Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 10: 369 1827. (syn: Ceanothus asiaticus L.; Ceanothus capsularis Forst. fil.; Ceanothus leschenaultii DC.; Colubrina leschenaultii (DC.) G. Don; Pomaderris capsularis G. Don ex Loud.;  Rhamnus acuminata Colebr.; Rhamnus asiatica (L.) Lam.; Trymalium capsulare G. Don; Tubanthera katapa Rafin.); 

Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland), New Caledonia,
Vanuatu, Fiji, SE-Kenya, E-Tanzania, Mozambique, Mauritius, Rodrigues,
Seychelles, Madagascar, Comoros (Mayotte, etc.), peninsular Malaysia (all
coasts), Singapore, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, New Guinea, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda
Isl., Sulawesi, China (S-Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi), Taiwan, India (Orissa, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu), Andamans (North Andamans, Middle Andamans, South Andamans, Little Andaman Isl.), Nicobars (Car Nicobar Isl., North Nicobars, Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.), Myanmar [Burma], Philppines (throughout), Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives), Maldives, American Samoa (Manua Isl., Tutuila, Aunu’u, Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u), Cook Isl. (Rarotonga), Mapia Isl., Marquesas Isl. (Ua Huka), Micronesia (Yap, Ulithi, Truk, Moen, Dublon, Eten, Gatulel, Uman, Lukunor, Satawan, Pohnpei, Kosrae), Nauru, Niue, Northern Marianas (Maug, Agrihan, Pagan, Alamagan, Guguan, Sarigan), Palau Isl. (Babeldaob, Koror, Ngarakabesang, Malakal, Aulupse’el, Ngeanges, Peleliu, Angaur, Sonsorol, Tobi), Society Isl. (Mopelia Atoll, Tahiti, Raiatea, Tahaa, Bora Bora, Tetiaroa Atoll, Tupai), Southern Marianas (Saipan, Tinian, Rota, Guam), Tonga (Late Isl., Tongatapu, ‘Eua, Nomuka, Lifuka, Vava’u, Niuatoputapu), Tuamotu Arch. (Makatea Isl.), Western Samoa (Aleipata Islands, Upolu, Savaii), Austral Isl. (Tubuai, Rurutu), Volcano Isl. (Iwojima), Hawaii (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, West Maui (Launiupoko)), Rotuma Isl., USA (I) (Florida (I)), Jamaica (I), Lesser Antilles (I) (Guadeloupe (I), Martinique (I)), Bahamas (I), Cuba (I), Mexico (I), Belize (I), Honduras (I) as per Catalogue of Life;

I would like to share some images of Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. of Rhamnaceae family, as I could not find any images for this plant in efloraofindia database.
Location: Charkop, Kandivali West, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Date: July 2018 and June 2017 (Photos of the flowering/plant details are taken in July 2018 and Photos of the dry fruits were taken in June 2017)

Habitat: thicket near Mangroves, climbing on a thicket made of Manilkara hexandra and several other climbers
Habit: unarmed, scandent shrub

Found near sea-shores/coastal regions. ‘The Flora of the Presidency of Bombay’ Vol. I mentions it’s distribution in Ghats of Konkan, and also mentions following references to other areas of distribution: Eastern and Western peninsulas from Konkan and Tenasserim southwards,Ceylon, Elephanta and the Ghats(Talbot) and plentiful near the sea at Ratnagiri(Dalzell and Gibson).

Global Distribution: India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Australia, S.E.Africa(Reference: Cooke’s flora, website)
S Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, West Indies (Greater and Lesser Antilles); an almost pantropical species reported for many coasts of the New and Old World  tropics (Reference: Flora of china website)
Colubrina asiatica is also naturally distributed in Hawaii. It is considered as ‘invasive’ species in Florida, and capable of disturbing the ecology by displacing the local flora.
Plant details: Stem: older stem is woody
Leaves: alternate, shiny and glabrous, broadly ovate,acuminate, subcordate at base, margin: crenate
Flower: mostly a 5-merous flower in axillary cymes. Also observed a 4-merous flower(attached a photo)
Calyx tube hemispherical. Sepals are triangular in shape and whitish in colour. Petals are greenish-pale yellow, cucullate and some part of stamen(a part of filament and whole of anther) remains enclosed in the petal. The ovary is immersed in the stout disk and usually 3-loculed. Style 3-fid/lobed.
Fruit: globose capsules, dehiscent at maturity

Flowering and Fruiting:
Flowering season is December-March (Reference: and January (Reference: ‘Additions to flowers of Sahyadri’ by Shrikant Ingalhalikar)
Some resources on the internet mention that the flowering can be throughout the year.
Observed the flowering in July.

‘Additions to flowers of Sahyadri’ by Shrikant Ingalhalikar – page 88

‘The Flora of the Presidency of Bombay Vol I’ by Theodore Cooke – page 246
‘The trees, shrubs and woody climbers of the Bombay Presidency’ by W.A.Talbot – page 144

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