Keys in Flora of Peninsular India, Flora of Pakistan and Flora of China

Keys as per BSI Flora of India:

1a. Carpels 5 – 12 2
b. Carpels more than 15 10
2a. Carpels 5 3
b. Carpels 8 – 12 4
3a. Calyx lobes 7 – 10 mm long connate at base; staminal column ca 5.5 mm long, filaments ca 15 mm long 8. Abutilon persicum
b. Calyx lobes ca 2 cm long, connate up to the middle; staminal column ca 20 mm long, filaments ca 3 mm long 10. Abutilon ranadei
4a. Petals 25 – 45 cm long, erect, mostly red to orange 11. Abutilon striatum
b. Petals less than 2 cm long, spreading, yellow 5
5a. Schizocarp cylindric up to 1 cm long 6
b. Schizocarp ovoid to subcylindric, more than 1 cm long 7
6a. Pedicels shorter than petioles; mericarps awned; seeds ca 2 mm across, minutely puberulous; leaves glabrescent or minutely stellate-pubescent above and densely stellate-pubescent beneath 9. Abutilon ramosum
b. Pedicels equal to or longer than petioles; mericarps awnless; seeds 1 – 1.5 mm across,glabrate; leaves densely stellate-pubescent on both surfaces 2. Abutilon fruticosum
7a. Flowers axiilary, solitary or 2 – 3 in clusters or in terminal racemes by the reduction of upper leaves; schizocarp ovoid 8
b. Flowers 2 – 5 in axillary, up to 10 cm long, peduncled cymes, rarely solitary; schizocarp subcylindric 5. Abutlilon neilgherrense
8a. Staminal column stellate-hairy; mericarps with erect, less than 1 mm long awns 9
b. Staminal column glabrous: mericarps with 2 erecto-patent 3 – 7 mm long awns 12. Abutilon theophrasti
9a. Plants densely covered with long spreading patent simple hairs; calyx lobes longer or as long as schizocarp 0. Abutilon grandifolium
b. Plants covered with appressed stellate hairs; calyx lobes shorter than schizocarp 6. Abutilon pakistanicum
10a. Stems, petioles and pedicels with dense long patent simple hairs, few minute stellate hairs and short viscid glandular hairs; corolla orange yellow with a purple centre 3. Abutilon hirtum
b. Stems, petioles and pedicels densely stellate-pubescent with few simple hairs; corolla with or without purple centre 11
11a. Corolla yellow to pale yellow without purple centre, calyx lobes ovate to lanceolate; mericarps dorsally and ventrally stellate-hairy; leaves ovate-cordate 12
b. Corolla yellow with deep brown center; calyx lobes deltoid to ovate; mericarps hairy on dorsal margin; leaves orbicular to rotund-cordate 7. Abutilon pannosum
12a. Staminal column 2 – 3 mm long; schizocarps ca 1 cm across; mericarps ca 10 x 5 mm, gradually acuminate 1. Abutilon bidentatum
b. Staminal column 5 – 7 mm long; schizocarps 1.5 – 2.5 cm across; mericarps 10 – 15 x 7 – 10 mm, acute to acuminate, obtuse or rounded 4. Abutilon indicum


Abutilon bidentatum Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Niger to Eritrea and Namibia, S. Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent: Angola, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)



Images by (Surajit Koley – Id by Gurcharan Singh), Gurcharan Singh ,(Shubhada Nikharge – validation by Dinesh Valke) & (Muthu Karthick – Id by Tanay Bose),(inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade)

Images by (Gopal Shinde – Id by Santhan P), (Prashant Awale – Id by Vijay Paithane) , (Prashant Awale – Id by Shrikant Ingalhalikar) & (Anurag Sharma – Id by Vijay Paithane), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade)




Images by (Sehrish Gazal – Id by T.K.Paul), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade)


Images by Mayur Nandikar, Prashant Awale & Pravin Kavale, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade)


Images by Gurcharan Singh & (Nidhan SIngh – Id by Vijay Paithane), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade)



Images by Gurcharan Singh, Gurcharan Singh, Gurcharan Singh & Gurcharan Singh, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade)



BSI Flora of India with details & keys (Volume 3- 1993) (Distribution):
  var. bidentatum (India: Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Delhi and Maharashtra; Pakistan, Arabia and Tropical Africa)
  var. major (Blatt. & Hallb.) Bhandari (India: Rajasthan)  
   var. chrysocarpa Blatt. & Hallb. (India: Rajasthan)
   var. fruticosum (India: In dry deciduous forests up to 400 m. Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Maharashtra;  Pakistan, Arabia, Tropical Africa and Indonesia(Java))
Abutilon grandifolium (Willd.) Sweet (Tropical America and Africa, cultivated as an ornamental elsewhere in tropics including India) 
  var. heterotrichum (Hochst. ex Mattei) Cuf. (India: Gujarat and Tamil Nadu; Pakistan and Ethiopia)
  var. hirtum (Throughout in semiarid scrub forests up to 600 m; Semiarid tropics of the old world, introduced in tropical America)
  subsp. albescens (Miq.) Borss. var. australlense Hochr. (India: Andhra Pradesh; Malesia, Australia and New Caledonia)
  subsp. guineeosis (Schumach.) Borss. (India: Central to S. India; Tropical Asia, Tropical Africa, Australia)
  subsp. indicum (India: Throughout; Tropical and subtropical regions of the World)
Abutilon megapotamicum (A. Sprengel) St. Hill. & Naud. (Cultivated in the hills of Tamil Nadu; Native of Tropical America)
Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri & Ali in Jafri (India: N.W. Rajasthan; Pakistan)
Abutilon pannosum (G.Forst.) Schlect. (India: North Western to Central India and Deccan plateau in waste places up to 300 m. Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Egypt and Tropical Africa)
Abutilon persicum (Burm. f.) Merr. (India: Throughout in dry deciduous forest up to 1000 m; Bhutan, Myanmar, China and Malesia)
Abutilon ramosum (Cav.) Guillemin & Perrottet in Guillemin et al. (India: Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Pakistan and Tropical Africa)
Abutilon ranadei Woodrow & Stapf (India: Maharashtra (Ambeghat))
Abutilon striatum Dickson ex Lindley (India: Cultivated as an ornamental in the gardens, occasionally running wild in Cherrapunji hills (Meghalaya) and Nilgiri hills (Tamil Nadu); Native of Central America)  (= Callianthe striata (Dicks. ex Lindl.) Donnell)
Abutilon theophrasti Medikus (India: N.W. India and Deccan plateau between 300 – 1500 m. Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu; Subtropics of the world, probably native in the Mediterranean region)
   var. fischeri T.K . Paul & Nayar (India: Tamil Nadu)
   var. neilgherrense (India: Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu)

In Flora of India vol-3 published by BSI Kolkata T.K.Paul has written the account of Malvaceae. This
document (Paul, 1993) provides key to all the Indian species of Abutilon, their description, flowering- fruiting time and distribution in India.
As per this document following wild species of Abutilon are known in India-
1-Abutilon bidentatum (var. bidentatum [line diagram given], var. major)
2-A.fruticosum (var. chrysocarpa, var. fruticosum),
3-A.hirtum (var. hirtum [line diagram given], var. heterotrichum),
4-A.indicum (A.indicum ssp. albescens var. australiense, A.indicum ssp. guineensis, A.indicum ssp. indicum),
5-A.neilgherrense (var. fischeri, var. neilgherrense),
8-A.persicum (line diagram given),
9-A.ramosum (line diagram given),
11-A.striatum (= Callianthe striata (Dicks. ex Lindl.) Donnell)
Abutilon ranadei Woodr. et Stapf is mentioned as “Endangered” or “Presumed Extinct” in Red Data Book of Indian Plants Vol-1, page 198 (Nayar and Sastry, 1987). Line diagram of the species is provided in Red Data Book. 
Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
(L.) Medicus
Ascend ing or
De cumbent Herb
Sandy &
Dry  Localities
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Cuddalore, Kanchee puram, Kanniya kumari,
Naga pattinam, Puddu kkottai, Ramanatha puram, Thanjavur,  Thiruvallur,  Thiruvarur, Thoothu kkudi, Tiruvanna malai
Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet Erect
Under shrub
to Dry Deciduous Forests
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet subsp. guineense (Schumach.) Borssum Erect
Under shrub
Dry Localities
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957
Kanchee puram, Tiruchchira ppalli, Tiruvanna malai
Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet subsp. indicum  Erect
or Diffuse Under shrub
to Dry Deciduous Forests
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Abutilon megapotamicum (Spreng.) Mill. & Naud. Shrub Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America 
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Dindigul, Salem, Theni
Abutilon neilgherrense Munro ex Wight Erect
Under shrub
Ghats in Low Altitude
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Virudhu nagar
Abutilon pannosum (Forst. f.) Schlect Erect
Under shrub
Plains,  Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983; Gamble, 1957
Nilgiri, Tirunelveli, Viluppuram
Abutilon persicum (Burm. F.) Merr. Erect
Under shrub
Ghats & Eastern Ghats in Low Altitude
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem, Tiruchchira ppalli
Abutilon ramosum (Cav.) Guill. & Perr. Erect
Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Abutilon striatum Dickson ex Lindl. = Callianthe striata (Dicks. ex Lindl.) Donnell Shrub Western
Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Abutilon theophrastii Medicus Erect
Under shrub
Plains Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983



Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Abutilon hirtum var. heterotrichum Abutilon heterotrichum, Abutilon lugardii Malvaceae Hairy Indian Mallow
Abutilon indicum Sida indica Malvaceae Indian Mallow
Abutilon megapotamicum Malvaceae Trailing Abutilon
Abutilon pannosum Sida pannosa, Abutilon muticum, Abutilon glaucum Malvaceae Ragged Mallow
Abutilon persicum Malvaceae Persian Mallow
Abutilon pictum Abutilon striatum, Abutilon thompsonii, Sida picta Malvaceae Painted Mallow
Abutilon ranadei Malvaceae Son Ghanta
Abutilon theophrasti Sida planiflora, Abutilon avicennae, Malva abutilon Malvaceae Buttonweed


Malvaceae of Southern Peninsular India: A Taxonomic Monograph By V. V. Sivarajan, A. K. Pradeep (1996)- Great details-
Abutilon indicum subsp. guineense (Schumach.) Borss. Waalk. is a synonym of Abutilon indicum var. guineense
Abutilon ramosum (Cav.) Guill. & Perr.
Abutilon striatum Dickson ex Lindl. = Callianthe striata (Dicks. ex Lindl.) Donnell


Abutilon bidentatum var. bidentatum (India, Pakistan, Tropical Africa and Arabia) 
Abutilon fruticosum var. fruitcosum (Tropical Africa, Arabia, India and Pakistan) 
Abutilon grandifolium (Willd.) Sweet (Tropical America and Africa, introduced in other countries)
Abutilon hirtum var. hirtum (Common in tropics) 
Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet (Tropics and subtropics of New and Old Worlds)
Abutilon muticum (Del.ex DC.) Sweet (Tropical Africa, Arabia, India and Pakistan)
Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri & Ali in Jafri (It is endemic to Pakistan)
Abutilon pannosum (Forst.f.) Schlecht. (Tropical Africa, Pakistan and India)
Abutilon ramosum (Cay.) Guill.& Perr. in Guill. et al (Tropical Africa, India and Pakistan)
Abutilon theophrasti Medic (Native to India; introduced and fully naturalized in North America; North Asia and Westward to South Europe. It is of rare occurrence in Pakistan)

Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet (Himalaya, India, Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, S. China, Taiwan, S. Japan, Malaysia, Australia, Loyalty Isl.)
Abutilon persicum (Burm. f.) Merr. (Africa, W. Asia, tropical Himalaya, India, Burma, Malaysia)


Abutilon hirtum var. hirtum [India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, SW Asia (Arabia), Australia]. 
Abutilon indicum (Linnaeus) Sweet [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
Abutilon pictum (Gillies ex Hooker) Walpers [native to South America (Brazil, Uruguay); cultivated worldwide].
Abutilon theophrasti Medikus [India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam; Africa, SW Asia, Australia, Europe, North America].

1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett
Abutilon bidentatum var. major (Blatt. & Hallb.) Bhandari is a synonym of Abutilon bidentatum Hochst. ex A.Rich. – I- Rajasthan
Abutilon fruticosum var. chrysocarpum Blatt. & Hallb. is a synonym of Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr– I- Rajasthan
Abutilon ramosum (Cav.) Guill. & Perr.– I- Karnataka & Kerala
Abutilon ranadei – Ex/E – Maharastra

An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details with keys
Abutilon crispum (L.) Medik. is a synonym of Herissantia crispa (L.) Brizicky
Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah, D. Muralidhara Rao, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2002)- Details with keys
Medicinal Plants in Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah (2002)- Details-

Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986)-
Abutilon thompsonii H.J.Veitch is a synonym of Abutilon pictum
Abutilon venosum Lem. is a synonym of Abutilon pictum


Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details with keys
Abutilon hirtum
Abutilon indicum


Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys
Abutilon hirtum
Abutilon indicum

Abutilon : 2 posts by 2 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Abutilon

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

I have added the list of all species of Abutilon known in India. Red Data Book status of one species is also mentioned with reference.

Further updated the Abutilon page.


Fwd: completed insertion of images of Abutilon species : 1 post by 1 author.
Some species were already done by yourself and …


Pl. go through Abutilon (‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎Malvaceae) page with images of species (done mainly by …) in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, it will be really nice. 


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