Utricularia gibba L., Sp. Pl. 18 1753. (syn: Megozipa fornicata (Leconte) Raf.; Megozipa integra (Leconte) Raf.; Megozipa longirostris (Leconte ex Elliott) Raf.; Plesisa bipartita (Elliott) Raf.; Trilobulina crenata (Vahl) Raf.; Trilobulina fibrosa (Walter) Raf.; Utricularia alba Hoffmanns. & Link; Utricularia ambigua A. DC.; Utricularia amphibia Welw. ex Kamienski; Utricularia anomala A. St.-Hil. & Girard; Utricularia aphylla Ruiz & Pav.; Utricularia bifidocalcar R.D.Good; Utricularia biflora Roxb.; Utricularia biflora Lam.; Utricularia biflora Bonpl. ex A. DC.; Utricularia bipartita Elliott; Utricularia conferta Hassk.; Utricularia crenata Vahl; Utricularia diantha Roxb. ex Roem. & Schult.; Utricularia diflora Roxb.; Utricularia elegans Wall.; Utricularia emarginata Benj.; Utricularia exoleta R. Br.; Utricularia exoleta var. lusitanica Kamienski; Utricularia fibrosa Walter; Utricularia fornicata Leconte; Utricularia furcata Pers.; Utricularia gayana A. DC.; Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta (R. Br.) P. Taylor; Utricularia gibba subsp. gibba ; Utricularia gibbosa Hill; Utricularia gracilis Kunth; Utricularia gracilis Lehm. ex Oliver; Utricularia integra Leconte ex Elliott; Utricularia integra Leconte; Utricularia kalmaloensis A. Chev.; Utricularia khasiana Joseph & Mani; Utricularia longirostris Leconte ex Elliott; Utricularia macrorhyncha Barnhart; Utricularia nagurai Makino; Utricularia natans Salzm. .; Utricularia obtusa Sw.; Utricularia pallens A. St.-Hil. & Girard .; Utricularia parkeriana A. DC.; Utricularia pauciflora Blume; Utricularia pterosperma Edgew.; Utricularia pumila Walter; Utricularia riccioides A. Chev.; Utricularia roxburghii Spreng.; Utricularia saharunporensis Royle ex Oliv.; Utricularia secunda Benj.; Utricularia spirandra C. Wright ex Griseb.; Utricularia tenuifolia Benj.; Utricularia tenuis Cav.; Utricularia tenuis var. poeppigii A. DC.; Utricularia tinguiensis Merl ex Luetzelb.; Utricularia tricrenata Baker ex Hiern; Vesiculina gibba (L.) Raf.);
The species is cosmopolitan in distribution. The plant occurs in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Nepal and USA (Cook 1996). In India it is reported from Andaman and Nicobar, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Cook 1996).
It is annual or perennial herb without roots. Affixed or planktonic, in humid regions sometimes growing terrestrially. Found in a very wide spectrum of aquatic habitats. Often very common but usually found growing intertwined between other plants. Frequent in rice fields but not harmful (Cook 1996). Utricularia gibba is an obligate wetland species. The species has been identified as a specialist invasive species and may out-compete native bladderworts in lowland wetland ecosystems in countries where it is introduced (ISSG 2006).
(From IUCN Red List (LC) )
Utricularia gibba is an aquatic carnivorous plant that belongs to the genus Utricularia, or bladderworts. The specific epithet gibba is Latin for “hump” or “swelling” – a reference to the inflated base of the lower lip of the corolla. It is a small- to medium-sized aquatic plant that can either be affixed to the substrate in shallow water or free-floating in the water column, however it will likely flower more if supported by a substrate beneath shallow water. It forms mats of criss-crossing, branching, thread-like stolons, each growing to approximately 20 cm (8 in) long or longer and 0.2-1 mm thick. What are sometime described as leaves or leaf-like organs – the actual distinction is difficult in the reduced morphology – are numerous and scattered along the length of the stolons and are 0.5–1.5 cm (0.2–0.6 in) long with a very short dichotomous branching pattern toward the tip of anywhere from one to eight branches but usually not more than four. The bladder traps take the place of some of these distal branches on the leaf-like structures. The traps are ovoid and are attached to the leaf-like structure by a short stalk; each trap is 1–2.5 mm long and has two primary setiform branched appendages on top and some smaller appendages surrounded the entrance to the trap. The appendages are the trigger that sets the trap off and vacuums the prey that touched it into the bladder to be digested.
Inflorescences are erect and typically emerge from the water to about 20 cm (8 in) tall, though in some cases they can be submerged and produce cleistogamous flowers. Inflorescences can produce anywhere from one to twelve flowers but it is unusual to see anything other than two to six flowers per inflorescence. Individual flowers are yellow, often with reddish-brown nerves, and are split into two lips: the upper lip is almost circular and weakly separated into three lobes while the lower lip is slightly smaller, also circular, and has a rounded, bilobed swelling in the center. The spur is narrowly conical or cylindrical and curves down below the flower, varying in length from being just shorter than to noticeably longer than the lower lip. Utricularia gibba will flower throughout the year whenever conditions are favorable. Flowers, specifically the corolla, vary in size across this species’ large distribution from 0.8 to 1.5 cm (0.3 to 0.6 in).
(From Wikipedia on 1.9.13)
Herbs; rhizoids usually absent, if present up to 5 cm long, c 1 mm thick at base, fusiform, tapering towards apex, branches botryform; stolons up to 20 cm long, c. 0.2 mm thick; profusely branched. Foliar organs up to 1 cm long, simple or 1-3 times dichotomously divided from base or at a short distance from base; ultimate leaf segments few, slightly compressed or terete, sparsely setulose along margins. Traps up to 1.5 mm across, obliquely ovoid, replacing foliar segments or rarely on rhizoids; stalk evenly thickened; mouth lateral, oblique; appendages usually 2-or rarely more. Racemes 4-15 cm long, erect, solitary or fasciculate, glabrous, 1-3-flowered; scales absent or rarely 1-2, c 0.6 x 1 mm, basifixed, obovate to semiorbicular, truncate or slightly 3-lobed at apex; bracts 0.8-1 x 1-1.3 mm, transversely oblong, 5-nerved, truncate or denticulate at apex; flowers up to 7 mm long; pedicels 2-8 mm long terete, erect or suberect. Calyx-lobes subequal, obovate to ovate, rounded or truncate at apex; upper lobe c 1.4 x 1.3 mm; lower c 1.3 x 1.3 mm. Corolla yellow; upper lip c 3 x 3 mm, orbicular to ovate, truncate or rounded at apex; lower lip c 2.7 x 2.5 mm, orbicular to broadly ovate, bigibbous at base, rounded, truncate or rarely 3-lobed at apex; spur as long as lower lip, conical, glandular within, obtuse or notched at apex. Stamens c 1 mm long; filaments flat, curved; anther thecae distinct. Ovary globose; style small; stigma 2-lipped, lower lip larger and semiorbicular, upper lip obsolete or denticulate. Capsules c 3 mm across, globose, bivalvate; placenta c 2 mm across, globose, glabrous, pitted; seeds c 1 mm wide, lenticular, with a broad, irregular corky wing; hilum prominent; testa cells arranged radially.
Flowering and fruiting: November-February
Swampy areas and ponds
Utricularia Sp. : Attachments (2). 4 posts by 3 authors.
This rare Utricularia too was seen at Shahpur, Mah. on 28 March ’10. Is this lutea species?
This is U. exoleta a semi aquatic plant found on rocky fresh water streams.
I will vote for Shrikant Ji this plant is indeed Utricularia exoleta R. Br.
ID of Utricularia species! : Attachments (7). 15 posts by 6 authors.
Utricularia snaps from 1-4 are different species with floaters whereas Utricularia snaps from 5 to 7 are without floaters and smaller with yellow flowers!
is the order with flowers and with floaters just reverse than written
Please check the following species
1-4 Utricularia aurea
4-7 utricularia exoleta
Would you please let me where you took these pictures from?
It had floaters followed with flowers which were above the surface of water. 1-4 Utricularia spp. Unfortunately these variety of plants aren’t existing anymore. Those photographs were taken four years back in one of the lakes of Bangalore!
I have never heard of Utricularia having floaters?? Is it possible that these are two different plants?
I think … was referring the Bladders as floaters.
No there are white things attached with the stem below flower twigs if you see.
oops yes I could see it now. Thank you for point it out.
But I think these floats are a part of many species of Utricularia, to make inflorescence to remain emerged.
Thanks for the information sir…
Thank you sir for the clarification.
Please find attached the full paper (Anatomy of the Floats of Utricularia inflexa Forsk. var. inflexa Taylor.pdf)
utricularia1.JPG, utricularia2.JPG, utricularia3.JPG and utricularia4.JPG = U. stellaris
utricularia5.JPG, utricularia6.JPG and utricularia7.JPG = U. exoleta
SK 2876 05 March 2021
Location: Eastern Nepal, Terai
Date: February 2021
Habitat : Wild
Utricularia aurea Lour. ?? Sent by a friend !
Any other image to show the lower part ?
Maybe Utricularia gibba L. as per images herein and as per comparative images at Utricularia
But difficult to confirm with this image.