I am fascinated by the details provided by you through images for each plant.
Just wanted to give one small technical suggestion.
Carl Linne or Carolus Linnaeus can be written as Linnaeus or L. but not Linn.
It is in accordance with ICBN Article 46A.4/Note.1.; as well as following reference:
R. K. Brummitt & C. E. Powell, ed. (1992). Authors of Plant Names: a List of Authors of Scientific Names of Plants, with Recommended Standard Forms of their Names, Including Abbreviations. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


I have been taught to underline the scientific names, without informing me do not underline it you can italicize it. After joining this group i have learnt the importance of adding scientists/taxonomist names, even experts in this group do not follow always. Old books display scientific names without any underline or italics whereas citations are italicized.


There is a very basic fundamentals involved when we write an English sentence. Any word which is actually not of English origin is written in italics. For the purpose of same we write Latin names in italics. There is no rule which says that you have to underline it. Linne never underlined names it in his book!!

There is no rule NOW which says that you must write the latin names in italics either, but we do so, just to follow the English writing tradition and also the format of the journal you will want to publish. Such rule were there earlier but I think from St. Louis code onwards this rule was lifted off. May be there was a rule for underlining long time back, but I dont remember written anywhere now.


Please provide some more detail on other common mistakes and the correct way to rectify it.


I used to tell my students. When handwritten scientific names are underlined, when in print either italics or bold type or bold italics not normal type. We commonly find underlining in net for names (or for that matter any script) which have net links to other web pages.


Yes sir, but that is because, when I am writing by hand then everything seems italics, so I need to highlight the latin words so the best way is to underline.

When typing, the usual tradition is the accepted name is bold italics and the synonyms are normal italics.


Yes … All eFloras on eFloras.org follow this pattern. Both The Plant List and GRIN use the format of bold itatics.


Thanks a lot …, great learning, this might help my student who wants to pursue a technical botanist career in future, i am more concern with knowing the scientific names of my pending posts, including the long pending ones.

But, before we end this nomenclature issue may i know how do you underline a scientific name in written document? You use a continuous underline from genus to species and subspecies/var., if exists, or you break the underline for each segment?


In common practice, which we follow to distinguish the technical names appearing in the text, we give a break in underline for each taxon. Genus, species, subspecies, variety name etc. all are to be underlined differently, and as … have said about beginning of this practice, this is simply to highlight the usage of other language words, in a running language. When writing with hand, usually no other easy option is available..so this became a common practice… I hope I have not confused the things..


Thank you for explaining. As i l read this thread for one more time i learn –
So, we are talking about many things at a time, “technical suggestion”. “very basic fundamentals“, “format of the journal“, “common practice” and one, the most important word “rule“.
So, i learn that any format, as typed below, to distinguish it from the main document, will do for scientific names, in written document or in typed ones or in cyber world –
  • Amaranthus tricolor L.
  • Amaranthus tricolor L.
  • Amaranthus tricolor L.
  • Amaranthus tricolor L.
  • Amaranthus tricolor L.
  • Amaranthus tricolor L.
Please tell me about use of “upper case” and “lower case”.


If you are writing by hand, then only you can underline to highlight the LATIN words.
If you are typewriting or writing on computers then there is no need to underline, but just Italics or italics + bold will do. But this depends on what you are writing for. If you are writing for a journal then look out for the format of the journal. If you are writing your own book then you can decide what to follow.
Upper case is used for the first alphabet of the genus and first alphabets of the Author Abbreviations.


Relating to Latin names in an English document –

  1. If you are writing by hand, then only you can underline to highlight the LATIN words.
  2. If you are typewriting or writing on computers then there is no need to underline, but just Italics or italics + bold will do.
Point no.3 of the above tells me that “underline” is STRICTLY PROHIBITED in printed and cyber world.
Point no.2 of the above ALLOWS me to go WITHOUT ITALICS in printed and cyber world.
All of the above allows me to go for all, UNDERLINE+ITALIC+BOLD, when i am not handwriting or typing for a journal.
 
I hope i have learnt my lesson well.
I wonder what is the format when Latin names are written in Latin document. There is one though!


I couldn’t understand what you mean to say !! Sorry for that….

There is a difference between STRICTLY PROHIBITED and NO RULE THAT WHICH SAYS YOU HAVE TO. Strictly prohibited is when you are not allowed to, whereas no rule means although there is no rule, still you can choose your own way, i.e., you are not prohibited.
My point 2 says: There is no rule now which says that you have to write strictly in italics. It means you can write it in anyway, but following the English tradition, any word which is not of english origin should be written in italics.
UNDERLINE+ITALIC+BOLD : these are actually three different ways of highlighting, so either one of it is ok, unless you want to denote something using a particular function. For example, in my PhD thesis I didnt want to use ACCEPTED NAME and SYNONYM in the text for my plants. Instead I used a legend that said, Bold italics are accepted names and normal italics are synonyms.
But as I said, if you are publishing in a journal then you should follow the format of journal and it varies across different journals.


If you are writing by hand, then only you can underline to highlight the LATIN words.= “underline” is STRICTLY PROHIBITED in printed and cyber world.
There is no rule which says that you have to underline it. Linne never underlined names it in his book!! There is no rule NOW which says that you must write the latin names in italics either= ALLOWS me to go WITHOUT ITALICS in printed and cyber world.
If there is no such rule nothing can prohibit use of UNDERLINE+ITALIC+BOLD = All of the above allows me to go for all, UNDERLINE+ITALIC+BOLD, when i am not handwriting or typing for a journal.
And we are talking of “rules” and “technical suggestion”, NOT custom & tradition. Aren’t we?


your first two assumptions are wrong, third is correct.
When I am talking about rules then I mean according to ICBN and hence my technical suggestions were based on ICBN.


“If you are writing by hand, then only you can underline to highlight the LATIN words.” = “underline” is STRICTLY PROHIBITED in printed and cyber world.

NO, THERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CAN and SHOULD. UNDERLINE IS NOT STRICTLY PROHIBITED IN PRINTED OR CYBER WORLD. IT ALL DEPENDS ON THE FORMAT OF THE JOURNAL YOU ARE REFERRING TO.

“There is no rule which says that you have to underline it. Linne never underlined names it in his book!! There is no rule NOW which says that you must write the latin names in italics either” = ALLOWS me to go WITHOUT ITALICS in printed and cyber world.

NO THIS DOESNT ALLOW YOU TO GO WITHOUT ITALICS. AS IN PRINTED OR CYBERWORLD YOU HAVE TO FOLLOW THE ENGLISH ETHICS AND YOU MUST WRITE A NON ENGLISH WORDS IN ITALICS.

If there is no such rule nothing can prohibit use of UNDERLINE+ITALIC+BOLD = All of the above allows me to go for all, UNDERLINE+ITALIC+BOLD, when i am not handwriting or typing for a journal.

I DIDNT SAY THAT. ” UNDERLINE+ITALIC+BOLD : these are actually three different ways of highlighting,” IN YOUR SELF WRITTEN BOOK OR CYBERWORLD (NOT SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS) YOU CAN USE EITHER OR ALL OF
THESE TOGETHER. BUT FOR ANY SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL YOU MUST FOLLOW THE FORMAT OF THE JOURNAL. ITS ALWAYS PROVIDED IN THE JOURNAL.

Bottom line is:
UNDERLINES CAN BE USED WHEN YOU ARE WRITING YOUR OWN BOOK OR TEXT (NON SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS) AND UNDERLINES SHOULD BE USED WHEN YOU ARE WRITING BY HAND.
UNDERLINE+ITALIC+BOLD OR EITHER OF THEM CAN BE USED WHEN YOU ARE WRITING YOUR OWN BOOK OR TEXT (NON SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS)
ATLEAST ITALICS: SHOULD BE USED IN PRINTED MATTER FOR LATIN NAMES EVEN IF IT IS NOT SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS, TO DENOTE A NON-ENGLISH WORD FOLLOWING ENGLISH WRITING TRADITION.

When I say technical suggestion then it means FOLLOWING ENGLISH TRADITION AND ETHICS
When I say rules, then it means FOLLOWING ICBN


Would you please explain why should i break an underline, in a hand-written document, when i write a Latin name?


There is a very simple reason why you should have a break an underline. Its because genus and species are two different words.


They are different words, certainly, but an “underline” is only for highlighting a Latin name, isn’t it? Why then break a highlight?


In your own words if underline is to highlight latin words then there should be a gap because there is a gap between generic and specific name.


I disagree, when we want to highlight a certain part of a hand-written document we draw a continuous line under the very particular part of the document.
Since there is a space/gap between the generic and specific names there is no need to break the underline.


By the way I have been using ICBN but after Sydney its actually ICNCP.

 
When you highlight certain part of a HAND WRITTEN DOCUMENT, then thats a different issue. But when you highlight BOTANICAL NAMES then its a different thing you are dealing with. Sentence is different from botanical names. Botanical names are non-continuous words and each word holds a meaning and hence the latin part must have to be underlined separately. Botanical names are not sentences and that was one of the reason why BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE was setup. Before Linne every plant name given by earlier authors except Bauhin Brothers were actually sentences. If you look at the synonyms provided by Linne in Species Plantarum, they are actually names provided by earlier authors but they have more than 2 words, like, Campanula arvensis minima erecta, is actually a name given to the plant Campanula speculum L. by earlier author.

Here are some examples about how to write the latin names.
Example

– for hand written text:

Ficus benghalensis L. var. benghalensis
Ficus benghalensis L. var. krishnae (C.DC.) Corner
– for electronic text:
Ficus benghalensis L. var. benghalensis
Ficus benghalensis L. var. krishnae (C.DC.) Corner
– for your self authored book:
ALL UP TO YOU, BUT ATLEAST FOLLOW ENGLISH WRITING ETHICS.


ICBN Deals with Plants (including algae and fungi), in 2011 revision effective from January 2012, it has been changed to ICN. Latest version (hard copy published in 2006, electronic version in 2007) is based on Vienna 2005 Code of ICBN. ICN version has yet to come.

 
ICNCP deals with cultivated plants, is distinct from ICBN (and ICN), the last version having come in 2009.

Yes sir, you are correct as usual. Sorry I got mingled up.


“When you highlight certain part of a HAND WRITTEN DOCUMENT, then thats a different issue. But when you highlight BOTANICAL NAMES then its a different thing you are dealing with. Sentence is different from botanical names. Botanical names are non-continuous words and each word holds a meaning and hence the latin part must have to be underlined separately.”
I think 1) Botanical names are continuous words, for, tricolor holds no meaning without its genus name Amaranthus, 2) In all languages, including English, each word in a sentence, regardless of botanical names, holds a different meaning.
“Botanical names are not sentences and that was one of the reason why BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE was setup. Before Linne every plant name given by earlier authors except Bauhin Brothers were actually sentences.”
There already exists an article, supported by hyperlinks, on binomial nomenclature in wiki – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_nomenclature that tells me the history of it. But it is certainly a new learning, “Before Linne every plant name given by earlier authors except Bauhin Brothers were actually sentences.
“If you look at the synonyms provided by Linne in Species Plantarum, ……. by earlier author.”
Don’t know “Species Plantarum”. Let’s see how earlier documentation of Amaranthus gangeticus looked like –
“- for your self authored book:
ALL UP TO YOU, BUT ATLEAST FOLLOW ENGLISH WRITING ETHICS.”
Don’t worry …, please, with my very little learning i am not going to author any book in near future. Maybe… much later, after i receive a certificate from someone like my beloved …


There is a very basic difference between sentences and words.
Sentence is a collection of words using proper grammar and it gives a proper meaning.
A SENTENCE NEEDS A VERB TO COMPLETE. BOTANICAL NAMES HAVE NO VERB !
Botanical Names are two different words and they are totally independent of each other. Both words can be attached to many other words. Both are noun technically as they are names. If you translate them then you may find noun and adjectives both.
Your links are OK. I can actually find mistakes in many, but they are old books when people followed their own way. None of them listed any plant names given before Linne. Linne’s Species Plantarum is the only one that lists plants before him which were not binomials but multinomials.
 
About the book, you never know whats written in your fate, may be one day you will write one, its too early to say. When I was born every one thought I will become a doctor or engineer, a traditional Indian mindset, but then I broke all of their dreams and became a botanist :))… at the same time, my elder brother since he started talking he used to say that he wanted to be a doctor and every one at home was so proud of him. Today is is a doctor, Eye Surgeon and made everyone more proud.


“Linne’s Species Plantarum is the only one that lists plants before him which were not binomials but multinomials.”
“Before Linne every plant name given by earlier authors except Bauhin Brothers were actually sentences.”
………. ………. ………. Again getting complicated.
“but they are old books when people followed their own way.”
…….. …. Those documents i think were written after publication of “Linne’s Species Plantarum”, in 1753.
“A SENTENCE NEEDS A VERB TO COMPLETE.”
…. ….. How sweet of you, …!
“Botanical Names are two different words and they are totally independent of each other. Both words can be attached to many other words.”
…… ……….. Yes, but when we are talking about binomial nomenclature they are not independent, just like any word can be used billions possible way , yet they are dependent when they are used in a sentence.
“you never know whats written in your fate
…….. ……. Let’s leave aside “fate”, we are talking about science.


…….. …. Those documents i think were written after publication of “Linne’s Species Plantarum”, in 1753.
I WAS TALKING ABOUT THOSE CITED BY LINNE WERE WRITTEN BEFORE HIM. AFTER HIS PUBLICATION, PEOPLE FOLLOWED HIM AND THEY NEVER MENTIONED PUBLICATIONS BEFORE LINNE.
Yes in binomial nomenclature both words are independent of each other because there is no VERB, and EVEN THE GENDERS DONT HAVE TO REFLECT EACH OTHER. There is no way you can prove that its a sentence. Its same as saying PANKAJ KUMAR or SURAJIT KOLEY are sentences. NO THEY ARE NOT SENTENCES.


  • There is no way you can prove that its a sentence. Its same as saying PANKAJ KUMAR or SURAJIT KOLEY are sentences. NO THEY ARE NOT SENTENCES.”
I beg to inform you that i have never tried to prove that a Latin name is a sentence. I learn in this thread that a Botanical name of a plant is of Latin origin and it needs to be highlighted. According to your view a Latin name must or needs to be underlined in a hand-written document and that underline needs to have breaks between each segment/part of that Latin name. May i know the source of this instruction, please.
  • I WAS TALKING ABOUT THOSE CITED BY LINNE WERE WRITTEN BEFORE HIM. AFTER HIS PUBLICATION, PEOPLE FOLLOWED HIM AND THEY NEVER MENTIONED PUBLICATIONS BEFORE LINNE.
Yes, Sir, scientists followed LINNE and i can see it in their documents. But they highlighted the Botanical names and citations in various ways that can be seen in various documents.


Firstly for me only … is ok.

There is no source for english grammar ethics, but I will try to find out.
I think if you search for USING FOREIGN WORDS IN ENGLISH SENTENCES, you can get many references saying how to highlight it. Or try some elementary grammar book, it must be written somewhere.
I can find many, but I will try to find something to satisfy you better.


And, one last question –

In an examination, regardless of class or grade, a mark has been allotted to a question asking only the Latin name of a plant. A student writes Amaranthus tricolor L.
Will you allow him a mark?


I will give him 75% of the marks, because he wrote the spelling, italics (if printed), author citation correctly. Underlining is ofcourse wrong so I will cut 25% marks for that.


 
 
 
 
 

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