Symplocos paniculata Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavum 3: 102 102 1867. (Syn: Cotoneaster coreanus H. Lév.; Eugeniodes crataegeodes (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Kuntze; Eugeniodes pallidum (Franch. & Sav.) Kuntze; Eugeniodes paniculatum (Wall. ex D. Don) Kuntze; Eugeniodes sinicum (Ker-Gawl.) Kuntze; Lodhra crataegoides (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Decne.; Myrtus chinensis Lour.; Palura chinensis (Lour.) Koidz.; Palura chinensis var. pilosa Nakai; Palura odorata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don; Palura sinica (Ker Gawl.) Miers; Prunus mairei H. Lév.; Prunus paniculata Thunb.; Symplocos chinensis (Lour.) Druce; Symplocos chinensis (Lour.) Desv. ex Merr.; Symplocos chinensis subsp. pilosa (Nakai) M. Kitagawa (ambiguous synonym); Symplocos chinensis var. vestita (Hemsl.) Hand.-Mazz.; Symplocos crataegoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don; Symplocos hunanensis Hand.-Mazz.; Symplocos pallida Franch. & Sav.; Symplocos paniculata Wall. ex D. Don; Symplocos simaoensis Y.Y. Qian; Symplocos sinica Ker Gawl.; Symplocos sinica var. vestita Hemsl.) ;
China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Tibet, Bhutan, India, Japan (Honshu), Laos, Myanmar [Burma], Bangladesh, Vietnam, Nepal, Pakistan (Hazara), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir, Jammu), USA (I) (Pennsylvania (I)) as per Catalogue of Life;
Common name: Sapphire Berry, Asiatic Sweetleaf • Sanskrit: lodhra • Urdu: lodh pathani, pathani lodh • Nepali: लोध Lodh, हाकुलाल Haakulaal, सानो लोदो Saano Lodo, लोघ Logh, खोल्मे Kholme


25062013GS1 small tree/shrub for ID from Ukhimath, Uttarkhand : Attachments (4). 6 posts by 5 authors.
Small tree/shrub photographed from Ukhimath, Uttarakhand
Kindly help in ID.

Can this be Symplocos paniculata..

Symplocos paniculata.


Flora of Chakrata 2012: Tree for id from Motor Marg:
This one was shot from roadsideon the Chakrata-Tiuni Motor Marga medium-sized tree… hope to get id help…

May be Symplocos paniculata

Thanks … for the possible ID

Thanks … for a very close lead…

Would you pl. confirm it as Symplocos paniculata in view of identification in the following thread:
25062013GS1 small tree/shrub for ID from Ukhimath, Uttarkhand

Yes …, thanks..

What tree? ABMAY01/11 : 7 posts by 4 authors. 5 images.
This tree is in flower now. It has papery Celtis like leaves. Please advise.
The photographs are of two different trees.
Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
11-12 May 2015

From flowers I think it is Symplocos sp.

Symplocos species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)

It should be Symlocos paniculata

May be Scolopia sp. (Flacourtiaceae)

Thank you … I will send some photographs with more details soon.

Scolopia species in eFIoraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available)

This tree is completely leafless now and is full of drupes. I am enclosing a couple of photographs (along with earlier pictures from May 2015) from a couple of days back to see if we can get closer to an ID.
Earlier suggestions from … and … were Symplocos paniculta and Scolopia sp. respectively.
Please advise.
Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
08 January 2016

yes it is Symplocos

Please find plant ID for link below: efi thread
This should be Symplocos paniculata (Thunb.) Miq.
[Because it’s hard to find any spinous character from images as in Scolopia; leaves ovate to broadly elliptic, sharply serrate, flowers pedicellate white in compound racemes – in terminal or axillary branched clusters].

Symplocos paniculata ABMAY01/06 : 4 posts by 2 authors. 11 images.
I have mistakenly guessed a couple of these trees as Celtis species in the past (such is my ignorance) but now I am getting familiar with this beautiful Symplocos. The corky bark is a good identification point and so are the finely toothed leaves. The fragrant flowers start coming out in end-April and right now several trees are covered in clusters of white flowers and pearly buds. The overall effect is difficult to capture in photographs. I have photographed the leafless trees in winter when they are studded with dry blue berries but look forward to the fresh drupes this season. I will keep you posted.
Both … had helped identify this species from my earlier posts.
Symplocos paniculataSapphire Berry or Asian Sweetleaf, Hindi: Lodhara
Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
15 April and 04-06 May 2016

Detailed & very beautiful, …

I realised that I did not include the photograph that shows the fused stamens (the name Symplocos is derived from Greek symploke, a connection). Here it is; 1 image.

Wah! Marvellous!

SK1944 24 May 2019 : 14 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (7) – around 650 kb each.
Location: Nagarkot, Bhaktapur
Date: 16  May 2019
Elevation: 1989 m.
Habit : Wild 

Seems to be Homalium nepalense

Seems not matching.

Seems to Homalium only sir; check it once local species of Hoamalium
there is another strong character also; the flower has one whorl perianth, particularly this character has only Flacourtiaceae (Salicaceae) in polypetalae; we considered as Monochlamydeae when perianth one whorl but except this family.

I could not find flower image in the net neither the description. As such, I could not verify.

I feel flower construction looks different as per images at 

Homalium ceylanicum

Flowers of India

Guessing: Some Symplocos spp?

Leaf pattern does not look like !

Symplocos spp. ??

Symplocos chinensis

Thank you … for the ID. Could you please check my other posts on Symplocos?
Symplocos paniculata Miq.
Syn: Symplocos chinensis (Lour.) Druce

Nepali Names : लोध Lodh/ हाकुलाल Haakulaal/ सानो लोदो Saano Lodo/ लोघ Logh/  खोल्मे Kholme


Symplocos ?: request for id: 4 images.
Please check the attached images, it seems some Symplocos for me. please check.
Captured at Gaundar UK, April 2021.

Symplocos paniculata (Thunb.) Miq.


Symplocos paniculata Miq.: 9 very high res. images.

Location:  Sweda, Jajarkot, West Nepal 
Date: 30 May 2023
Elevation 2300m.
Habit : Wild


Symplocos paniculata: 1 image.

Symplocos paniculata
Lodhra or Sapphire berry
Rampur Shimla
June 2023
Details in My BLOG


Symplocos paniculata (Thunb.) Miq.: 5 high res. images.

Location: Gakar Khola, Lukum, Rukum West, Nepal 
Date: 31 May 2023
Elevation: 2500 m.
Habit : Wild


SK 3895 19 November 2023: 6 images- 4 high res.

Location:  Lamjung , Central Nepal 
Date: November 2023
Elevation 1660m.
Habit : Wild
Images sent by Mr. Basudev Neupane

Check with Celastrus orbiculatus

By the way Celastrus orbiculatus have got no distribution in Nepal.
My guess is Celastrus hookeri Prain or Celastrus membranifolius Prain according to the color of the drupes. Please have a look at the enclosed link pages from a book ‘Flora of India Vol 5 by BSI’.

Likely to be a species of Flacourtia

I guess then elevation, fruit colors and leaf margin do not match with any of two sp. found in Nepal.

Yes, it looks different from images of Flacourtia.

I tried Salicaceae, Prunus, and Rhamnaceae but could not find a match.

What about my earlier guess : Thank you Mr. Chowdary for the hint. By the way Celastrus orbiculatus have got no distribution in Nepal.
My guess is  Celastrus hookeri Prain or Celastrus membranifolius Prain according to the color of the drupes. Please have a look at the enclosed link pages from a book ‘Flora of India Vol 5 by BSI’.  ???

Celastrus has a dehiscent fruit. This is an indehiscent fruit.
I had suggested Flacourtia earlier based on the leaves but did not notice that inflorescence is paniculate, which is not seen in Flacourtia.
I now feel that this could be Symplocos paniculata. Let me know what you all think.

Fruit color matching? Leaf looks like a match !

Yes, fruit colour look slightly dark compared to images on the net like:
Unable to open GBIF for checking the fruiting specimens.
Maybe the fruits become darker.

You may check GBIF fruiting specimens (one) from India.
It is possible that fruits get darker at a later stage.

You may be right …. Appreciate if … would write some comments !

The size of the berry is large in Symplocos sps..



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