliate margins and hairy petiole. Pedicel is long

at Dalhousie in Dec 09; 24th of October, 2008/ 11.42 am: Kodaikanal: 2100 meters; 17 th Jan. 2010 / 6.57 pm–  Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka; Solan HP- 11-6-2006; 14.5.10- Avalanche- Kunda Forest; from Manali; from Manali and Kashmir;


Vinca major: 1 high res. image.
Habit:Creeping herbaceous
Location: kulgam, j&k.

Vinca major L. !


SK 3560 10 June 2022: 5 very high res. images.

Location: Kew, London, UK
Altitude: 19 m.
Date: 04 April 2022
Habit : Looks Wild

Vinca major oxyloba.
4 images.

Vinca major var. oxyloba Stearn but GBIF says this is syn of Vinca major L. And the flower looks different for Vinca major var. oxyloba Stearn and Vinca major L. !

Vinca major flowers are completely different.

I know the other one as the name used by the RHS which is Vinca major var oxyloba… growing in my old garden.
(I never normally label my pics with var or subsp)
1 and 2. My pics below to show the difference between Vinca major and Vinca minor.
3. back of flower
4. Vinca major var oxyloba.
4 images.

Yes I agree … ! Just wondering, GBIF labled them as one !

Just found another pic to show back of Vinca major var oxyloba
1 image.



J&K, Mattan, April 2023 :: Vinca major :: ARK2023-026: 2 high res. images.

These flowers were captured at the Martand Surya mandir in Mattan near Pahalgam, J&K in April 2023.
Guessing them to be Vinca major based on eFI and FoI pics.
Requested to please confirm.

Yes …, quite common in valley.

I also saw it on the Shankaracharya hill in abundance.

Images from the Shankaracharya hill.
2 high res. images.