Key to the species in Sikkim as per efi thread:
1a. Climbing or twining herbs … 2. A. elwesiii
b. Erect herbs … 2
2a. Annual herbs with slender tap roots; carpels 9 – 12 … 5.A. gymnandrum
b. Perennial or biennial herbs, usually with a paired tap root; carpels 3 – 5 (-8) … 3
3a. Inflorescences 1 – 4-flowered … 10. A. naviculare
b. Inflorescences many-flowered … 4
4a. Perennial herbs … 11. A. novoluridum
b. Biennial herbs … 5
5a. Petals hispid or hispidulous … 6
b. Petals glabrous … 9
6a. Carpels glabrous, drying black … 4. A. gammiei
b. Carpels pubescent … 7
7a. Carpels 3 (-4 – 5) … 8. A. laciniatum
b. Carpels 5 … 8
8a. Uppermost sepal horizontal, conspicuously beaked; carpels densely yellow velutinous … 9. A. nakaoi
b. Uppermost sepal oblique, shortly beaked; carpels sparsely pubescent to glabrous … 6. A. heterophylloides
9a. Carpels glabrous … 1. A. bisma
b. Carpels pubescent … 10
10a. Leaves from hypogynous base of stem … 7. A. hookeri
b. Leaves basal and cauline … 11
11a. Bracteoles linear, entire; flowers dirty blue; petal head ca 6 mm long … 3. A. ferox
b. Bracteoles broad, dentate; flowers deep blue; petal head ca 10 mm long … 12. A. spicatum

Distribution and Taxonomy of Genus Aconitum in Kashmir: Potent Medicinal Resource of Himalayan Valley (pdf)- Neelofar Jabeen, Mohammad I Kozgar, Ghulam H. Dar, Abdul S. Shawl and Samiullah Khan- March 2013 Chiang Mai Journal of Science 40(40):173-186

Key to the species of Aconitum in the Kashmir Himalaya

1. + Perennial herbs … 2
1. – Biennial herbs … 3
2. +Bracteoles linear or filiform; upper sepal lurid-purple with soft hairs, boat- shaped — 5. A. laeve
2. -Bracteoles oblong-lanceolate; upper sepal yellow or white, hirsute,helmet-shaped, with linear and sub-acute beak — 4. A. moschatum
3. +Carpels 5 … 4
3. -Carpels less than 5, or more than 5 … 7
4. +Inflorescence lax or loose … 5
4. -Inflorescence dense … 6
5. +Upper sepal glabrous — 6. A. heterophyllum
5. -Upper sepal pubescent — 3. A. rotundifolium
6. +Carpels and sepals glabrous — 8. A. chasmanthum
6. -Carpels and sepals pubescent — 1. A. violaceum
7. +Petals and carpels pubescent — 7. A. deinorrhizum
7. -Petals and carpels glabrous — 2. A. soongaricum


Aconitum balfourii Stapf (Images by Balkar Singh (Validated by Gurcharan Singh) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes (Images by Gurcgaran Singh & Narendra Joshi (Identified by D.S.Rawat) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Aconitum deinorrhizum Stapf (Images by Kishan Lal (Identified by D.S.Rawat) (Inserted by J.M.Garg)


Aconitum heterophylloides (Brühl) Stapf (Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), India (Himachal Pradesh), Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, SE-Tibet as per CoL)



Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle (Images by Suresh Rana, Gurcharan Singh & Balkar Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Aconitum laeve Royle (Images by Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Aconitum palmatum D. Don (India (Uttar Pradesh, Garhwal, Arunachal Pradesh), Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, Myanmar [Burma] (Kachin, Sagaing) as per Catalogue of Life)

Aconitum violaceum ?

(Images by Tapas Chakrabarty (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


BSI Flora of India with details & keys (Volume 1- 1993) (Distribution):
Aconitum assamicum Lauener (India: E. Himalayas, 3900 – 4300 m. Arunachal Pradesh)
Aconitum balfouri Stapf (India: Subalpine W. Himalayas. Uttar Pradesh) (syn: A. atrox (Bruehl) Mukerjee)
Aconitum bisma (Buch.-Ham.) Rapaics (India: Moist Abies and Rhododendron forests on alpine Himalayas, 2700 – 3200 m. Uttar Pradesh (Garhwal), Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh; Nepal, Bhutan and China (Tibet))
Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes (India: Alpine meadows of N. W. Himalayas. Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh (inner valleys of Lahul and Sipti); Pakistan)
Aconitum deinorrhizum Stapf (India: Alpine grassy slopes, 3000 – 3500 m. Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh (Bashahr))
Aconitum elwesii Stapf (India: Climbing on shrubs in moist forests of alpine zones in E. Himalayas, ca 2400 m. Sikkim; Nepal, Bhutan and China (Tibet))
  var. falconeri (India: Himachal Pradesh)
  var. latilobum Stapf (India: Himachal Pradesh)
Aconitum ferox Wallich ex Seringe (India: Moist forests, amongst shrubs, 2100 – 3800 m. Sikkim; Nepal and Bhutan)
Aconitum fletcherianum Taylor (India; Alpine rocks, cliff edges, grassy slopes of E. Himalayas, 4000 – 4700 m. Arunachal Pradesh; Bhutan)
Aconitum gammiei Stapf (India: E. Himalayas, alpine shrubberies, open slopes, 3300 – 4800 m. Sikkim; Nepal and China (Tibet))
Aconitum gymnandrum Maxim. (India: Alpine grassy slopes and open plains, 4200 – 4800 m. Sikkim; China (Tibet))
  var. heterophylloides (India: E. Himalayas in alpine slopes, 4000 – 4500 m. Sikkim; Nepal, Bhutan and China (S.E. Tibet))
  var. leucanthum (Bruehl) Lauener (lndia: E. Himalayas. Sikkim; Nepal, Bhutan and China (S.E. Tibet))
Aconitum heterophyllum Wallich (India: W. Himalayas, among shrubs on grass, riverbeds and slopes, 3000- 3500 m. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh; Pakistan and Nepal)
Aconitum hookeri Stapf (India: E. Himalayas, alpine meadows, open rocky slopes amongst Juniper scrubs, 4200 – 4800 m. Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh; Nepal, Bhutan and China (Tibet)) (syn: A. pulchellum Hand.-Mazz.)
Aconitum kashmiricum Stapf ex Coventry (India: Alpine areas, 3500 – 4000 m. Jammu & Kashmir)
Aconitum laciniatum (Bruehl) Stapf (India: Grassy slopes amongst shrubs in alpine and subalpine zones, 3500- 4500 m. West Bengal and Sikkim; Bhutan and China (Tibet))
  var. curvipilosum Tamura & Lauener (India: Jammu & Kashmir)
  var. leave (India: W. Himalayas, usually in woods, partially shaded places, 2500 – 3500 m. Jammu & Kashmir; Pakistan and Nepal)
Aconitum lethale Griffith (India: Arunachal Pradesh (Mishmi Hills in Lohit District))
Aconitum moschatum (Bruehl) Stapf (India: Jammu & Kashmir)
Aconitum nagarum Stapf (India: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur; Myanmar)
Aconitum nakaoi Tamura (India: Among Rhododendron scrubs on rocky alpine slopes, 3800 – 4400 m. Arunachal Pradesh; Bhutan and W. China)
Aconitum naviculare (Bruehl) Stapf (India: Alpine meadows, Juniper scrubs and cliff edges, 3000 – 4500 m. Sikkim; Bhutan and China (Tibet))
Aconitum novoluridum Munz (India: Alpine and subalpine slopes among Fir forests or Juniper/Rhododendron scrubs, 3600 – 5000 m. West Bengal and Sikkim; Bhutan and China (S.E. Tibet))
Aconitum rotundifolium Kar. & Kir. (India: N. W. Himalayas, stony slopes, 3000 – 4500 m. Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh; Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Turkestan)
Aconitum soongaricum Stapf (India: N. W. Himalayas. Jammu & Kashmir; Central Asian Highlands and China)
Aconitum spicatum (Bruehl) Stapf (India: E. Himalayas, open alpine slopes or sheltered forests of Fir’, Juniper or Rhododendron scrub, 3500 – 4500 m. West Bengal and Sikkim; Nepal, Bhutan and China (S.E. Tibet))
   var. robustum Stapf (India: Alpine zones. Jammu & Kashmir; Pakistan)
   var. violaceum (India: Alpine slopes of W. Himalayas, 3000 – 4500 m. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh; Pakistan and Nepal)


Aconitum chasmanthum Gaping Monkshood
Aconitum ferox Himalayan Monkshood
Aconitum heterophylloides Aconitum deinorrhizum (?), Aconitum laciniatum (?), Aconitum nepalense (?) Nepal Monkshood
Aconitum heterophyllum Indian Atees
Aconitum hookerii Hooker’s Monkshood
Aconitum laeve Aconitum vitifolium Grape-Leaved Monkshood
Aconitum rotundifolium Aconitum tianschanicum, Aconitum napellus var. rotundifolium Roundleaf Monkshood
Aconitum violaceum Aconitum weileri Violet Monkshood

Aconitum balfourii Stapf (Himalaya (Garhwal to Nepal))
Aconitum bisma (Buch.-Ham.) Rapaics (Himalaya. (Nepal to NEFA), S. E. Tibet)
Aconitum deinorrhizum Stapf (Bashahr, Nepal, Bhutan)
Aconitum elwesii Stapf (E. Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan))
Aconitum ferox Wall. ex Ser. (Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan))
Aconitum gammiei Stapf (Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim), S. E. Tibet)
Aconitum heterophylloides var. leucanthum (Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), S.E. Tibet)
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle (Himalaya (Kashmir to Nepal))
Aconitum hookeri Stapf (Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim), N. Assam, S. Tibet)
Aconitum jucundum Diels (E. Himalaya (Nepal, Bhutan), N. Burma. W. & C. China)
Aconitum laciniatum var. laciniatum (Bruhl) Stapf (Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan). S. E. Tibet)
Aconitum laeve Royle (Himalaya (Kashmir to W. Nepal))
Aconitum naviculare var. leiocarpum Tamura (Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan)) 
Aconitum novoluridum Munz (Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), S. E. Tibet)
Aconitum rotundifolium Kar. & Kir. (C. Asia. Afghanistan. Himalaya (Kashmir to Nepal))
Aconitum soongaricum Stapf (No distribution given)
Aconitum spicatum (Bruhl) Stapf (Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), S. Tibet) 
Aconitum tabatae Tamura (No distribution given)

Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes (Swat and Chitral eastward to Kashmir, Nepal)  
Aconitum heterophyllum var. bracteatum Stapf (N.W. Himalaya from Chitral eastward to Kashmir)
Aconitum heterophyllum var. heterophyllum (Chitral, Kashmir eastward to Kumaon (Uttar Pradesh))
Aconitum laeve Royle (Chitral eastward to Kashmir, N. India) 
Aconitum rotundifolium Kar. et Kir. (Widespread from C. Asiatic provinces of the USSR (Tien Shan, Dzungaria) to the W. Himalaya and Chitral)
Aconitum soongaricum Stapf (Central-Asiatic provinces of the USSR (Tien-Shan, Dzungaria) and Turkestan)
Aconitum violaceum var. violaceum (The Himalaya from Hazara and Kashmir eastward to Nepal)

Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf [NW India, Mongolia, Russia (Siberia)].
Aconitum elwesii Stapf [Nepal, Sikkim].
Aconitum fletcheranum G. Taylor [Bhutan; NE India (Assam)].
Aconitum gammiei Stapf [Bhutan, Sikkim].
Aconitum nagarum var. nagarum [NE India, N Myanmar].
Aconitum novoluridum Munz [Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim].
Aconitum pulchellum var. pulchellum [Bhutan, Myanmar, Sikkim].
Aconitum rotundifolium Karelin & Kirilov [?Afghanistan, Kashmir, ?Nepal, Russia (C Asian Region)].
Aconitum scaposum var. hupehanum Rapaics [Bhutan, N Myanmar, Nepal].
Aconitum soongoricum (Regel) Stapf [Kashmir; C Asia].
Aconitum spicatum Stapf [Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim].


1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants By Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett, World Conservation Monitoring Centre – Details-
Aconitum falconeri Stapf – Indeterminate- U.P. (? is a synonym of Aconitum lethale Griff. )
Aconitum ferox WALL. EX SERINGE – Vulnerable- H.P., U.P., Sikkim



Indigenous Drugs Of India By Chopra R N (1933)- Details-
Aconitum dissectum Watt is a synonym of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes
Aconitum leucanthum (Brühl) Stapf is a synonym of Aconitum heterophylloides (Brühl) Stapf
Aconitum multifidum Royle is a synonym of Aconitum violaceum Jacquem. ex Stapf
Medicinal Plants in Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah (2002)- Details-


The Indian Encyclopaedia, Volume 1 edited by Subodh Kapoor (2002)- Details-



‎Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) Aconitum page on (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide updated complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


Pl. go through Aconitum page with images of species in efloraofindia (done by me).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.
If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.