Please throw some light on

1. “stipules broad with long cuspidate points”
And how does it differ from “stipules ovate with arista”?
2. “apex of ochrea truncate”

See the attachment
1. Stipule broad with long cuspidate point
2. Stipule ovate with arista
3. apex of ochrea truncate

The attached images are what i think i have learned.

To my understanding:

Aristae is an appendage so by definition it should be distinct from the leaf apex.

Being cuspidate means being sharply pointed and here the margin converge to make a pointed tip.
In simple words, take a CONE. If it is sharpy pointed then it is cuspidate, but if you attach a NEEDLE on the top then it becomes aristate.
Ofcourse both of them can hurt depending on how stiff they are.
Ochrea is a or more than one stipule that can surround the stem to be called as truncate when it doesnt have any tip and seems like chopped off or may look like cylinder too….

It makes more difficult. a cuspidate = a cone? Straight? Without any bent/curve at the apex?


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