Curcuma zanthorrhiza Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1: 25 1820.;
SW. India as per POWO;

Curcuma zanthorrhiza, known as Temulawak, Java ginger or Javanese ginger, is a plant species, belonging to the ginger family.[2] It is known in Javanese as temulawak, in Sundanese as koneng gede and in Madurese as temu labak.[2] The scientific name is sometimes written as Curcuma xanthorrhiza, but this is an orthographical variant.
This plant originated from Indonesia, more specifically from Java island, out of which it spread to several places in the biogeographical region Malesia. Currently, most of the temu lawak is cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines.[3] Outside of South East Asia, cultivars may be found also in China, Indochina, Barbados, India, Japan, Korea, the United States and some countries in Europe.
Curcuma zanthorrhiza flourishes up to 1500 m above sea level in a tropical climate.[3] Its rhizomes develop well in loose soil.[4]
Curcuma zanthorrhiza is used as a medicinal plant. The rhizome contains an ethereal oil (5ml per kg), it primarily consists of Sesquiterpenes. There is also a content of Curcumin (at least 1%, Ph. Eur.) and starch. Curcuma zanthorrhiza is used for dyspepsia. It is a spice too.[5]
(From Wikipedia on 27.8.14)

Flowering and fruiting: April-July

Moist deciduous forests, also in the plains
Cultivated and naturalised in Indo-Malaya
(Attributions- Dr. N Sasidharan (Dr. B P Pal Fellow), Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi from India Biodiversity Portal)


Here are a few pictures of a Curcuma species from Trivandurm.
Is this Curcuma aromatica?

This is not C. aromatica. This should be C. zanthorrhiza or C. aeruginosa
Please check the rhizome colour, If the rhizome with blue rings then C. aeruginosa or yellow colour then C. zanthorrhiza

It is Curcuma zanthorrhiza.

… is right Curcuma Zanthorrhiza-I think. I have this with me; some vendor passed off this as ‘Kasturi manjal’.

Excellent display of photographs.