Elaeodendron orientale Jacq., Icon. Pl. Rar. 1: t. 48 1782. (Syn: Elaeodendron indicum Gaertn.; Rubentia olivina J.F. Gmel. );

el-lee-oh-DEN-dron — from the Greek elaia (olive) and dendron (tree)
or-ee-en-TAY-lee — of or from the Orient, eastern

commonly known as: false olive

Native of: Mauritius 

Confused between Diospyros (malabarica) and Glochidion … and ID could be none of these !!
The flowers and fruits are mismatching.
(Please bear the photo quality).
Date/Time : May 9, 2010 at 10.03am IST
Location Place : Veermata Jijabai Bhosale Udyan (Rani Bagh), Mumbai.
Altitude : 10 m
GPS : 18°58’43.56″N, 72°50’9.81″E ± few seconds
Habitat : garden (however must be found wild in Western Ghats)
Type : …
: tree
Height : about 8 -12 m

Length : – not a climber –
: simple, alternately placed (possibly whorling), coarsely serrate (or is it dentate, do not know)
Shape : elliptic, rounded at both ends
Size : 8 – 10 cm x 2.5 – 3.5 cm
: axillary cymous
Size : about 6 cm
: about 10 mm
Colour : off-white (cream)
Calyx : do not know
Bracts : – no bracts –

…, the flowers remind me Cassine. (not C. glauca, certainly not Diospyros).
Let’s hear from other members.

I think this is Cassine glauca (Rottb.) O. Ktze Like … I am adding the description of the plant…
A large tree; branchlets reddish; bark red inside, exuding a watery sap when cut. Leaves opposite or sub-opposite, 3-16 x 1.5-7.5 cm, elliptic, ovate-oblong or obovate, glabrous, dark green, shining above, glaucous beneath; petiole 0.5-1 cm long, channelled. Cymes axillary, dichotomous, 7.5-12 cm long; peduncle 2.5-6.5 cm long, often red. Flower 5 mm in diameter, whitish; calyx 4-5-lobed, lobes rounded, margin membranous; stamens included, filaments recurved, anthers with a 2-lobed connective. Ovary adnate to the disc; style very short, persistent. Fruit a dry, ovoid, drupe, 1-15 cm long, 1-celled, 1-seeded.

As … knows this is definitely not Cassine glauca. Sending you photographs of Cassine glauca for comparison (2). It is also not Diospyros malabarica.

How about Gymnosporia montana?

Glochidion is out of scope … the fruits do not look like it
Diospyros, overruled because the flowers do not look like it
…had put these as probabilities, because mind was blank !!
No to Cassine glauca … the fruits are pointed ellipsoids.
No to Manikara hexandra, familiar with the plant.
Gymnosporia (montana) … leaves look like it, fruits do not know … a good possibility; friends to comment.

It is indeed Cassine glauca (Rottb.) O. Kuntze.
There are two trees in Veermata Jijabai Bhonsale Udyan (Rani Baug) Mumbai – One tree is at main gate fencing & other just outside Hippopotamus cage.

… this plant is in close vicinity of the Tree of Life (Guaiacum officinale) … please refer the attached Google Earth shot.
This plant is at crosshair (18°58’43.56″N, 72°50’9.81″E … not accurate !!) … not sure whether this place is near to the hippopotamus cage.
Per your confidence, this plant could be Cassine glauca; only wondering about the fruit being slightly oversized, also shape-wise — does not seem to be as much pointed at ends, as seen in … photos attached in this thread OR is that a result of plant being tended in garden environment ?

the first two pic are of Cassine species but surely not Cassine glauca. (i have encountered this plant at Victoria garden, but never found it flowering, however after looking at the flower it is certainly Cassine, (Cassine glauca have larger and elliptic leaves, where as this plant has longer, and thicker leaves)). this plant is just left after entrance, near the loin cage, behind the statue of British lord on horse.
the lower three pics are of Diospyros embryopteris.

Salutes to you, … for pinpointing the location !!
Immense apologies to all you friends for misleading you … praying God that He help me avoid seeing two trees as one !!
…, attaching cropped version of the third photo … please reconsider, believe it belongs to plant in first two photos, that is Cassine species.
And am yet wondering about the plant in last two photos being different !!!
The leaves just seem to be unbelievably same as those in first three photos.
OR is it that last two photos of Diospyros embryopteris carry some branches of Cassine species ?

… missed on attaching the crooped version of the third photo.

I am sorry, i have identified the last three pic as Diospyros which is incorrect. i confirm alll the five pic are of same plant. it is some cassine species but not Cassine glauca.

I don’t think any of the pics are of D. malabarica syn D. embryopteris, fruits of D. malabarica have persistent calyx and leaves are alternate.

Flowers definitely appear to be from Family Celastraceae but the plant is not Cassine glaucum (Oleodendron glaucum)

It is definitely not Cassine glauca. Have at least 2 trees of C.glauca on my property. It could be Cassine paniculata.

Many thanks to … and … for disposing Diospyros.
And thank you very much all: … for helping reach ID to a species of Cassine; asserting not C. glauca.
… thought of C. paniculata may get validated, if the fruits in the photos are of any help.

I referred R.R.Fernandez thesis on plants of Bombay 1959.
according to it it is Elaeodendron orientale J. Jacq.
Synonym: Cassine orientalis (J. Jacq.) Kuntze
if possible i will post a line drawing of it given in the thesis.

Thank you very very much, … (and to the thesis of R R Fernandez ji).
… for me, the ID is resolved to Elaeodendron orientale (syn. Cassine orientalis)
… friends may comment if otherwise.

Interesting, but there is no mention of Elaeodendron orientale / Cassine orientalis in Dr.Almeida’s ‘ Flora of Maharashtra’.

yes … thats y it took me so much time to identify this plant. i had been looking for its id from last 3-4 years. a line drawing of it is been given in the Fernandez Thesis.

Just spoke to Dr.Almeida. The tree in the Zoo is not Cassine paniculata [which is found growing wild in the Amboli hills]. He feels that R.R.Fernandez has most likely correctly identified it as E.orientale / C.orientalis [as pointed out by you].

I just returned from fieldwork in Madagascar. Based more on the supplied description, I am reasonably satisfied this plant is what is Elaeodendron balae (Kostermans) R.H. Archer ined. from Sri Lanka. Please note this name/combination is not yet published and is based on Cassine balae Kostermans in Gard. Bull. Singapore 39:185 (1987); Wadhwa in Revised Flora of Ceylon X: page 87 (1996). It is in many respect very similar to Elaeodendron orientale from the Mascarene Island of Mauritius. The round fruit is immediately different from the sharp pointed fruit in Elaeodendron orientale.

… pictures agree quite well with the pictures of Elaeodendron orientale on the web:

Here are some more photos; hopefully would help in reaching conclusion.

I have been very surprised. It is almost if there are two species. The leaves looks like Elaeodendron orientale and the tree, bark and habit looks like Elaeodendron balae. However, I am accepting this tree is quite an old Elaeodendron orientale. Probably at least 50 to 60 years old or older if it has been diseased at one time. These two species are very similar, and both has been planted in various Botanic Gardens over the world. And of course there have been an immense amount of confusion between the two. Plants from Honololu are clearly E. orientale. Plants from Durban, South Africa, Brisbane, Australia and Florida are clearly E. balae (It also has been called Cassine quadrangulata). But it has been very difficult or can be very difficult to identify plants from only a few photos. What I do need is a good close up photos of the flowers and a photo of the fruit cut open. There is a hard stone fruit inside, hence the name Bois d’Olive in French from where the direct translation Elaeodendron comes from. The stone fruit of E. orientale is sharp pointed at both ends. The one of E. balae is completely ovoid. I would very much learn if there is a history behind the tree. When it was planted etc.

… the suspense may remain until we get to see inside a fruit … (that particular day searched in vain for any fallen fruit).
But of course, may reach VJBU next week too … hopefully, one of the staff person may help me with a fruit (am trying to be too optimistic) … the fruits and flowers are at a great height; and hardly any of them can be seen, looks like the season is fading.

i used to search for fruits and flowers of very high trees at the dumping ground at jijamata udyan. i used to go very early in the morning before the worker start cleaning the place, so that i can collect fallen fruits and flowers which are otherwise difficult to collect n photograph. i am sure u may get some fallen fruit of this Eleaodendron plant.

Today collected (fallen) fruits of this Elaeodendron tree.
Photos attached … tried cutting one of the fruit with a (sharp) knife … just could not cut the hard stone inside.
And as seen in photo … sharp pointed at both ends.
Finally: Elaeodendron orientale.
Many thanks to all: ….

That is simply superb. Ultimate dedication …

Thank you very much. This is very interesting. This hard stone is the main difference between Elaeodendron (tree like a olive) and of the South African Cassine species. How tall is the tree and the approximate diameter of the stem?

Thank you very much … the diameter could be about 2 – 2.5 ft, the height about 25 – 30 m.

Thank you very much. Then this must be a very old tree, closer to 100 years or perhaps as old as the garden itself?

Dear … your thoughts must be correct … can very well imagine Britishers to have collected this kind of rare endemic tree from the exotic islands of western Indian Ocean.

Elaeodendron orientale Jacq. 
at Veermata Jeejabai Bhosale Udyan, Mumbai on 09 MAY 10 and 22 MAY 10

Well, okay, astonishing.

Nice illustrated upload




Please ID this plant captured at Jijamata Udyan in Jan 2014.
No flowers or fruits seen.
It is situated at the far left side of the park in a corner.

Seems to Cassine glauca.

Opposite leaves and serrate margin characters. 

Thanks, …, for the id.
To me looks a bit different from images at Elaeodendron glaucum
May be Elaeodendron orientale (Cultivated) as already reported from there by …, as per details herein. 

Thanks … However, the leaves in … pics and my pics do not look very similar. Would like to hear from experts.

I do not find your leaves to be much different from those at [efloraofindia:34578] DV – 09MAY10 – 1003 :: ¿ Diospyros / Glochidion ?   

Thanks … for concluding the ID.