Viola philippica Cav. (syn: Viola alisoviana Kiss; Viola alisoviana f. candida (Kitag.) Takenouchi; Viola alisoviana f. intermedia (Kitag.) Takenouchi; Viola patrinii var. chinensis Gingins (ambiguous synonym); Viola patrinii var. gmeliniana Miquel (ambiguous synonym); Viola philippica f. candida (Kitag.) Kitag.; Viola philippica f. intermedia (Kitag.) Kitag. (ambiguous synonym); Viola philippica subsp. malesica W.Becker; Viola philippica subsp. munda W.Becker; Viola philippica var. yunnanfuensis W.Becker);
China (Anhui, Fujian, Hainan, Henan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei,
Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, ?Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong,
?Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Vietnam,
Russian Far East, South Korea, North Korea, Philippines, Sumatra, Java, Lesser
Sunda Isl. (Flores), Sulawesi, India (Uttar Pradesh, Manipur), Myanmar [Burma] as per Catalogue of Life;
Perennial herb, about 3-15 cm tall. Roots rhizomatous, slender, articulated with many root hairs. Stem absent or acaulescent. Leaves simple, in rosette, accrescent after flowering, basal, ovate-lanceolate, triangular-hastate to orbicular, about 1-4 x 0.5-3 cm across, base truncate to shallow cordate, margin entire to shallow crenate serrate, apex acute to obtuse, glabrous above, sparsely pubescent on the veins or throughout beneath, stipules lanceolate-ovate, margin shortly dentate, apex acute, persistent, adnate to the petiole slightly above the middle, glaucous, about 5-10 mm long, petiole slender, slightly winged above, about 1-6 cm long. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, white, voilet or purplish, about 1-1.5 cm across, on long axillary pedicels, much longer than petioles, about 5-8 cm long, bi-bracteolate in the middle, sepals 5, subequal, ovate-lanceolate to oblong, base usually auriculate, margins scarious or ciliate, persistent, about 3-5 x 1-1.5 mm across, petals 5, subequal, oblong-ovate, erect or spreading, about 1.5 cm long, lateral ones slightly bearded, spurred basally, spur slightly curved downwards, about 3-5 mm long. Stamens 5, hypogynous, filaments short, anthers 2 loculed. Ovary superior, ovoid-globose, sessile, 3 carpellary, glabrous, ovules many placentae parietal, style geniculate at base, distally clavate, stigma triangularly lobed, beaked. Fruit capsule, tri-valved elastically, ellipsoid-oblong, glabrous, about 0.5-1 cm across. Seeds many.
Grasslands and forest edges, altitude 300-1800 m.
Asia: China, India: Manipur, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines; Eastern Asia.
(Attributions- Ganeshaiah, K. N., UAS, Bangalore, India.; Kailash, B. R., ATREE, Bangalore, India.; Royal Norwegian Embassy grants. Indian Bioresource Information Network (IBIN), Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi, India from India Biodiversity Portal)
Fwd: Viola for identification. Yazali,Arunachal Pradesh 23.3.16. Can it be V.indica. : 8 posts by 1 author. 3 images- 1 to 5 mb each.
Viola species in eFloraofindia with comparative images (also with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)
Looks different from images at Viola indica
Viola philippica photographed by Angela Pangkam from Pasighat, in East-Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh.