fer-mee-AY-nuh — named for Joseph von Firmian, Imperial Governor of Lombardy
kol-oh-RAY-tuh or kol-oh-RAH-tuh — colored
commonly known as: bonfire tree, buttressed parasol tree, colored sterculia, Indian almond, scarlet sterculia • *Assamese*: jari-udal • * Bengali*: মূলা mula • *Hindi*: bodula, samari, walena • *Kannada*: ಬಿಳಿಸುಲಿಗೆ bilisulige • *Konkani, in Goa*: खोलथे kholthe • *Malayalam*: മലബരത്തി malabaraththi • *Marathi*: कौशी kaushi • *Miri*: kath-udal • *Tamil *: மலப்பருத்தி malapparutti
Native to: India, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka


Identification of a tree at karnala;
Karnala near Mumbai, Maharashtra, Altitude: Above sea level,
Habitat-  Wild, Plant Habit- Tree, Height/Length- Big tree (approx 80ft+):
efi thread # (3 messages, 3 pictures, 3.12.10);


Pl Identify vskid3:
Date/Time- 28th August 2010, 16:30:00
Location- Karnala near Mumbai, Maharashtra,
Altitude: Above sea level
Habitat-  Wild
Plant Habit- Tree
Height/Length- Big tree (approx 80ft+)
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- large leaves look like Maple leaves

–  This is the Bonfire tree [Firmiana colorata] locally called Kaushi / Bodula.

firmiana colorata:
firmiana colorata at place, zirad, alibaug


I had posted a picture of this tree also known as Scarlet Sterculia in full bloom (190310-AK-1).
Picture taken at Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai, Maharashtra on the 31st of March, 09. Resending….

– In case you want to see what the fruit look like…


Firmiana colorata:
Firmiana colorata and sunbirds
At Sagargad, Alibag

– Very nice pictures of flowering tree with sunbird enjoying nector of flowers. Similar type flowering observed in SGNP, BORIVLI, at several places with folk different birds.


Colourful flowers of Firmiana colarata
Local Marathi name: Khavashi
At Phansad WLS, Maharashtra


Sending the photographs of the fruiting

Bonfire Tree:
Was at my friend’s farm at Khambe, Kolad [near Mahad] over the weekend. Bonfire trees [Firmiana colorata] were flowering and fruiting. Sending a few photographs.

firmiana colorata:
Firmiana colorata in bloom yesterday.
There were a few trees in bloom in the alibaug area, but this one is just off the busy highway at Karnala. most of the flowers had fallen off this tree, though I did see a few other trees covered with scarlet.


firmiana colorata:
firmiana colorata coming into leaf after the onset of rains
my place alibaug, a week ago

nice, would love to see the base of the trunk of this “tree” //bush…


Maybe I could help with this request.

thank you… appreciate it, much.
i thought it should be different…like smooth bark may be?
different,  may be because of heat?

two photographs of two different firmiana trees
the first one is growing at karnala


Malvaceae week :: Firmiana colorata:
Firmiana colorata  (Roxb.) R.Br.

fer-mee-AY-nuh — named for Joseph von Firmian, Imperial Governor of Lombardy 
kol-oh-RAY-tuh or kol-oh-RAH-tuh — colored
[image: Firmiana colorata] <http://www.google.com/flickr.com%2Fphotos%2Fdi…>
Apr 14, 2010 along Palghar Road in ghat section
commonly known as: bonfire tree, buttressed parasol tree, colored sterculia, Indian almond, scarlet sterculia • *Assamese*: jari-udal • * Bengali*: মূলা mula • *Hindi*: bodula, samari, walena • *Kannada*: ಬಿಳಿಸುಲಿಗೆ bilisulige • *Konkani, in Goa*: खोलथे kholthe • *Malayalam*: മലബരത്തി malabaraththi • *Marathi*: कौशी kaushi • *Miri*: kath-udal • *Tamil *: மலப்பருத்தி malapparutti
Native to: India, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka

   – [image: Firmiana
Apr 14, 2010 somewhere along NH 8 between Virar and Manor
– [image: Kaushi (Marathi:
May 10, 2009 at Veermata Jeejabai Bhosale Udyan, Mumbai
– [image: Jari-udal (in
Mar 28, 2009 somewhere along Alibag – Wadkhal Road
– [image: Firmiana
Apr 14, 2010 somewhere along NH 8 between Virar and Manor
– … more views:

Adding an image of fresh leaves to … wonderful flower photographs- june, my place, alibaug

Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R.Br.
Photographed at Manas NP, Ass

Cubbon park entrance


Firmiana colorata:
I found this pics of Firmiana colorata bit interesting. Kindly have a look.
Location: Veer Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai.

There is mention of Follicles (a dry seed vessel, or pod, consisting of a single carpel, splitting at maturity only along the front part of thesuture) which are handsome, consisting of membrane of 7.6 cms greenish pink, as per Forest Trees of Western Ghat.
Does my formation of reply makes sense?

the internet shows a leaf like structure withteo seeds… are these green things in your pictures fruitpods…

I wonder if you will be able to photograph the ripe fruits and seed pods of this very interesting tree…
also on the net I saw a young plant of this species witha caudex.. wonder what does a mature tree’s trunk would look like?
do you have pictures of the tree as a whole and the trunk?

Wow. wonderful capture. Yeah like … said the internet shows a leaf like pods with seed attached though the pods here are very very interesting too
Check this out. I am going crazy seeing all your wonderful photos

I am sharing one photograph showing the trunk in the background.


ID plz SG3 : 1 image. 3 posts by 3 authors.

Need ID of following attachment
Location: Hajimalang’

I think Firmiana colorata.

… is right


Fwd: [efloraofindia:216172] Identification request SD2 : 3 posts by 3 authors. 1 MB attachment. What tree is this? My guess – red silk cotton or semul tree. Again found growing wild in rocky hills.

Please also check it for Firmiana colorata.

seems to be Sterculia colorata syn of firmiana colorata
a cuadiciform plant when young
Family: Sterculiaceae
may be classified in Malvaceae now??? thne it makes a tribbe called the
Dinesh Valke has nice pictures : https://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/4520020169/
some argue that this whole is a tribe of malvaceae…
I would not know Not a taxonomist
but something to think about and remember..
Thanks … for the id from a single distant picture
and may … can tell us about the possible reclassification. History

Hello – i saw this response now. It is not that tree for sure. I went back over the weekend and confirmed the classic thorn on the bark for Bombax Malabarica and the red flowers quite distinct on it’s bare branch.
BTW interestingly enough, I did come across a Firmiana Colorata growing on the rock face on my trek down – and posted it for identification to the group yesterday. Thanks for your help

so you have new pictures of this particular tree/flowers

so please submit it
for proper id
which from your write up seems to be different from what Vijay and I suggested and wrote up

I agree with … Even this tree is Firmiana colorata


Identification request : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)- 1 MB.
What tree is this? My guess – red silk cotton or semul tree. Again found growing wild in rocky hills.

Salmalia malabarica

Firmiana colorata as per another thread


ID Request – DSMAR04/04 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2).
What tree is this? Tall growing on the side of a granite cliff.

Red leaves with small berry like fruit?
It was very beautiful and worth the risk to get there on the cliff face.

Firmiana colorata

Firmiana colorata, I think

Interesting thank you both. If so it’s got a most peculiar fruit. What I took to be leaves are part of the fruit then with the berries actually sticking to the side of the petals! On closer inspection I could see the remains of what must have been the Orange tubular flower! Amazing and quite spectacular – the entire tree was covered in this


ANMAR22/43 Firmiana colorata  : 6 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (7)

Family: Sterculiaceae/ Malvaceae
Date: 16th March 2015
Place: Bangalore University, Bangalore

Habit: Tree

Beautiful shots! Thanks for sharing.

Wonderful, … !! Had never seen so minutely; the pictures are clear.


Thank you all. 🙂 Attaching one more photo showing the five pistils. Also please see 7-13 in this link for an illustration of the floral parts.
Attachments (1)

MK_KHWS-11a,MK_KHWS-11b : 5 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (2)- 1 Mb or more.

Collection site: Kalsubai-Harishchandragarh Wildlife Sanctuary
Date: 15 February 2015
Collected by: …

Firmiana colorata

Yes Firmiana colorata

Beautiful photographs.

Firmiana colorata

I think it is a seed of Firminia colorata (Sterculiaceae)

Firmiana colorata,
Family: Sterculiaceae
Photographed at CBD Hills (Belapur, Navi Mumbai) on 17-04-2010.


Malvaceae Fortnight :: Firmiana colorata ::Mumbai :: PKAJUL53:: 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)

Firmiana colorata  
Location: Veer Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai.


Malvaceae Fortnight :: Firmiana colorata ::en-route Phansad :: PKAJUL81:: : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
Firmiana colorata
Family: Sterculiaceae
Location: en-route Phansad

Malvaceae fortnight :: Firmiana colorata : Ratnagiri :: SMP28 : 1 post by 1 author. 2 images.
Firmiana colorata
Ratnagiri (Konkan)


Flower for Id – ID 11042016 SH1 Is it Fermiana colorata ?  : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)

Flower for Id pl. Is it Fermiana colorata ? Sorry for little blurred image.
Location – Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary
Date – 26.3.2016

Yes …, Firmiana colorata.

Riot of colours, …

Yes …, It’s Spring time afterall – बसंत है आया रंगीला …..


Firmiana colorata :: Devgad, Konkan :: March 2016 – ARKOCT07  : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (6)
Saw a fruiting Firmiana colorata for the first time. It was growing wild on the mountain top. I had to trespass on someone’s property to take pics.


ID please : 11 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (1)
This is a tall deciduous tree at Dandakaranya, Odisha with beautiful bloom. So far as I remember, it exudates some gum. I have forgotten the name.

It looks like Firmiana colorata…………….

Thank you very much …, Your sharp eyes detected the plant.

Firmiana colorata from me too.

Please identify the climber in the picture.

Seems to be Mansoa alliacea climber growing on a Plumeria.



Young leaves of Firmiana colorata : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)

Attached pics of young leaves of Firmiana colorata.
The colour variation as well as different shapes of young leaves are amazing.
Firmiana colorata Syn. Sterculia colorata
Common name: Bonfire
Marathi name: कौशी
Family: Sterculiaceae

Really Nice !! Few days ago I hope … uploaded this plant with young leaves

Identification of tree : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Date – 14 APR 2018

Location- Place, Altitude, GPS – Kondapalli Fort, 259 m,16° 37′ 31.05” N 80° 31′ 50.75” E

Habitat –  Wild (Inside the fort)

Plant Habit –  Tree

Height – Approximately 8 m

Leaves – Leafless when photographed.

Inflorescence – Raceme

Flowers – Red Flowers

My guess – Erythrina crista-galli

Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R.Br. [Malvaceae].

Thank you. My slide of Firmiana colorata. 1 image.

in Bandhavgarh on Fort Platue 18/3/08; In Bangalore University, 19/3/08; near Shriharihareshwar and Shrivardhan (Raigad dist. Maharashtra)- 27/4/08; in Yeoor, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Thane [Maharashtra] on 20 April 2008; at Alibag 11/04/2009; Tungareshwar, Yeoor, Sanjay Gandhi National Park- May’09?; Sagargad, Alibag MS: 18 Mar, 2010; at Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai on the 31st of March, 09; at CBD Hills (Belapur, Navi Mumbai) on 17-04-2010; Sagargad, Alibag MS: 18 Mar, 2010; Fl.Per.: March-May as per link.

Firmiana colorata-18042010-PKA2 – efloraofindia | Google Groups
Firmania Colorata: 190310-AK-1 – efloraofindia | Google Groups
2 pictures for you – efloraofindia | Google Groups
Firmiana colorata first flowering in South Florida – indiantreepix | Google Groups
Coloured Sterculia- Firmiana colorata – indiantreepix | Google Groups
Bonfire – indiantreepix | Google Groups
Khavashi – indiantreepix | Google Groups
Firmiana colorata flowers with pollinator – indiantreepix | Google Groups


Mumbai, MH :: Firmiana colorata for validation :: ARK2019-112 : 18 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (4)
These are fallen flowers of Firmiana colorata from Sagar Upvan in Mumbai, MH. Pics were clicked in April 2018.
The colour of these flowers is not the usual bright orange but is more subdued (rather pink).
Can this be F. colorata only or can this be some other species or var. Would appreciate experts’ opinions.

Can you post the leaves/ foliage pictures of the tree please.

Did you check in efi site for such variations, if any?

Looks matching ! 1024 × 768

Thanks … for the link. However, I cannot access the link now, it does not show up any pics, extremely sorry, I did not check it earlier. Could you please indicate what keywords did you use to search the net?

Pl. check at Firmiana colorata

Firmiana colorata. Please check if it works

Firmiana colorata

I think Firmiana colorata only as per images and details herein.

… they are Firmiana colorata … variation in colour is possible.

Thank you … for validating.
Thanks … for the link. Am just curious, what keywords did you use for the search? and on what url?

I take it as F. colorata

… must have reached some particular site called Hive Miner from some search result.
There he searched through tags: firmiana, sterculiaceae.
Here are the results for those tags.

Thank you … for prompt response.
Long time ago I had read somewhere that Hive miner was the search engjne for Flickr. So was curious if this search differs from the normal Flickr search.

Hive Miner, Flickriver and many such other sites are independent.
Technically, they use the Flickr API, to “display” Flickr site content in some different manner, thus they are merely alternate viewers of flickr content.
Perhaps when they become sufficiently popular, they may then introduce advertisements on their pages to earn money.

Tree id request : 31 posts by 8 authors. Attachments (1) – 4 Mb.
Date/Time- Jun 17 2018
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Victoria memorial, Kolkata
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-Urban
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tree
Height/Length- 40 Feet
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- Large (10-20 cm) like Jatropa curcus

Do you have photographs of the under surface of the leaves ?
I want to say tis is Pterospermum acerifolium
i.e. Kanak champ, but would like to see a few more details of the leaves and later in the season (like in aufust) the flowers.
there is some write up on our page about the leaves being peltate and orbicular but the case we have shows wide variation in that characteristic.
Most of the tree in victoria memorial have a small metal plate with a number etched, did you see one on this tree?

Doubtful Id. Looks different …

I agree. the leaves and their grouping, insertion of the petiole all had me worried.

… i was not asking for the name label, i know they have a problem. i was just asking for a number plate its about 3 inches by three inches mostly because it seems there is a lot of cutting down of tree going on in the background. wanted to know if you saw any number on this tree. this tree has me worried, it seems it may go on the chopping block soon. thats all

only other possibility can think of is a tree called Berrya cordifolia var. mollis.
These is one in Shibpur botanical garden.
And Bentihill says there was one near Tollyclub main gate and what is now the exide mor…???
ps internet including our website is not much help in that that  nobody includes great pictures of the leaves and bark.

Difficult to say. Kleinhovia hospita comes to mind without flowers and fruits.

Quite possible sir.

yes Kleihovia ia what i entertained first but the leaves did not seem to be of the right size though

Yes …, not Kleinhovia at all. The photographer is requested to take photo of flowers.

Possibility of any Sterculia (even Firmiana)?

you may be onto something. the feature here that was very evident was the crowding of the leaves at the very end of the branches. that seems to be point we need to do the differential diagnosis. well onto research

Another guess is Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston

… I compared the phtographs of Cochlospermum religiosum taken by me in Mysore. They are different.

Can Jatropha curcus attain such height and tree like structure?

no. it seems. i have searched long and hard. nothing to be had on the internet but never say never
looking closely at the picture above… there is a metal plate like something. may be a second visit by …  will get us a number
with that number we could ask the memorial staff!

No. Nevertheless, it grows up to 10 feet as observed in Mysore where it is found in wastelands. Anyway the photograph does not look like J. c.  It is different according to me.

It is Gyrocarpus americanus (hernandiaceae), soft tree, frequently found in the dry foot hill areas

that would make it the helixcopter tree

1: … picture of that tree is in flowers of India site. the leaves don’t match
but his case on efloraindia shows many pictures and the leaves indeed are bunching up at the tip of the branches although they are simple in outline  not like jatropha leaves.
2: on our own page for Gyrocarpus americanus
the few cases we have shows a wide range of leaves sizes and outlines
and there had always been a chaos and discussions of differential diagnosis based only on leaves.
we  have the same problem here we only have leaves shape and the fact that they are bunching up at the end of branches.
we need flowers and or seeds.
i would not wish this to be the final say
nor would i like to mark this case as complete
(because i find that no further discussions are possible) (one can only write to the last person on the thread before it was marked complete.)

I agree with … The issue is confused now. Does the tree has  different shapes of leaves.

No confusion sir, it will have entire to 3 – lobed leaves.

i second … sentiments and thank … but i hold an open mind about the final diagnosis. need to find more data, leaf pictures showing diverse outlines or descriptions or herbarium sheets of various leaves. its by no means a closed or completed case

to me it is Firmiana sps. also looks closer to Dombeya sps.

Thanks …. I do not think it is Kanak Champa as I am very familiar with it. In fact I have one at home. Kanak Champa usually blooms in March(attaching a photo taken on 17-March this year). Also I did not find any plate but I’ll look for it again when I visit next.
Honestly, the name plates are not that authentic. I have found many tress are wrongly labelled in Dhakuria and even in Victoria.

Thank you … Your input means a lot to us. OK. now we are getting somewhere.
all the viable choices we have so far seem to  point to a member of malvaceae family
Dr Pardeshi: Dombeya sp family malvaceae shows  four species  in our list 
                     Firmiana sp is of family Malvaceae shows two species  in our list 
DR Desai :    Berrya sp is of family Malvaceae shows two species on our list
Tapasda, Usha di, have considered are Kleinhovia is also of Malvaceae family.
Usha di thought it was Pterospermum … Debjit said its not because he has one himself, and this is not it.
Gargji suggested could it be:  Cochlospermum religiosum of  family
but … says its not, because she had one and its not at all similar.
and Santhan ji said it is Gyrocarpus americanus  of family Hernandiaceae
and he says three types of leaves can be seen in this tree
although what we see on the net and what we have here are not matching.
Original question was could it be related to could it be  Jatropha curcas of euphorbiaceae family
gives us options to think about and search

Firmiana colorata?

Pl. check details and images at Firmiana colorata

Just the leaf details is the problem sometimes.

thats the case here it seems.
… has shown a case that is almost at the bottom of the page
and … had shown tree base in her case. May be … I think he would know. … can you please look see?

Firmiana colorata. I revisited the tree a few weeks back and found the flowers.

Yes !

Id. Please—150821sn1: 2 images.

your help in id. of this plant.
location: Aambyvalley rd., Off Lonavala, Pune
plant habit:?
height:about 3 ft.

Leaves have some resemblance to Fatsia species.

Firmiana colorata to me.

Cross-check with specimens and let us know …,
and share some more information, on how it is possible to ID with one pic,

Thanks everyone their. Do they have variations in leaves as per photos I see in the link shared by … ?. Besides I have yet to come across a full grown tree here. This is all I have seen in so many years. Many years back was identified as Firmiana. check this link
Probably this is the same tree. So I have a some doubt. Also what I see on the net does not compare with the leaves.Please enlighten.

Yes, from my observations, the leaves of Firmiana can be very variable especially in young plants or coppice shoots.

I checked my records to confirm I have seen a few Firmiana near Aamby Valley Road some years ago.

Thanks very much … But I have not seen a full grown Tree.


Identification of plant specimen 130722 SS2: 3 high res. images.
Posting again as clubbed at Identification of plant specimen, due to same subject.

This tree is growing in nursery of Arvali bioversity park, Gurugram. I took photograph two days ago…….

Check for Gyrocarpus species. Need additional photos like fruits/ flowers to confirm

Please check with Firmiana colorata


Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R.Br. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Apr 13, 2008 · JUN23 DV198: 1 image.

Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R.Br.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Apr 13, 2008 · 2:15 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R.Br. :: Guhagar, Maharashtra :: Mar 6, 2011 · JUN23 DV470: 2 images.

Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R.Br.
Guhagar, Maharashtra :: Mar 6, 2011 · 9:26 AM IST :: about 10 m (30 ft) asl
Many thanks to Aditya Gadkari and Bharat Godambe for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R.Br. :: Chinchoti, Thane district :: Apr 14, 2010 · JUN23 DV563: 2 images.

Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R.Br.
Chinchoti, Thane district :: Apr 14, 2010 · 11:56 AM IST :: about 5 m (16 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach for validating the ID at iNaturalist