Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 850 1826. (Syn: Chrozophora plicata var. rottleri (Geiseler) Müll.Arg.; Croton rottleri Geiseler);
kroh-ZOH-for-uh — from Greek chrozo (colour) and phoreo (to bear)
ROTT-ler-ee — named for Johann Peter Rottler (1749-1836) , missionary in India
commonly known as: Rottler’s chrozophora • Hindi: शदेवी shadevi • Kannada: ಲಿಮ್ಗಮೆಣಸು lingamenasu • Konkani: सुवर्ली survarli • Marathi: सुर्यवर्ती suryavarti • Nepalese: चोटकी हुङ्काथ chotaki hunkatath, सुर्यवर्त suryawarta • Sanskrit: सुर्यवर्त suryavarta • Telugu: ఎర్ర మిరియము erra miriyamu, గురుగుఛెట్టు guruguchettu, లింగమిరపlinga mirapa
Distribution: India, Myanmar, Thailand, Andaman Islands, and Malesia.
1a.Ovary and fruits lepidote, never stellate-pubescent 2
b.Ovary and fruits stellate-pubescent, never lepidote 3
2a.Leaves not much longer than broad; ripe carpels reddish purple 1. C. hierosolymitana
b.Leaves twice as long as broad; ripe carpels bluish purple 2. C. oblongifolia
3a.Leaves both radical and cauline, eglandular at base; stigmas orange; fruits grey or black, non-tinctorial when wetted 3. C. prostrata (syn. of  C.plicata)
b.Leaves cauline only, 2-glandular at base; stigmas red (? as per efi thread); fruits purple, tinctorial when wetted 4. C. rottleri


weed for id: this is growing in paddy fields and on bandhs two weeks ago

… species of Chrozophora … most probably C. rottleri.

Few days back similar plant posted by .. at efi thread
Please wait for comments. Yes it seems to be Chrozophora rottleri. Although there is some confusion in eFlora of Pakistan, the two species are quite distinct:

Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 850, 1826; Welzen, Blumea 44: 420, Fig. 2, Map1. syn: Croton rottleri Geiseler; Chrozophora plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng. var. rottleri (Geiseler) Müll.Arg.

Characterised by somewhat erect habit, larger leaves (up to 6 cm long), lighter green, surface uneven above but not folded (plicate), base usually symmetrical, inflorescence longer than leaf at least in fruit; fruit with flat stellate hairs, lepidote (rough, covered with scales, spreading (patent) hairs absent.
Nationaal herbarium 1
Nationaal herbarium 2

Chrozophora plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 850 1826. Syn: Chrozophora obliqua Schweinf.; C. prostrata Dalzell & Gibson
Plants prostrate, leaves smaller (up to 3 cm long), darker green, surface strongly folded (plicate), base oblique; inflorescence shorter than leaves; fruit with spreading hairs, stellate hairs three dimensional.

I had uploaded C. plicata recently
efi thread
Genus Chrozophora was revised in Blumea: Welzen, P.C.  van. 1999. Revision and Phylogeny of subtribes Chrozophorinae and Doryxylinae (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 44: 411–436.

I am uploading the Fruit of Chrozophora plicata to make comparison easier. It is unreduced so that it can be enlarged to see the differences.

.. … do we gather that the fruits of C. plicata are coated with downy hair, and considerably smaller in size (compared to that of C. rottleri) ?

..,  size I may not know, but hairs yes

As per BSI flora, C. prostrata Dalz.& Gibs. is a prostrate herb, leaf base subcordate and racemes short and C. rottleri (Gies) Juss. syn C. plicata Voigt. is an erect herb 80 cm tall, leaf base truncate or cuneate and racemes elongate. Both, the Alibag plant and Vikaspuri plant, seem to be the latter.

BSI Flora Part 4 containing Euphorbiaceae was publishes in 1985, where as recent revision of genus Chrozophora was published by Welzen in 1999.
Welzen, P.C.  van. 1999. Revision and Phylogeny of subtribes Chrozophorinae and Doryxylinae (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 44: 411–436.
As per Kew Plant List C. prostrata is considered as synonym of C. plicata. Also C. rottleri and C. plicata are two distinct species with the differences I had given earlier yesterday.

Chrozophora rottleri at Nagpur: Sharing few macro snaps of Chrozophora rottleri. Leaves were hairy.
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Location: Ambazari lake, Nagpur.
Date/Time: 05-05-2012 / 08:20AM
Plant habit: Herb (erect herb with silvery hairs)
Habitat: Wild.
Flower was too small, hardly 2 to 3 mm.



Chrozophora rottleri :: Pune Feb. 2013: (10 images) Please validate this Chrozophora sp. I think this is Chrozophora rottleri.
Family : Euphorbiaceae.
Observed in Pune in dried riverbed.
Not exactly prostrate but at some places it appeared prostrate too. Some plants like shrub with a height of 3 feet or more.
Overall plants hairy.
Leaves triangular with length and breadth almost same. Large sized leaf around 15cm.
Inflorescence with basal red female flowers and apical male yellow
In a selected twigs the inflorescence appeared longer than the corresponding leaves associated with it.
Ovary/ Fruit: Hairy with stellate flat hairs as shown in the magnified pictures because of which it points to being Chrozophora rottleri

Nice and Complete set of Pics

The plant in the photograph is surely Chrozophora rottleri

I think that the identity is correct.  … who has revised the genus will be able to confirm it.

ID Request 270913SG-B :  Attachments (2). 4 posts by 4 authors.
Please help identify this herb found at Dhavlas, Maharashtra. Photographed 25Sep13.

Chrozophora sp of Euphorbiaceae.

Chrozophora species so far in efi. 

Yes, it is a Chrozophora. The stellate pubescent fruits confirms it as Chrozophora rottleri (Geisl.) A.Juss. ex Spreng.


Euphorbiaceae fortnight::chrozophora plicata:: mm2 : Attachments (2). 5 posts by 2 authors. chrozophora plicata alibaug

In my opinion, it is Chrozophora rottleri



Euphorbiaceae fortnight :: Chrozophora rottleri in Thane :: DV17 : 3 images. 3 posts by 2 authors. Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng. at Yeoor Hills (part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park), Thane on 20 MAY 12
at Vaghbil, Thane on 13 APR 08


Wild plant for ID : 260411 : AK-3:
Taken near Dindori, Maharashtra at a farm on the 27th of Feb, 2011.
Tiny plant, flowers resembling that of Castor but the leaves were different.

– This to me looks like Chrozophora plicata from Euphorbiaceae.

– As per KEW Plant list Chrozophora rottleri and C. plicata are two distinct species. The true C. rottleri to my mind is one displayed at FOI website with non-pleated leaves and white flowers whereas the above plant, and one I had uploaded a few days back clearly pleated (plicate ) leaves and smaller pink flowers, characteristic of C. plicata..

– I think this is Chrozophora plicata very common weed in Bengal

– In Maharashtra 2 species of Chrozophora are found, the foto is of Chrozophora prostrata Dalz. & Gibs. syn. C. plicata Spreng. and not C. rottleri syn. C. plicatum Voight.

– Again reverse
C. prostrata Dalz. & Gibs is synonym of C. plicata (Vahl) A. Juss. ex Spreng according to recent databases

A reply in another thread:
“The real Chrozophora plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng. does not occur in India. It is confined to Africa and Middle East. What is given as C. plicata in Indian floras are now known as Chrozophora rottleri (Geisl.) A.Juss. ex Spreng.

Yes, this is Chrozophora rottleri (Geisl.) A.Juss. ex Spreng.


Hoogly Today : Chrozophora plicata (Vahl) A. Juss. ex Spreng. : Attachments (8). 1 post by 1 author.
Found in occasionally cultivated land.
Bengali Name : KHUDI OKRA (খুদি ওকরা)
ID help :-

A reply in another thread: “The real Chrozophora plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng. does not occur in India. It is confined to Africa and Middle East. What is given as C. plicata in Indian floras are now known as Chrozophora rottleri (Geisl.) A.Juss. ex Spreng.


Chrozophora rottleri
A widely growing plant in dry waterbeds of the Mutha river in Pune city.

Lovely pics indeed…first two are outstanding..

Euphorbiaceae Fortnight : Chrozophora plicata : Nasik : 091113 : AK-57 : Attachments (3). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Chrozophora plicata seen at Dindori, a place near Nasik.

The correct name of this plant is Chrozophora rottleri (Geisl.) A.Juss. ex Spreng. (Synonym: C. plicata (non (Vahl.) A.Juss. ex Spreng., as used in old Indian floras). In Marathi it is called Suryavarti and in Konkanese as Suravalli.


Sharing few pics of Chrozophora rottleri.
Leaves were hairy.
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Location: Ambazari lake, Nagpur.
Plant habit: Herb (erect herb with silvery hairs)
Habitat: Wild.
Flower too small, hardly 2 to 3 mm.

Yes, this is Chrozophora rottleri



Id plant please :  Attachments (4). 5 posts by 4 authors.
My guess is this is some euphorbiaceae member experts please id this plant
found in semi desert area Pandharpur, Maharashtra NOVEMBER 2013

I think this could be Chrozophora sp.

Agreeing with … thought. It must be species of Chrozophora.

Chrozophora rottlerii

Thanks Both of you for making this id


Herb ID from Bangladesh SM152 : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1).
Habit: Herb
Habitat: Wild
Location: Rajshashi

Some Euphorbiaceae member.

Chrozophora sp., most probably C. rottleri

Chrozophora rottleri


Attached images are Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng.
Date :31.08.2014
Location: Assam
Family :Euphorbiaceae
Genus & species : Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng.
Habitat: Grows wild on open space.

You are right.


Chennai outskirts : Euphorbiaceae Shrub GE04102014-1 : 5 posts by 3 authors. 1 image.

Chennai outskirts about 4 ft high,
yellow stems; Male and female flowers on same plant, male flowers not seen on this image. Flowers and fruit in August, the fruit is tri-lobed and has soft spines
Please help ID this

Chrozophora sp. of Euphorbiaceae

Chrozophora rottleri.

Thanks to … for the responses and  the id.
I would really appreciate if you could share how the species has been distinguished.

Chrozophora rottleri. Euphorbiaceae


Feb2015sk12 Hooghly – Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng. : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)
Photographed on 15-May-2013, a common wild herb.

Attractive pics, nice macro of male flowers too, which I missed recently..

NA15/07 Identification of the plant : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Id required for the plant found growing near Ranmal Lake, Jamnagar (Gujarat)
Date: 27th February 2015
The plant has red tinche (as seen in picture)

Chrozophora rottleri

Thank you Sir for the id !

can some one please explain the menaing of tinche?
i always thought a tinche (derived from Latin) meant something to do with a fish? as in a fish called tinca?

Your definition (or knowledge) of “tinche” is absolutely right [it is plural of fish tinca]

A typing error occurred from my side (or should I say brain spell check error)
The written word should have been ‘tinge’
Definition: A slight amount of color incorporated or added
(Which was in reference to color red present in attached plant picture )
Thank you for the information and correcting me! 🙂

thanks … I now see it. typo of course but bent on finding something scientific my brain jumped to the fish name. sorry. I should have thought of a usual typo  rather than an exotic name of fish. I see you are a recent memeber. and am enjoying your submissions


ID of Herb 11111102:

Found a herb (probably Some Chrozophora sp. family Euphorbiaceae)
Date/Time-08/11/2011- 05 PM
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Nashik, Maharashtra
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Weed
Plant Habit- Herb
Size: around 1 feet or a little lesser
Leaves Type: simple
Shape: slightly lobed into 3 parts. margin wavy
Size- 7-8 cm x 5-6 cm
Ovate with silvery hair on both faces of leaves stem, tender parts of plants etc.
Flower: calyx/Corolla: abt 0.8 cm 5 numbers lance shaped.
stigmas 5 yellow
tallest part of the flower
Anthers yellow
Fruits Type: 3 lobed, spiny with persistent styles red in appearance

Yes …, … Chrozophora.
Am not sure of the species.
Have got some views of Chrozophora rottleri at my flickr photostream

i guess Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng

Thanks a lot … I shall mark the plant. Just wanted to know if there are any other species of Chrozophora found in and around western ghats?

yes just two species, Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng. and Chrozophora prostrata Dalzell.

For finding identity of this plant perhaps we will have to go through this one Welzen, P.C. van. 1999. Revision and Phylogeny of subtribes Chrozophorinae and Doryxylinae (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 44: 411–436.
C. prostrata Dalzell & Gibson is now considered as synonym of Chrozophora plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng.

C. plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng. is often confused with C. rottleri, because one of the first leads in Prain’s key (1918) asks for the length of the inflorescence relative to the surrounding leaves. The inflorescence should be shorter than the leaves in C. plicata and longer in C. rottleri. However, they are only longer in C. rottleri when the inflorescences are old and have shed their seeds. The best character to separate both species is in the stellate hairs on the ovary/fruit, these hairs are flat, 2-dimensional, almost lepidote in C. rottleri (lacking the patent hairs), and normal, 3-dimensional in C. plicata. Furthermore, the leaf blades in C. plicata are usually smaller (less than 3 cm long) and of a much darker green (at least when dry).
A close up of fruit only should help.

Will this photo serve the purpose?

It should be Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng. as per images herein

Chrozophora rottleri in my opinion.

Chrozophora plicata : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Found in road side near Chengalpet in Kanchipuram district.
The number of plants was high so that it appeared like cultivated in farmland.

Unable to decide but likely to be C. rottleri. 

As per the eFI site it appears to be rottleri:

It is okay. I wrote that I am unable to decide because I do know from the images whether radical leaves were present in addition to the cauline leaves which we are seeing here and in that case it will be the closely related species C. prostrata.


Submission of Chrozophora oblongifolia : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)

Plant name: Chrozophora oblongifolia (Del.) Adr. Juss. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. ed. 16, 3: 850. 1826.
Family: Euphorbiaceae
A herb to30 cm tall; Leaf-blades triangular-ovate to triangular-lanceolate, 4-7 x 1.5-3 cm, acute or obtuse at the apex, cuneate, rounded or subtruncate at the base,dentate, 3(-5)-nerved from the base, nerves impressed above and prominent beneath, densely pubescent; Inflorescences up to 1.5 cm long, supra-axillary or leaf-opposed. Male flowers subsessile, yellowish,;stamens 4-7 (-12), variously connate;Female flowers: pedicels 5 mm long, extending to 2 cm in fruit and becoming deflexed, 1-3 on a short peduncle;Fruit rounded-trilobate, 5-6 x 7-9 mm, somewhat muricate, lepidote, bluish-purple. Seeds triangular-ovoid, 4-5 x 3-4 mm, coarsely tuberculate, yellowish-grey.
Photographed at a dried pond near Narasimha konda of Nellore district.

This is the first record of the species outside Rajasthan which is the only State in India where this species has been reported so far.
However, I have some doubts as to the identity as I do not see the “lepidote” scales on the fruits that you mention in the description. Only plenty of stellate hairs are discernible form the images.

Can you notice two glands at the base of the leaves?  The stigmas are red. This is indeed Chrozophora rottleri . Such narrow leaves are known in the species.

REQUEST FOR ID : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
The abundance of this plant in a crop field. a need for its identity.

Chrozophora rottleri.

It is Chrozophora rottlerii of Euphorbiaceae


Validation of Chrozophora : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Request for validation of Chrozophora tinctoria from Bilaspur. Photographed in June 2020.

Seems to be Chrozophora rottleri.

For me your ID is correct. It is seen in the outskirts of the city here.


Need help with id of weed on black soil: 1 image.
Please help with this id: photo taken on 10/3/2021 in Bhopal.

Chrozophora only

Yes. This is Chrozophora only. Common in the outskirts of Mysore city (in wild)

Chrozophora rottleri  ???

Thanks, … for the id.
Yes, appears close to images at Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng. as per comparative images at Chrozophora



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