Keys available at
Malvaceae of Southern Peninsular India: A Taxonomic Monograph By V. V. Sivarajan, A. K. Pradeep (1996- Details),

As per
efi thread:

Stem non – prickly = A. manihot subsp. manihot (Himalayan subsp.)
Stem prickly = A. manihot subsp. tetraphylla —-> 
    subsp. tetraphylla var. tetraphylla …….epicalyx lobes covered with small soft hairs. 
    subsp. tetraphylla var. pungens …….epicalyx lobes covered in long prickly hairs. 
…….epicalyx lobes fall in fruit …….it is persistent in fruit in A. angulosus.
(Abelmoschus is separated from Hibiscus on basis of calyx…splits on one side in flowering, falls off with corolla on withering)









species in India:

  1. Abelmoschus angulosus Wall. ex. Wight & Arn.
  2. A. crinitus Wall.
  3. A. enbeepeegearense K.J.John et al.
  4. A. esculentus (L.) Moench
  5. A. ficulneus (L.) Wight & Arn. ex Wight
  6. A. manihot (L.) Medik. [ssp. manihot; ssp. tetraphyllus (Roxb. ex
    Hornem.) Borss. (
    var. megaspermus Hemadri ; var. pungens (Roxb.) Hochr.; var. tetraphyllus (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Borss.)]
  7. A. moschatus Medik.
  8. A. moschatus subsp. tuberosus (Span.) Borss. Waalk.
  9. A. palianus Sutar, K.V.Bhat et S.R.Yadav
  10. A. tuberculatus Pal & Singh
1. Paul, T.K. 1993. Malvaceae. In; Sharma, B.D., Sanjappa, M. and Balakrishnan, N.P. (eds.) Flora of India Vol-3. BSI, Calcutta. Pp. 257-394

A new species of Abelmoschus Medik. (Malvaceae) from Chhattisgarh, India by Shrikant Sutar, Pravin Patil, Makarand Aitawade, Joseph John, Surendra Malik, Satyawada Rao, Shrirang Yadav, K. V. Bhat- Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution October 2013, Volume 60, Issue 7, pp 1953-1958 Date: 11 Aug 2013 –
Abstract– A new species of Malvaceae, Abelmoschus palianus Sutar, K. V. Bhat et S. R. Yadav is described and illustrated from Chhattisgarh, India. The morphological differences between the new species and related taxa are discussed.

Abelmoschus enbeepeegearense sp. nov. (Malvaceae), an endemic species of okra from Western Ghats, India by K. Joseph John, Sheen Scariah, V. A. Muhammed Nissar, K. V. Bhat, S. R. Yadav- Nordic Journal of Botany Volume 31, Issue 2, pages 170–175, May 2013 –
Abelmoschus enbeepeegearense J. John et al. is a new species occurring at low elevations in the Western Ghats of India, comprising Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The taxon is morphologically allied to A. moschatus subsp. moschatus, A. moschatus subsp. tuberosus and A. crinitus, but easily distinguishable by virtue of its orthotropic branching, 3–5-angled leaves, glandular hairy plant body with whitish waxy secretions, glandular non-setose epiclayx segmens which is more than eight in number and ovate hirsute fruits with a short mucro at the apex. It can be crossed with all three taxa with varying degree of success, but the hybrids are sterile. The material belonging to it was earlier identified as and placed under A. moschatus Medik. The taxon is described and illustrated with notes on its phenology, ecology and distribution. In additions, a key to all Abelmoschus taxa occurring in India is provided.

Classification of genetic diversity in Abelmoschus tuberculatus germplasm collection using morphometric data by I S BISHT, D P PATEL & R K MAHAJAN- Annals of Applied Biology Volume 130, Issue 2, pages 325–335, April 1997-
Abstract- Abelmoschus tuberculatus Pal & Singh is endemic to India and is the close relative of cultivated okra, A. esculentus. Data on 49 selected accessions of A. tuberculatus were used to study genetic diversity for a range of morphological characters through the use of multi-variate statistics. Epicalyx segments, shape, size and persistence; petal colour and petal blotch; stem and fruit pubescence; pigmentation of various plant parts; days to flowering; plant height; and the fruit yield/plant were the important components of variation and contributed significantly to the total variation in germplasm accessions under study. The accessions could be grouped into four distinct clusters. The grouping pattern, however, did not reflect relationship between geographic origin and genetic diversity. The potential use of the variability in okra improvement programmes is discussed.

BSI Flora of India with details & keys (Volume 3- 1993) (Distribution):
Abelmoschus angulosus Wallich ex Wight & Arn. (India: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Indonesia)
Abelmoschus crinitus Wallich (India: Throughout in tropical and subtropical evergreen forests; Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Indo-China and Malesia(Indonesia and Philippines))
Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench (Cultivated in most tropical countries including India)
Abelmoschus ficulneus (L.) Wight & Arn. ex Wight (India: In tropical forests between 300 to 1200 m. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Africa, Malesia and N. Australia)
  subsp. manihot (Mainly cultivated in southeast Asia and sometimes occurs as an escape from cultivation)
  subsp. tetraphyllus (Roxb. ex Homem.) Borss. var. megaspermus Hemadri (India: Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra)
  subsp. tetraphyllus (Roxb. ex Homem.) Borss. var. pungens (Roxb.) Hochr. (India: Bihar, West Benga~ Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura and throughout tropical himalayas from Kumaon to Sikkim; Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, china, Malesia and Australia)
  subsp. tetraphyllus (Roxb. ex Homem.) Borss.  var. tetraphyllus (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Borss. (India: Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala; Malesia, New Guinea and New Ireland)
Abelmoschus moschatus Medikus (India: Throughout up to 1500 m; Bangladesh, China, Indo-china, Thailand, Maiesia(Malaya Peninsula, Indonesia) and Fiji Islands)
  var. deltoidefolius T.K. Paul & Nayar (India: In scrub forests up to 900 m. Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat)
  var. tuberculatus (India: In scrub forests up to 900 m. Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan)

Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution
Abelmoschus angulosus Wall ex Wight & Arn.  Erect Herb or
Under shrub
Western Ghats
& Eastern Ghats, Shola Borders / Stream Banks
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem, Tiruchchira ppalli, Tirunelveli
Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Erect
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Abelmoschus ficulneus (L.) Wight &
Under shrub
to Low Altitude
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medicus Large
Erect Under shrub
runs wild, Native of South East
Asiatic  Region
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983
Abelmoschus moschatus Medicus subsp. tuberosus (Span.)
Herb Plains Matthew,

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Abelmoschus crinitus Hibiscus cancellatus Malvaceae Hairy Okra
Abelmoschus esculentus Malvaceae Ladies Finger
Abelmoschus ficulneus Hibiscus ficulneus Malvaceae White Wild Musk Mallow
Abelmoschus manihot Hibiscus manihot Malvaceae Sweet Hibiscus
Abelmoschus moschatus subsp. tuberosus Abelmoschus rugosus, Abelmoschus coccineus Malvaceae Pink Swamp Mallow
Abelmoschus moschatus Hibiscus abelmoschu Malvaceae Musk Mallow





Malvaceae of Southern Peninsular India: A Taxonomic Monograph By V. V. Sivarajan, A. K. Pradeep (1996)- Details-

Hibiscus abelmoschus L. is a synonym of Abelmoschus moschatus
Hibiscus esculentus L. is a synonym of Abelmoschus esculentus
Hibiscus ficulneus L. is a synonym of Abelmoschus ficulneus

Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000)- Details-
Abelmoschus ficulneus

Antidiabetic Plants in India and Herbal Based Antidiabetic Research By T. Pullaiah, K. Chandrasekhar Naidu (2003)- Details-

Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1)- Details-
Abelmoschus ficulneus

Vegetables edited by G. J. H. Grubben (2004)- Details-
Abelmoschus esculentus

An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details with keys-
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details-


Medicinal Plants in Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah (2002)- Details-

Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah, D. Muralidhara Rao, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2003)- Details with keys
Abelmoschus ‎(Malvaceae) : 5 posts by 3 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Abelmoschus (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

I have compiled and added the list of Indian Species.

Thanks a lot, … I have added Abelmoschus sagittifolius (Kurz) Merrill = Abelmoschus moschatus subsp. tuberosus (Span.) Borss. Waalk.

Abelmoschus caillei (A.Chev.) J.M.C. Stevels is also introduced as a crop in Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Tamilnadu and North-East India

As per The Plant List Ver. 1.1, Abelmoschus caillei (A.Chev.) Stevels is a synonym of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., while GRIN (updated in 1998) treats it as a separate species. 

Further updated the Abelmoschus page.


Pl. go through Abelmoschus (‎‎‎Malvaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.

All identified species of Abelmoschus are correct.