Ammannia baccifera L., Sp. pl. 1:120. 1753 (Syn: (=) Ammannia aegyptiaca Willd.);
ammannia, acrid weed, blistering ammania, monarch redstem, tooth cup • Bengali: বনমরিচ banmarich • Hindi: अगिन बूटी aginbuti, बन मिरिच ban mirich, दादमारी dadmari, जंगली मेंहदी jungli mehendi • Kannada: ಕಾಡುಗಿಡ kaadugida • Konkani: दादमार्या dadmaria • Malayalam: kallur vanchi, nirumelneruppu • Marathi: अगीनबुटी aginbuti, भरजांभूळ bharajambhula, दादमारी dadmari • Nepalese: अम्बार ambar • Punjabi: dadarbooti • Sanskrit: अग्निगार्भ agnigarbha, ब्राह्मसोम brahmasoma, क्षेत्रभूषा kshetrabhusha, क्षेत्रवशिनी kshetravashini, महाश्याम mahasyama, पाषाणभेद pasanabheda • Tamil: கல்லுருவி kal-l-uruvi • Telugu: అగ్నివేండపాకు agnivendapaku;

Erect annual herbs to 40 cm tall; stem 4-angled or more or less winged. Leaves decussate, sessile, 2-6 x 0.5-0.8 cm, linear to elliptic, base attenuate, apex acute, chartaceous. Cymes dischasial, axillary. Flowers 4 or 5-merous, perigynous; pedicels c. 2 mm long. Calyx tube 1-2 mm long, campanulate; lobes 4, 1-1.5 mm long, triangular. Petals absent. Stamens 4; filaments c. 0.5 mm long. Ovary c. 1 mm in diam., globose, 4-5-locular; ovules many; stigma capitate. Capsule 1.5-2 mm across, globose, exceeding calyx tube. Seeds brownish, concavo-convex.

Flowering and fruiting: September-December
Paddy fields and other wet lands
Tropical Africa, Asia, Europe and Australia
(Attributions- Dr. N Sasidharan (Dr. B P Pal Fellow), Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi

Ammannia baccifera is a tropical species with a range that covers the tropical parts of Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Philippines, etc.), America and Africa. In the Mediterranean region it is present in Egypt and reaches its northwestern distribution limit in Turkey, Israel, and Palestine. It is naturalized in Spain.
It is an annual herbaceous plant (Therophyte) that is found in marshes, swamps, rice fields and water courses at low elevations.

The young leaves are used on a local scale to treat rheumatic pains, fever, etc. (phytotherapy).
Citation: Rhazi, L.,Rhazi, M. & Flanagan, D. 2014. Ammannia baccifera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <>. Downloaded on 19 October 2014.



Ammannia baccifera from around Tikkar Tal Lake, Morni, Haryana:
Ammannia baccifera L.,  Sp. pl. 1:120. 1753
A common weed in wetlands, photographed from around Tikkar tal lake, Morni Haryana

– Ammannia-baccifera is also very common in our locality.


Please help id this small herb:
An uncommon plant Seen in outskirts of Chennai growing in fallow land,
Small plant  under 1 foot height ;
leaves are opposite and somewhat succulent,
individual flowers were 2 to 3 mm. pinkish coral in colour,
sessile ( or sub) along the stem.
Flowering in february

This is Ammannia baccifera of Lythraceae.
Tamil name: “Neer mel neruppu

Does the baccifera also have a variety with greenish flowers?
Its also amazing that while it grows in marshy areas/ dry beds, it does well as an aquarium plant  !!
The Tamil name has is expressive, meaning “fire on water”, referring perhaps to the reddish flowers on a plant growing in the  marshes.


linear leaf 1 ft herb ID from Hooghly 05-05-12 SK-2:

This is another common herb in uncultivated land. I am sorry that i couldn’t get any better picture.
Species : UNKNOWN
Habit & Habitat : wild herb, about 1 foot high, uncultivated land
Date : 17-03-12, 9.38 a.m.

Place : Gobra (Hooghly), WB

Ammania baccifera. This is common in Mysore also near the water tanks.

Does the Ammania baccifera looks like this attached picture, taken today (07-05-12), when the season is over?

Or is this the Rumex dentatus as in – efi thread ?

The attached picture is of Rumex dentatus as in –

Pakistan Tannins and in – Cal photos

Your last image is Rumex dentatus, very much distinct from Ammania in its very large leaves, spreading branched inflorescence and winged fruits.


ID Request- 29092012-PKA2: Seen this herb at Mankhurd (Mumbai) near salt pans.
Date/Time: 29-09-2012 / 08:40AM
Habitat: Wild (near Salt pans)
Plant habit: Herb (erect, branched, Ht: approx: 20 cm, leaves opposite, sessile, narrow- linear, nerve- 1).

… could be Ammannia baccifera (family: Lythraceae).

Thanks … It does look like Ammannia baccifera.



Hooghly -> Ammannia baccifera Linnaeus:

Attaching images of Ammannia baccifera Linnaeus, photographed today in an uncultivated land in Hooghly.

ID Help : efi thread

Ammannia baccifera L. from Kamrup district, Assam: Attached images are Ammannia baccifera L.
Date :15.02.2013
Location: Kamrup district
Family : Lythraceae
Genus & species : Ammannia baccifera L.
Habitat: Grows wild on bank of the river.
Habit: Herb :
Flower :Small


ANAUG39 Please confirm if Ammannia baccifera : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4).
Found in Bangalore (outskirts)
August 2014

Photos have been clicked by a friend.

Ammannia aegyptiaca Willd. SN Oct 15 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2).
Ammannia aegyptiaca Willd., (= A. baccifera subsp. aegyptica (Willd.) Koehne,

Tall herb near moist places from Anekal area of Bangalore.



ANDEC21 Please identify this aquatic plant : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6).

Mysore Road, Karnataka
Growing in a stream
7th December 2014

Ammannia baccifera L.


Ammania baccifera on FOI: While checking Flowers of India in connection with plant uploaded by …, my own photographs uploaded from Morni hills, I realised that although the second photograph on FOI is clearly Ammania baccifera, the first plant may not be so. To me the first photograph by … looks to have clearly stalked flowers, the stem and leaves look different. It may after all be belonging to Rubiaceae, perhaps Oldenlandia corymbosa. .. please check your records of these photographs and give your valuable comments.

… many thanks for validating and pointing the oddity. You must be correct too.
Agreed the first plant to show stalked flowers; but to me it does not look like Oldenlandia corymbosa … will stand corrected if mistaking. Here are views of both plants sighted at different instances :
Ammannia baccifera
Oldenlandia corymbosaFlickr

Will be very glad to have my misidentified plants corrected.

I (partially!) agree with both of your views.
The second image in FOI, tagged as Ammannia baccifera, could be A. octandra.
And … link for A.baccifera contains pictures of a Borreria (=Spermacoce) species.
It doesn’t look like Mitracarpus, and it is not Hedyotis for sure.


This is very interesting. Here are my photographs of A. baccifera from Tikkar Tal Lake, Morni, Haryana. It looks very similar to second photograph. Could you kindly give the differences between A. baccifera and A. octandra,
latter I suppose occurs in Western Ghats.

I meant the attached image in this link:
Flowers of India
Now I realize it is not A. octandra as the leaf base is not auriculate in the picture.
But as you said it is not A. baccifera owing to the stalked flowers.
Could it be A. verticillata?

Just for record, here is my (herbarium photograph) from Kashmir.

Ammannia baccifera : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)- 301 kb.

Ammannia baccifera

family: Lythraceae
Habit : Herb
Height : 45 cm

Habitat : River side, wet region.

ID requested : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
ID plz. Clicked at Faridkot, Punjab (India), elevation is 196 metres (643 ft) on June 9, 2019

Seems to be Ammannia baccifera:



On the riverbed of River Kangsabati, Midnapore, Dist. Midnapore, West Bengal: 20/12/2007; at Kancheepuram dist. 70km south of Chennai- 10/112009; at Alibag coast- Oct’10?; What is this wetland plant? – indiantreepix | Google Groups PLANT FOR IDENTIFICATION -53 – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Rotala spp. – efloraofindia | Google Groups


Ammannia baccifera : Muscat : 28AUG19 : AK-36 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)

These are my pictures of Ammannia baccifera taken in Muscat near a water body.

Thanks …, for the pictures.

I am convinced that plant in my post is different.

Mumbai, MH :: Rotala (??) for ID :: ARK2020-028 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
Saw this tiny plant in a marshy area in Charkop, Mumbai, MH in October 2019.
I suspect this is some Rotala.
Requested to please provide ID

Ammania sp. ??

It’s Ammannia only,

Ammannia baccifera. Usually floral elements are red, but if looked for, all green plant can be found. This is one such plant, now with mature fruits showing some red.


Ammania species ? : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (1)- 5 mb. 

Attached pictures of can you identify the genus? I think it is Ammania gracilis but gracilis is not found in India. There is Ludwigia (no idea genus ?perinis) and Typha augustifolia also in this picture.

Ammannia may be Ammannia baccifera L. as per comparative images at Ammannia


Small Plant for ID : Nasik : 03DEC20 : AK-04

Seen on the Gangapur Grasslands, close to the water body. Could be Ammania Species?

3 images.

Ammannia baccifera Roth ??

I too agree with …

06062013 ASP 41 : Attachments (1). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Can you please ID this small plant with red leaves and flowers. Photo was taken in a park in Sri Lanka in Oct 2011

Ammannia sp.

I guess this should be Ammania baccifera !


Swamy/New series/ID/21- ID of the plant Ammania sps: 1 image.
Please ID the plant photographed received for ID from a friend in Chennai. Photographed on 9.6.2021. Please confirm /  suggest  new ID. Looks like Ammania bacccifera.

I guess Ammannia baccifera L. !

Ammannia baccifera


ID: wetland edge plant reddish green stem/fruit: 2 images.
Black soil

Ammannia baccifera L. ??

I concur with …. Plenty around lake bed in my place.


Plant for I’d from Bilaspur: 2 high res. images.
Request for I’d of a plant from Bilaspur. Appears to be Suaeda.
Photographed in January, 2022.

Ammannia baccifera L.


FOR VALIDATION :: Ammannia aegyptiaca Willd. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Sep 27, 2008 · JUN23 DV102: 1 image.
Ammannia aegyptiaca Willd. … FOR VALIDATION
popular synonym: Ammannia baccifera subsp. aegyptiaca (Willd.) Koehne
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Sep 27, 2008 · 2:23 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl ??

Ammannia aegyptiaca Willd. (not synonym of Ammannia baccifera L.)

it is true that two can’t be considered as synonyms according to POWO, COL and WFO, but before calling this as A. aegyptiaca, we need to know differences between the two before we decide ID of this.

Referring to the differences that I put in another post, in this posted observation of Ammania aegyptica,
I see sessile cymes; and the leaf base as sub-cordate, compared to ssp. baccifera which has a attenuate-cuneate base.

I will wait for those who are familiar with genus Ammannia for study purposes to validate this ID.
I have suggested ID based merely on my thinking.


FOR VALIDATION :: Ammannia baccifera L. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Sep 27, 2008 · JUN23 DV106: 2 images.
Ammannia baccifera L. … FOR VALIDATION
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Sep 27, 2008 · 2:08 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl

I guess the ID is correct.

need to know differences between A. baccifera and A. aegyptiaca before we decide ID of this also.

I have attempted to make some notes from the internet.
Most of the sites have merged – ssp. aegyptiaca with ssp. baccifera – thus was difficult to find separate descriptions.
Here below I have listed the differences briefly …
Ammannia baccifera ssp. baccifera
cymes peduncled
epicalyx minute
capsule exceeding calyx tubeAmmannia baccifera ssp. aegyptiaca
cymes sessile-subsessile
epicalyx horn-like
capsule included within the calyx

Here below are descriptions cited from two sites …
Ammannia baccifera ssp. baccifera
Kerala Plants
Erect annual herbs to 40 cm tall; stem 4-angled or more or less winged. Leaves simple, decussate, sessile, 2-6 x 0.5-0.8 cm, linear to elliptic, apex acute, base attenuate, chartaceous. Cymes dischasial, axillary. Flowers 4 or 5-merous, perigynous; pedicels c. 2 mm long. Calyx tube 1-2 mm long, campanulate; lobes 4, 1-1.5 mm long, triangular. Petals absent. Stamens 4; filaments c. 0.5 mm long. Ovary 1 mm in diam., globose, 4-5-locular; ovules many; stigma capitate. Capsule 1.5-2 mm across, globose, exceeding calyx tube; seeds brownish, concavo-convex.

The genus Ammannia L. (Lythraceae) in Egypt
Erect or procumbent, branched herbs, up to 40 cm high; leaves narrow oblong-lorate, 3-4 cm length, 0.6-0.8 cm width; leaf base at lower leaves attenuate, at upper leaves obtuse or cuneate; cymes peduncled, lax; flowers pediceled; hypanthium 1-1.5 mm length and width, ribs obscure; epicalyx minute; petals absent; stamens 4, yellow; capsule reddish yellow, 1-1.5 mm diameter, exceeding hypanthium, style length up to 0.5 mm; seeds 0.5 mm, brownish.

Ammannia baccifera ssp. aegyptiaca
Kerala Plants
Annual herbs, often red, erect or ascending, simple or branched, 2-80 cm tall; stems 4-angular or ± winged. Leaves opposite, 0.7-7 x 0.15-1(-1.6) cm, linear to elliptic, narrowed to the apex, narrowed to a cuneate base or obtuse or subcordate. Cymes (1-)3- many-flowered, ± lax to dense; peduncles 1 (-2) mm long; pedicels 1-2.5 mm long; bracteoles linear-lanceolate. Calyx-tube turbinate-campanulate, 1-2 mm long; lobes 4, broadly triangular, 1-1.5 mm long; intermediary appendages absent or very inconspicuous. Petals absent. Stamens 4, as long as the calyx-lobes or shorter. Ovary globose, 0.7-1.2 mm in diameter; style 0.1-0.3 mm long. Capsule globose, 1-2.5 mm in diameter, 1/2-3/4 included within the calyx; seeds brownish, concavo-convex, 0.4 mm in diameter.

The genus Ammannia L. (Lythraceae) in Egypt
Erect, branched herb, stem suffruticose at the base, up to 40 cm high; leaves lorate, 4-6 cm length, 0.6-0.8 mm width, with obtuse-cuneate bases; cymes sessile-subsessile with dense, glomurate flowers; hypanthium 1-1.5 mm length and width, ribs obscure, epicalyx horn-like; petals absent, stamens 4, yellow; capsule reddish yellow, 1.5-2.0 mm diameter included in the hypanthium.

In this posted observation of Ammania baccifera,
I see peduncled cymes; and the leaf base as attenuate-cuneate, compared to ssp. aegyptica which has a sub-cordate base.

I will wait for those who are familiar with genus Ammannia for the sake of their study, to validate this ID.
I have suggested ID based merely on my thinking.


Lythraceae: Ammannia baccifera L.: 2 images.
Synonym: Ammannia wormskioldii Fisch. & Mey.
location/date (both): Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, October 1994




GRIN  Flora of China  FOC illustration  Flora of Pakistan  FOP illustration  Annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal The Plant List Ver.1.1  Flowers of India  India Biodiversity Portal  Wikipedia  IUCN Red List (LC)  CAB Abstracts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *