Euphorbia esula L., Sp. Pl. 461 1753. (Syn: Euphorbia esula var. cyparioides Boiss.; Euphorbia kaleniczenkii Czern. ex Trautv.; Euphorbion esulum (L.) St.-Lag.; Galarhoeus esula (L.) Rydb.; Galarhoeus esula (L.) H. Hara; Keraselma esula (L.) Raf.; Tithymalus esula (L.) Hill);
Euphorbia esula, commonly known as green spurge or leafy spurge, is a species of spurge native to central and southern Europe (north to England, the Netherlands, and Germany), and eastward through most of Asia north of the Himalaya to Korea and eastern Siberia.
It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 1-1.2 m tall, with several stems branched from the base. The stems are smooth, hairless or slightly hairy. The leaves are small, lanceolate, 4-8.5 cm long and up to 1 cm broad, with a slightly wavy margin. The flowers are small, produced in umbels with a basal pair of bright yellow-green petal-like bracts. Clusters of the bracts appear in late spring, while the actual flowers do not develop until early summer. All parts of the plant contain a toxic white milky sap.
It reproduces readily by seeds that have a high germination rate and may remain viable in the soil for at least seven years. The seed capsules open explosively, dispersing seed up to 5 m from the parent plant, and may be carried further by water and wildlife. Leafy Spurge also spreads vegetatively from the root system, which is complex, reported to reach 8 m into the ground and 5 m across, and may have numerous buds.
(From Wikipedia on 6.12.13)
Here is another species Euphorbia esula uploaded by me in 2013 on efloraofindia
Subsequently published as First record from India in 2014
Phytodiversity, 2014: Vol. 1 (1&2): 1-6
Euphorbiaceae Fortnight: Euphorbia esula L. from Kashmir University Botanical Garden-Pl. Validate-GS-26 : Attachments (5). 4 posts by 2 authors.
This is another plant which I had earlier identified as E. prolifera but now think E. esula L.
It to similar to my Dachhigam plant but differs in having 8 or more rays and almost yellow floral leaves.
…, Please give your verdict.
Euphorbiaceae Fortnight: Euphorbia esula L. from Kashmir-pl validate-GS-25 : Attachments (8). 5 posts by 3 authors.
There is a plant commonly growing in Harwan, Dachhigam, was identified and reported in my book as Euphorbia prolifera. I have photographed many of these plants this year also. The looks similar to E. wallichii (abundant in Khillenmarg) in general appearance and inflorescence but is very distinct in its two-horned glands (and not oblong without horns as in E. wallichii).
On critical examination of my photographs taken this year and last year, I think the plant identifies better as E. esula and not E. prolifera, because of the following:
1. Plants are taller up to 80 cm tall (20-30 cm tall in E. prolifera), 4-6 mm thick (hardly 3 mm thick in E. prolifera), sterile stems overtopping the fertile branches.
2. leaves are longer mostly 5-8 cm, 8-12 mm in our in our specimens (2-4 cm x 3-5 mm in E. prolifera)
3. Primary inflorescence branches and subtending leaves 5-8. (4-6 in E. prolifera)
4. Glands consistently 4 (4-8 in E. prolifera)
5. Cataphylls on each ray 2, cordate to reniform, overlapping as base (ovate, narrowed at base in E. prolifera)
I request Tapas ji to give his verdict.
Yes, this is most probably E. esula L., and not E. prolifera
Re: Request for Reprint of your paper on Euphorbia esula : 1 post by 1 author.
I request you to kindly send me a PDF of your paper entitled “Euphorbia esula L. (Euphorbiaceae): a new plant record for Indian subcontinent from Kashmir Himalaya” which appeared in Phytodiversity 1: 1 – 6. 2014 for our reference.
Here the pdf copy is attached.
Thanks for your interest.