Ficus tsjakela Burm.f., Fl. Indica 227 1768.;

India (Throughout up to 1,700 m, also frequently planted), Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Indochina, Japan, Malesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Soloman Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietanm as per Synopsis of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Lal Babu Chaudhary*, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari and G. V. S. Murthy-   Taiwania, 57(2): 193-216, 2012;
Vernacular names : Tamil: Kal-aal Malayalam: Chela; Kara; Karal Kannada: Bilibasuri; Boviyamara

Receptacles (figs) 2-6 together on short tubercles (on a thickened common stalk) in the axis of present or fallen leaves. Leaves coriaceous (leathery when mature) very glossy above. Leaves oval in shape, acuminate apex and round base, 3-5 ribbed. Figs whitish-yellow and dotted when ripe………….. ……Ficus tjakela
Receptacles (figs) axillary pairs not on tubercles. Leaves membranous (not leathery) hardly glossy. Leaves ovate-oblong ovate. apex slightly acuminated and base rounded or subcordate, 3 ribbed. Fig whitish flushed with red and dotted when ripe……………………………………………………………. ……Ficus infectoria (syn. of Ficus virens Aiton)           


Deciduous trees, often epiphytic, to 15 m high; aerial roots absent; bark surface dark brown, rough, blaze red, fibrous; exudation milky. Leaves simple, alternate spiral, stipulate; stipule 4-7 cm long, lateral, ovate-lanceolate, yellowish-red, foliaceous; petiole 3.5-10 cm long, slender, grooved above, glandular at apex below, glabrous, articulate; lamina 9-21 x 3.5-12 cm, oblong, elliptic-oblong or ovate-oblong, base rounded, subtruncate or cuneate, apex abruptly acuminate, margin entire; coriaceous, glabrous, glossy above; 3-5-ribbed from base, lateral nerves 7-14 pairs, pinnate, prominent, looped near the margin, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers unisexual; inflorescence a syconia, sessile, in clusters of 2-6, on very short crowded tubercles in the axils of the leaves or most frequently at the scars of fallen leaves, depressed-globose, wall thin, orifice small, plane, internal bristles none; basal bracts 3, 2-2.5 x 3-3.5 mm, ovate, concave, persistent; flowers of 4 kinds; male flowers few, sessile, only near the mouth of receptacle, tepals 2-3, ovate, red, free or shortly jointed, shorter than the single stamen; anthers ovate; filaments about as long; female flowers sessile, tepals 3-4, red, lanceolate, free or shortly jointed; ovary superior, obovate, dark red; style elongate; stigma cylindric; gall flowers like female, sessile or with white pedicels. Syconium 5-6 mm across, yellowish-white and dotted, sessile rarely very shortly peduncled; achenes smooth.  

Flowering and fruiting: March-April
Moist deciduous forests, also in the plains; often epiphytic and later becoming independent
Peninsular India and Sri Lanka





Please help me to identify this Ficus tree commonly seen in the tea estates of Valparai.
The glabrous leaf is about 25cm long (petiole-5-6cm); fruits: 0.8cm across; no prop roots.
Tree height is about 8 metres.
Location: near Solayar dam, Valparai, TN
Date: 02 Aug 2012
Alt: 1050 m asl

Please check for Ficus virens variety.

F. virens have bigger fruits

What varieties are here in TN?

This is Ficus tsjakela Burm.f.

The sessile hypanthodium and the long petioles are key characters of this species. 



Sharing the images of Ficus tsjahela Burm.f – MORACEAE from NBNP, Coimbatore.
Location: NBNP, Anaikatti, COimbatore
Date: Jan 2011
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Tree

Have planted a sapling on my property. Got it from Ketaki & Manasi of Oikos. This is what the leaves look like.




ANSEPT65 Please validate-Ficus talbotii? : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5).  
Abbey Falls, Madikeri, Coorg.
August 2014

efi page on Ficus talbotii

Ficus tsjahela Burm.f.

The photographs send by you are identified as Ficus tsjakela Burm.f. not F. talbotii King




ANFEB24 Ficus tsjahela : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (8)
The photographs send by you are identified as Ficus tsjakela Burm.f. not F. talbotii King 



For ID-020210-PKA2 : 11 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3)
Request for ID.
Came across this tree at Paneri in Chandoli region near Human settlement.

Some Ficus species. Ficus infectoria ???

this is Ficus infectoria in bengali we call this plant “Pakur” it provides edible fruits though i have never tasted it. 
Adding another photo of it. please see and confirm me kindly. Attachments (1)

I feel this is Ficus tsjakela. This picture and the picture given by
… would be of two different species, I guess.

i may be wrong … can please send a link where I can the photo and study a bit about Ficus tsjakela. please help.

Sorry for the delay in replaying this post. I was in the field with a tight schedule I couldn’t attend this in time. 
F. tjakela and F. infectoria are two closely related species and are sometime indistinguishable. A field expert who knows the phenology of these 2 species can make out the difference. The later species usually has small leaves when compare to the former. The former has longer petiole than the later. then leaf texture is varied. Please follow the key below (from Gamble).

I do have pictures of both species but I have to search for the same in my collection that is little time consuming exercise and now with the tight field work schedule I may not be able to do the same. But I would upload the pictures as early as I can. But, I have some line drawing from a thesis, once I scan the same I would surely upload it for my friends here.   
Receptacles (figs) 2-6 together on short tubercles (on a thickened common stalk) in the axis of present or fallen leaves. Leaves coriaceous (leathery when mature) very glossy above. Leaves oval in shape, acuminate apex and round base, 3-5 ribbed. Figs whitish-yellow and dotted when ripe…………… Ficus tjakela
Receptacles (figs) axillary pairs not on tubercles. Leaves membranous (not leathery) hardly glossy. Leaves ovate-oblong ovate. apex slightly acuminated and base rounded or subcordate, 3 ribbed. Fig whitish flushed with red and dotted when ripe…
…………………………………………………………………………Ficus infectoria            
Hope you got some clarity. The first character is the key character. 

From the description and key provided by … Can this plant be Ficus tjakela?

Ficus tsjahela Burm. f. receptacles are in cluster more than 2, tubercles are clearly visible and leaves are highly acuminate.

Images by tspkumar


TSP-DEC2015-65-238:Images of Ficus virens (Moraceae) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (4)
It is my pleasure to share few images of Ficus virens  (Moraceae)  Uploading again since my earlier upload bearing no TSP-DEC2015-60-233 contained a few images of Ficus amplissima as well.
Habit: Tree
Habitat: Semi-evergreen forests
Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1200 msl
Date: 20-03-2014, 29-05-2014 and 29-01-2015

I think it may be Ficus tsjakela Burm.f. as per images and keys herein.

All the photographs are confirmed as Ficus tsjakela Burm.f.

This should be Ficus tsjahela Burm. f, with a very distinctive character of clustering figs more than two.



TSP-DEC2015-60-233:Images of Ficus virens ( Moraceae) : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (7)

It is my pleasure to share few images of Ficus virens (Moraceae 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Semi-evergreen forests 

Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1200 msl 

Date: 20-03-2014, 29-05-2014 and 29-01-2015 

I’m wondering if all these images are taken from the same tree?  There seems to be lots of variation.

No …The images belong at least to three trees in Chikmagalur, separated by a considerable distance. One was a strangler…!

while it’s true that Ficus virens displays considerable variation, to me pics no. 3, 7 at least, and maybe 2 belong to Ficus amplissima. Need to see clearer leaves to confirm.

Thanks for your feed back. Checked my files again……Image 1, 3 and 7 pertains to one tree, Image 4, 5 and 6 pertains to another, where as, image 2 pertains to yet another tree a strangler. You are right in pointing out that images 3 and 7 are that of Ficus amplissima (Ref:
In that case Image 1 has to be that of F.amplissima. I request the admin to please ignore this upload. I will upload the images in two separate threads for clarity.
Thanks again … for pointing out




Ficus tree for id 180110MK2 : 8 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (5)
Kindly help to id this Ficus sp. found growing in the river bank of Moyar in Satyamangalam RF.
Leaves 15 – 20cm long.

In absence of arial roots (clinging the stem) and the figs (2.5 cm, orange) it is not correct to attempt ID but from the Ieaves I guess
this to be Ficus drupacea Thunb. v. pubescens (Roth) Corner syn. F. mysorensis. Pls validate

It is not advisable to id (at least) some plants by using pictures especially photographs that doesn’t give key character to reach the
correct species. Here in this case it is very clear that in this picture none of the plant part are ‘pubescent’ even then it reached F.
var. pubescens. with a syn. F. mysorensis. I use to confuse F. mysorensis with F bengalensis (other way as well) and F. drupacea.
To my opinion, one has to thorough by running the key and id plants by using flora keys and field characters. Especially people like … who work as a Junior research fellow and has good prospect in research field as plant taxonomist and ecologist. What I suggest to … to practice is that make herbarium, note down key characters and other field notes then try id with the local flora (like Gamble flora) and then if needed consult experts (for some plant groups you may need to consult people who are expert in that group) and cross check the specimen with herbarium specimens in places like French Research Institute, Pondicherry University and BSI Coimbatore. I doubt the picture is of F tjakela, but as I told you please cross check it with herbarium specimen. The lengthy petiole and glabrous plant parts are my key characters for F tjakela.

The tree in picture is most certainly not Ficus drupacea as its leaves are more like those of Ficus benghalensis. The leaves shown in picture
looks more like those of Ficus infectoria or F tjakela. But then fruits of these two are whitish so its difficult to say which Ficus
this is until more characteristics are available.

Many thanks for your valuable suggestions …, I accept that I did not kept up my preliminary works to be carried out in field. The prime reason behind is that the work is a rapid survey, as we have to cover a long distance. 

The next time, we would do it perfectly.

I think my friend, going to be …, suggestions are an eye
opener for young researchers associated with this group. Hope people take it in right spirits.

Thanks … for putting it so well. I have been saying this in my rather lengthy mails many times. All of us, and certainly the plant researchers on this group, should not try to take short-cuts in ids. Plant identification is a complicated and lengthy process, group like this can help in tentative ids- just like we do when we discuss. BUT ids on this group have to be checked and confirmed the hard way- by using OWN observations and interpretation of literature, herbarium data.
…, next time please try and convince your funders that a “rapid” survey of plants can turn out to be inaccurate thus
jeopardizing the whole process, and hence sufficient time needs to be allocated for plant identification the correct way.

Any possibilities for Ficus virens? I think it matches.

To me looks closer to images at Ficus tsjakela Burm.f.



: Attached photos of a medium sized Ficus tree (not sure: planted OR wild). The figs are pea-sized or smaller.
    … had put his thoughts via Google Buzz: Ficus talboti … and it seems very convincing. Please validate.
Date/Time : March 30, 2011 at 3.48pm IST
Location Place : Kodagu Valley Resort, Coorg, Karnataka … 12.440894,
75.716258 on Google maps <>
Altitude : 3706 ft (above mean sea level)

Ficus talboti

Plant ID for link below:!topic/indiantreepix/8ZGlgoat-4U
Ficus tsjakela Burm.f.
Receptacles in a group of more than two, leaves and leaf buds are much more bigger to F. talbotii.

Thank you very much … for the ID … corrected my notes as Ficus tsjakela Burm.f.
At some places we also see this spelling … Ficus tsjahela Burm. f. … could be in some error.

GRIN (2009- Ficus tsjakela Burm. f.) The Plant List (Ficus tsjakela Burm.f.) Flora of Pakistan (Ficus tsjahela Burm.f. ) 
India Biodiversity Portal (Ficus tsjahela Burm.f . syn. Ficus tjakela Burm.)  India Biodiversity Portal (Ficus tsjakela Burm.)  
Biotik (Ficus tsjahela Burm.f.  syn. Ficus tjakela Burm.) The Plant List (Ficus tsjahela Burm. f.- Unresolved)

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