Cichorium endivia L., Sp. Pl. 813 1753. (Syn: Cichorium ambiguum Schult.; Cichorium casnia C.B.Clarke; Cichorium crispum Mill.; Cichorium dichotomum Link; Cichorium endivia f. divaricatum (Schousb.) Webb; Cichorium endivia subsp. endivia Hegi; Cichorium endivia subsp. pumilum (Jacq.) Hegi; Cichorium endivia var. pumilum (Jacq.) Vis.; Cichorium endivia subsp. sativum Cout.; Cichorium esculentum Salisb.; Cichorium intybus var. divaricatum (Schousb.) DC.; Cichorium intybus var. endivia (L.) C.B.Clarke; Cichorium intybus subsp. glabratum (C.Presl); Cichorium minimum Port.; Cichorium nanum Port. ex Nyman; Cichorium noeanum Boiss.; Cichorium pumilum f. rhizocephalum Pamp.; (=) Cichorium endivia var. crispum Lam.; (=) Cichorium endivia var. latifolium Lam.);
As per efi thread:
The pappus scales do occur in Cichorium but they are very minute. In C. intybus they are 1/8 to 1/10 as long as achene according to Bailey Manual….(that goes perfect with Flora of China achene 2-3 mm, pappus 0.2-0.3 mm). In C. endivia they are slightly longer 1/6 to 1/4 of achene length.
In C. endivia, the plant is totally glabrous with much more softer leaves (having seen the plant in California stores.). The species C. endivia , inspite of variation in cultivars is supposed to be totally glabrous, whereas C. intybus bristly hairy
Rocks and sand by the sea .
Cichorium endivia is a BIENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.3 m (1ft).
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees
Leaves – raw or cooked[2, 16, 27, 33, 46, 52, 171]. Leaves of wild plants are very bitter but there are many named forms with only a slight bitterness. The leaves are quite large and often form a rosette like cabbages. They are very easy to harvest. Endive makes a very acceptable addition, in moderate quantities, to the salad bowl, though the leaves are too bitter for most tastes to be used as the main salad leaf[K]. The leaves are often blanched (by excluding light from the growing plant) in order to reduce this bitterness, though this process also reduces the nutritional value of the plant[K].
The plant is used as a resolvent and cooling medicine, and in the treatment of bilious complaints. It has a similar but milder effect to chicory (Cichorium intybus) and so is a very beneficial tonic to the liver and digestive system. The root is demulcent and tonic. It has been used in the treatment of dyspepsia and fevers. The fruit (this probably means the seed[K]) has been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, bilious complaints and jaundice.
(From PFAF )
Asteraceae Fortnight Part 3-Ligulate heads (plus Misc.): Cichorium endivia var. crispa ‘curly endive’-GS6 :
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Cichorium endivia var. crispa ‘curly endive’
A leafy vegetable sold in Farmers Market in California