Viola reichenbachiana Jord. ex Boreau, Fl. Centre France ed. 3, 2: 78 1857. (syn: Viola arenicola Chabert; Viola bertoti Souche; Viola canina Cham. & Schlechl.; Viola degener Schweigg. ex Mert. & Koch; Viola ericetorum Schrad. ex Link; Viola flavicornis E. Forst. ex Nym.; Viola formosa Vukot.; Viola idaea Gand.; Viola leucocentra Pinkw.; Viola maculata Giraudias; Viola neglecta Bieb.; Viola nemoralis Jord.; Viola reichenbachiana var. punctata (Rouy & Foucaud) P. D. Sell; Viola sylvestris Lam.; Viola sylvestris subvar punctata Rouy & Foucaud; Viola sylvestris Lam.; Viola sylvestris subvar punctata Rouy & Foucaud; Viola vicina Martr.; Viola vulgaris Rupr.; Viola wettsteinii Richt.) ?;

Albania, Austria, Belgium, England, Bulgaria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece (incl. Kiklades), East Aegaean Isl., Ireland, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Hercegovina, Montenegro, Serbia & Kosovo, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, C- & W-European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Crimea, Sardinia, Sicily, Sweden, Northern Caucasus, Georgia [Caucasus], Azerbaijan, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia), Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), Pakistan (Waziristan, Chitral, Swat, Hazara) as per Catalogue of Life;

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https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/41b8925b222c2/Viola-sp-Khillenmarg-IMG_8734-Kashmir-4.jpg?part=0.1&authuser=0&view=1

Viola sp. please help with ID-GS18102020-1 : 10 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)

Please help with the ID of this Viola species.


From where, …?
Wild or cultivated?


Khillenmarg meadow Kashmir, alt. 3000 m, wild, 8-6-2012

This is what I now think Viola reichenbachiana curved beaked style, smaller leaves less than 4 cm in a rosette, peduncle nearly 5 cm long.


I was looking for an authentic site for verification.
I think I found one which discusses three similar species almost simultaneously, with key features to distinguish them.
As per this possibility of it being Viola riviniana are more than Viola reichenbachiana or Viola odorata (if it is not any other species as listed in efloraofindia at Viola).
But I feel closest is Viola canescens Wall. only.
Pl. see details and key features at
Both POWO and Catalogue of Life consider Viola silvatica Fries ex Hartm. fil. as a syn. of Viola riviniana Rchb. (But no distribution in this part of the world).


It almost appears similar to images in your post at Viola sylvatica from Kashmir and Name confusion could it be V. reichenbachiana ?-GS17102020-6


I hope you realize that taxonomy of Viola is primarily based on shape of style and stigma
I finally agreed to  Viola sylvatica from Kashmir and Name confusion could it be V. reichenbachiana ?-GS17102020-6 as V. canescens mainly because I could not ignore erect nearly club shaped stigma.
My this specimen in addition to other features has clearly curved and beaked style which we never expect in V. canescens. You may compare these two:
Viola reichenbachiana http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=86700&flora_id=5


Thanks, …,

On carefully checking your 3rd image, I see club shaped stigma only. 4th image is not clear and hazy, so would not like to comment.


There is no visible style or stigma in the third image.

I am enclosing another image, I had taken picture after removing petals.

It is not V. canescens to say the least
Attachments (1) – 2 mb.


Thanks, … But it is not clear to me.


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References: Catalogue of Life  POWO  The Plant List Ver.1.1  Flora of Pakistan  FOP illustration  Annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal  Wikipedia  Useful Tropical Plants

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