Euphrasia pectinata Ten., Fl. Napol. 1: 36 1811. (syn: Euphrasia cabrerae Sennen & Gonzalo; Euphrasia cadevallii Sennen & Gonzalo;  Euphrasia georgica Kemul.-Nath.; Euphrasia glanduloso-dentata Riedl; Euphrasia gonzaloi Sennen; Euphrasia imbricata Sennen; Euphrasia immaculatae-conceptionis Sennen & Gonzalo; Euphrasia iranica O.Schwarz & Bornm.;   Euphrasia nemorosa subsp. pectinata Malagarriga & Barrau; Euphrasia nemorosa subsp. tatarica Malagarriga & Barrau; Euphrasia pectinata subsp. pectinata; Euphrasia obtecta Chabert; Euphrasia pectinata var. obtecta Chabert; Euphrasia pectinata var. puberula Wettst.; Euphrasia rocapreverae Sennen & Gonzalo; Euphrasia stricta var. pectinata (Ten.) O. de Bolòs & J. Vigo; Euphrasia stricta var. puberula (Jord. ex Wettst.) O. de Bolòs & J. Vigo; Euphrasia stricta var. tatarica (Fischer ex Sprengel) D. Hartl; Euphrasia subulata Sennen ex Rothmaler; Euphrasia tatarica Fisch. ex Spreng.; Euphrasia texidoris Sennen ex Rothmaler; Euphrasia townsendiana Freyn ex Wettst.; Euphrasia valdesetulosa Sennen ex Rothmaler; Parentucellia pectinata (Ten.) Parsa);
China (Gansu, Hebei, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shanxi, Xinjiang), Mongolia, Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Slovakia, France, Greece, Switzerland, Andorra, Spain, Hungary, Italy, former Yugoslavia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Hercegovina, Romania, C- & E-European Russia, Ukraine, Crimea, Northern Caucasus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia [Caucasus], Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia), Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia), European Turkey, Iran (EC-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran), Iraq (NE-Iraq), Afghanistan (Badakshan, Baghlan, Bamyan, Kabul, Kunar / Nuristan, Parwan, Takhar), Jammu & Kashmir (Nubra) as per Catalogue of Life;
Common name: Large-Bract Eyebright • Ladakhi: ཀངཅུཀ་ Kangchuk


SK27JUL3-2016:ID : 11 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)

Enclosing some pictures for identification.
Location : Nubra Valley
Altitude:  8000 ft.
Date: 24 July 2014

This is Euphrasia sp.

Euphrasia species in efloraofindia so far. 

May be Euphrasia pectinata

Or possibly Euphrasia regelii Wettst.

Closer to Euphrasia regelii as suggested by … But difficult to confirm.
Hi, …, do you have other pictures ?


Just one pic but not so different. Attachments (1)

One distinguishing feature of Euphrasia regelii is that mid-lobe of the lower lip is very narrow, much narrower than the upper lip.
In this respect, … flower agrees with mine (presumably Euphrasia pectinata), and not with Euphrasia regelii at Flora of China. Please see the  attached picture for comparison.
So I presume … plant is Euphrasia pectinata.
Attachments (1)

I found couple of pictures from the same location. Attachments (2)

None of the sources give distribution of Euphrasia pectinata in India or Nepal:
I feel it is some other species.

It may be E. Pectinata only as Catalogue of Life gives distribution in Nubra Valley and as discussed in another thread.


Euphrasia pectinata in FOI : 6 posts by 3 authors.
Images of Euphrasia pectinata in FOI may not be correct.
None of the sources give distribution of Euphrasia pectinata in India or Nepal:
I feel it is some other species as lot of these are reported from the area as per details at Euphrasia

Thank you …, for having a critical look at this species.
If you see Euphrasia pectinata subsp. pectinata at Catalog of Life, you will see that Nubra Valley in Ladakh is listed in the distribution. I photographed it in Nubra Valley only. It is also listed in a checklist for Ladakh, maintained by some botanists. This may not be official, but I believe they must have published it somewhere.

exactly my point. Just because something is not in a check list does not mean it does not exist. or as you think, … it may indeed be something entirely a different species. but what if the id is correct, yet its not in any checklist???
My Gandma always said if you dont find a previous case report , better write your own case report. that was in medicine.  In medicine my other mentors said the same thing. (a case report, once published would be indexed in Index Medicus, PUBmed nowdays, same as the botany checklist I guess). same rule should apply here in botany. after due diligence in identifying a species, if we still dont find it in a check list,
thats ok. start our own checklist: newly sighted or new occurrence. may be have a category that says:  we have identifed XY or Z.
not in any checklists. so its a “new” occurrence. it can happen in old fashioned migration way or in these days global travels its almost invariably possible. or it escaped from a study farm or botanical garden. some of these maintain extensive notes of import dates etc, but they are not bound to announce it to the world at large.
SO my take is if something is bothering us, send the case to many botanists who would id that plant and then list it as FIRST SIGHTING.
and let BSI or local Botany department do the population survey or whatever their protocol calls for. after a first sighting.
In this case … has found it in a ckecklist.

I agree with your view that just because something is not in a check list does not mean it does not exist in that region. We occasionally come across plants which are not in the checklist. For example, we found Impatiens monticola 10 years back in Manipur, and later in Sikkim, but it is still not listed in efloraofindia@BSI. Our latest one is Aristolochia ovatifolia, also from Manipur, which is not listed in India.
However, we also use various checklists as guides to verify if our identification could be wrong, especially in situations when the pictures with us are not sufficient to narrow down on one particular species. If our initial identification leads us to a particular species, and it is not listed in any checklist, we explore other related species to check if it could be something else. If nothing else matches, we are not shy to consider it as a first sighting.
I think I will seriously consider your suggestion of starting a list of first sightings, or sightings after a long time gap, on FOI.

Sorry, …, I missed it.
In that case we have also to check others species (surprisingly not mentioned in checklist for Ladakh) with distribution given in Ladakh:
Euphrasia kashmiriana Pugsley (Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh)),
Euphrasia laxa Pennell (Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh, Kashmir)),

that’s good.
checklists/index medicus/ pubmed all are giants on whose shoulders your list can stand.
they have to be a basis of our knowlegde no doubt. but there is room to grow and improve.
your list could be further classified as
A 1st sighting of already known species and if needed
B  first sighting of a new species for this you need a botanist……BSI type of logistics


Ajuga species?- Hunder, Ladakh: 16 images, inlcuding high res.
In the wild area of a hotel, in Hunder, in Nubra, Ladakh, on 16.6.22.

Euphrasia pectinata Ten. ??

I will check from details at

Going by checklist of Klimes, that is only species listed.