Pinus muricata D.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 441 1837. (Syn: Pinus edgariana Hartw.; Pinus muricata subsp. anthonyi (Lemmon) A.E.Murray; Pinus muricata var. anthonyi Lemmon; Pinus muricata var. borealis Axelrod ex Farjon; Pinus muricata var. remorata (H.Mason) Silba; Pinus muricata subsp. remorata (H.Mason) A.E.Murray; Pinus muricata f. remorata (H.Mason) Hoover; Pinus muricata var. stantonii Axelrod ex Farjon; Pinus radiata var. binata (Engelm.) Brewer & S. Watson; Pinus remorata H.Mason);
The bishop pine, Pinus muricata, is a pine with a very restricted range: mostly in California, including several offshore Channel Islands, and a few locations in Baja California, Mexico. It is always on or near the coast.
Pinus muricata is a coniferous evergreen tree growing to a height of 15–25 m, rarely up to 34 m, with a trunk diameter of up to 1.2 m. The species is often smaller, stunted and twisted in coastal exposures. It is drought-tolerant and grows on dry, rocky soil.
The needles are in pairs, green to blue-green, and 8–16 cm (3-6 Inches)long. Cones occur in one to five clusters. The cones are strongly reflexed down the branch, 5–10 cm long; the scales are stiff, thin on the side of the cone facing the stem, but greatly thickened on the side facing away and with a stout 5–12 mm spine; both features adaptive to minimise squirrel predation and fire damage to the cones. The cones remain unopened for many years until fire or strong heat causes them to open and release the seeds.
Pinus muricata has been used in plantations with resultant growth rates higher than in the wild, but with adverse impacts to biodiversity. This plant has ornamental value, and is cultivated in parks and gardens.
(From Wikipedia on 21.12.13)
Gymnosperms Fortnight- Pinaceae- Pinus muricata from California-GS-34: Attachments (2).
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Pinus muricata D. Don,
Tree with 2-leaved clusters, leaves 7-15 cm long, stiff, usually twisted; female cone up to 9 cm long, oblong-ovoid.
Photographed from University of California Botanical Garden.