Cichorium endivia L., Sp. Pl. 813 1753. (Syn: Cichorium ambiguum Schult.; Cichorium casnia C.B.Clarke; Cichorium crispum Mill.; Cichorium dichotomum Link; Cichorium endivia f. divaricatum (Schousb.) Webb; Cichorium endivia subsp. endivia Hegi; Cichorium endivia subsp. pumilum (Jacq.) Hegi; Cichorium endivia var. pumilum (Jacq.) Vis.; Cichorium endivia subsp. sativum Cout.; Cichorium esculentum Salisb.; Cichorium intybus var. divaricatum (Schousb.) DC.; Cichorium intybus var. endivia (L.) C.B.Clarke; Cichorium intybus subsp. glabratum (C.Presl); Cichorium minimum Port.; Cichorium nanum Port. ex Nyman; Cichorium noeanum Boiss.; Cichorium pumilum f. rhizocephalum Pamp.;                                   (=) Cichorium endivia var. crispum Lam.; (=) Cichorium endivia var. latifolium Lam.);

by Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click
on the links)




As per efi thread:

The pappus scales do occur in Cichorium but they are very minute. In C. intybus they are 1/8 to 1/10 as long as achene according to Bailey Manual….(that goes perfect with Flora of China achene 2-3 mm, pappus 0.2-0.3 mm). In C. endivia they are slightly longer 1/6 to 1/4 of achene length.

In C. endivia, the plant is totally glabrous with much more softer leaves (having seen the plant in California stores.). The species C. endivia , inspite of variation in cultivars is supposed to be totally glabrous, whereas C. intybus bristly hairy  

Rocks and sand by the sea [89].

Cichorium endivia is a BIENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.3 m (1ft).
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees
Leaves – raw or cooked[2, 16, 27, 33, 46, 52, 171]. Leaves of wild plants are very bitter but there are many named forms with only a slight bitterness[183]. The leaves are quite large and often form a rosette like cabbages. They are very easy to harvest. Endive makes a very acceptable addition, in moderate quantities, to the salad bowl, though the leaves are too bitter for most tastes to be used as the main salad leaf[K]. The leaves are often blanched (by excluding light from the growing plant) in order to reduce this bitterness[200], though this process also reduces the nutritional value of the plant[K]. 
The plant is used as a resolvent and cooling medicine, and in the treatment of bilious complaints[240]. It has a similar but milder effect to chicory (Cichorium intybus) and so is a very beneficial tonic to the liver and digestive system[254]. The root is demulcent and tonic[240]. It has been used in the treatment of dyspepsia and fevers[240]. The fruit (this probably means the seed[K]) has been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, bilious complaints and jaundice[240].
(From PFAF  ) 

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Cichorium endivia var. crispa ‘curly endive’

A leafy vegetable sold in Farmers Market in California



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