Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 35: 139 1954 (Syn: Aporosa affinis Baill.; Aporosa lindleyana (Wight) Baill.; Aporosa sphaerocarpa Müll.Arg.; Croton cardiospermus Gaertn.; Scepa lindleyana Wight);
W. & S. India, Sri Lanka as per POWO;
¿ ap-oh-RO-sa ? — Greek: apo (away from), oros (mountain); habitat chiefly in plains and valleys … Vernacular list of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency
kar-dee-oh-SPER-muh — Greek: kardia (heart) and sperma (seed) … Dave’s Botanary 

commonly known asLindley’s aporosa • Kannadaಸಳ್ಳೆ ಮರ salle maraಸರಳಿ sarali • Konkaniसाला sala • Malayalamവെട്ടി vetti • Marathiसाली sali • Tamilவிட்டில் vittil • Tuluಸರಳಿ ತಪ್ಪು sarali thappu 


ID request -260111-PKA3:
In the forest cover near Karikale — {off Ankola-Yelapur Rd (Karnataka)}, i had seen this tree. Tree was reasonably tall (may be around 15m +).

Date/Time: 17-01-2011 / 03:30PM
Location: Karikale, Karnataka
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Tree

– this is Aporosa lindleyana male flowering plant. The acuminate (drip tip) of evergreen tree seen clearly and the sessile spikes 2.5 to 4 cm long. Seen quite a few of these trees  at Anshi & Kulgi WLS, Karnataka.

Euphorbiaceae week- Phyllanthaceae- Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr:
There have been a few changes in the status of this tree since I posted the same species last year. One it is now under the Phyllanthaceae family and second the earlier accepted names of Aporosa lindleyana are now synonyms. The current accepted name of this evergreen tree is Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. Here are my pictures from the Anashi WLS taken in April 2010. The slightly pointed style can be seen on the globose fruits.
   The earlier synonyms are as follow:

Aporosa affinis Baill ( invalid)
Aporosa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. – synonym
Aporosa shaerocarpa Mull Arg.- synonym
Aporosa cardiosperma Gaertn – synonym
Aporosa lindleyana Wight – synonym.

Here are the type specimens from Kew herbarium of Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr.


A tree at Mhasala, Maharashtra

Female tree of Aporosa lindleyana !?

Yes flowering female tree of Aporosa lindleyana. The new name of this plant is Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. of Phyllanthaceae family.

Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. (Phyllanthaceae)
A. lindleyana (Wight) Baill.
India (Goa, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka.
Common in deciduous or evergreen forests, or open rocky grounds, frequently along rivers, up to 1100 m altitude


Aporoso lindleyana:
This tree was under discussion a few days ago. Sending one of my photographs taken at Silent Valley National Park. Unfortunately do not have a close-up of the leaves.

Aporosa for identification 130711MK01:
Please help me identify this Euphorbiaceae species. Is this Aporosa sp. or Glochidion sp.?
The photograph is by a friend of mine at Mudumalai wls, TN., in a wet forest.
I think this is the same plant posted ny me earlier here: efi thread
Date: 09 July 2011
Alt: c 850 above MSL

I think this is Aporosa lindleyana. The transparent yellow fruits are edible.

Yes, I agree with … id: Aporosa lindleyana.

Euphorbiaceae fortnight ::Aporosa lindleyana at Karnataka :: PKA12:: : Attachments (6). 2 posts by 2 authors.
In the forest cover near Karikale — {off Ankola-Yelapur Rd (Karnataka)}, i had seen this tree.
Tree was reasonably tall (may be around 15m +).
Habitat: Wild
Bot. name: Aporosa lindleyana
Family: Euphorbiaceae

Looks like Aporosa lindleyana is a synonym of A. cardiosperma. I think the identity is correct but I am unable to confirm it without female flowers or fruits


Ficus tree for ID from Goa : 5 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (2).

Beak on the top of the fruit indicates that it is not Ficus, some Euphorbiaceae tree?

please check with Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. 

I agree with … They are immature fruits of Aporosa cardiosperma.

A few pictures of Aporosa lindleyana.
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Photographed from near the Western Ghats,Trivandrum district, growing wild. Photographs taken from the same plot on 17 April 2012 and 28 April 2014.
The distribution of the tree is throughout Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, in evergreen and semi-evergreen forests.
The flowers are unisexual and dioecious.
Please see the male flowers in axillary catkins. I couldn’t get the photographs of the female flowers.
The photographs of fruits which are globose capsules can also be seen.


Agumbe :: Scleropyrum pentandrum :: DVJAN55 : 2 posts by 1 author.
Agumbe Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka
Date: 26 DEC 2014 … Altitude: about 700 m asl
Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst.) Mabb.  (family: Santalaceae)
Many thanks to … for the ID in Anurag’s post ANDEC101
This plant, strangely, was unarmed.

my ID in above post is incorrect.
Referring to updates in … post ANDEC101, I am convinced that this plant is Aporosa lindleyana.
Many thanks to …

ANDEC101 Scleropyrum pentandrum (Please validate) : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments(6).

Agumbe, Karnataka
26th December 2014
Habit: Short tree

Apparently it looks like Scleropyrum pentandrum. The inflorescence looks like a bisexual one.
However, I do not find any spines in the leaf-axils or leafless axils below.
Please dissect out the flowers and check with the species as given in Flora of India vol. 23, page 65 and the detailed illustrations on pages 66 & 67.

Yes it is Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst.) Mabb .(= S. wallichianum Arn.)

Please validate if this could possibly be Aporosa lindleyana of Euphorbiaceae. Please also refer … post of the same

…, now that you brought up this possibility, the posted plant clearly seems to be Aporosa lindleyana.
The inflorescence of Scleropyrum pentandrum do not appear crooked like the ones here; moreover the spines are missing.

Yes sir. Hoping that it proves to be correct.

This looks like Aporosa lindleyana to me. I am not familiar with Scleropyrum pentandrum.
Please see my earlier post

Thank you very much … for sharing your pictures and the ID. Now I am sure, … posted plant is Aporosa lindleyana.


ANFEB20 Aporosa cardiosperma (syn. Aporosa lindleyana) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (15)

Family: Phyllanthaceae
Date: January 2015
Place: Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala
Habit: Short tree
Habitat: Riverside
Identified by: …

I like the photographs very much.

Mollem National Park :: Aporosa cardiosperma :: DVMAR08/08 : 2 posts by 2 authors. 3 images.
Mollem National Park Goa
Date: 18 FEB 2012 Altitude: 125 – 145 m asl
Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. syn. Aporosa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. (family: Euphorbiaceae, Phyllanthaceae)

Thank you … for these photographs.


Euphorbiaceae fortnight :: Phyllanthaceae :: Aporosa cardiosperma at Mollem National Park :: DV07 : 3 posts by 2 authors.
Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. … PhyllanthaceaeEuphorbiaceae s. l.
at Mollem National Park on 18 MAY 12

I can not confirm it without female flower or fruit.

OK … I will label the pictures as Aporosa sp.

It has got distribution in Goa! Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. 

I am sure about the ID, because … had provided the ID with good confidence.

via Species‎ > ‎A‎ > Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. … family: Phyllanthaceae

Flowers of India Discussions at efloraofindia more views in flickr more views on Google Earth
¿ ap-oh-RO-sa ? — Greek: apo (away from), oros (mountain); habitat chiefly in plains and valleys … Vernacular list of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency
kar-dee-oh-SPER-muh — Greek: kardia (heart) and sperma (seed) … Dave’s Botanary 
commonly known asLindley’s aporosa • Kannadaಸಳ್ಳೆ ಮರ salle maraಸರಳಿ sarali • Konkaniसाला sala • Malayalamവെട്ടി vetti • Marathiसाली sali • Tamilவிட்டில் vittil 
botanical namesAporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. … synonymsAporosa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. • Aporosa sphaerocarpa Müll.Arg. • Croton cardiospermus Gaertn. •Scepa lindleyana Wight … The Plants List (2013). Version 1.1. 
December 26, 2014 … Agumbe 

Greek “Aporos”  = ‘puzzling’ or ‘difficult’. cardiosperma = heart-like seed.
Kannada: Akarkal, Sali, Sarali, Sulla;  Konkan:  SalMalayalam Kotili, Vetti;  Marathi: Ukveti;  Sans.: Valaka;  Tam.: Vittil, Vettikan.

Thanks … for the etymology of the binomial and for the regional names; will add to my notes soon.

¿ ap-oh-RO-sa ? — Greek: apo (away from), oros (mountain); habitat chiefly in plains and valleys … Vernacular list of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency
kar-dee-oh-SPER-muh — Greek: kardia (heart) and sperma (seed); heart-like seed … Dave’s Botanarycommonly known as: Lindley’s aporosa • Kannada: ಸಳ್ಳೆ ಮರ salle mara, ಸರಳಿ sarali • Konkani: साल sal • Malayalam: വെട്ടി vetti • Marathi: साली sali • Tamil: விட்டில் vittil • Tulu: ಸರಳಿ ತಪ್ಪು sarali thappubotanical namesAporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. … synonymsAporosa affinis Baill. • Aporosa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. • Aporosa sphaerocarpa Müll.Arg. • Croton cardiospermus Gaertn. • Scepa lindleyana Wight … POWO

Bibliography / etymology
All / most of the names compiled are for the earlier popular name – Aporosa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. … now treated as synonym.
~~~~~ ENGLISH ~~~~~
Lindley’s aporosa
  • Flowers of India
  • name derived from commemorative epithet of the synonym Aporosa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. … lindleyana named for John Lindley FRS (5 February 1799 – 1 November 1865) was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist … Wikipedia • Plant Illustrations
~~~~~ KANNADA ~~~~~
ಸಳ್ಳೆ ಮರ salle mara
ಸರಳಿ sarali
~~~~~ KONKANI ~~~~~
साल sal
~~~~~ MALAYALAM ~~~~~
വെട്ടി vetti
~~~~~ MARATHI ~~~~~
साली sali
~~~~~ TAMIL ~~~~~
விட்டில் vittil
~~~~~ TULU ~~~~~
ಸರಳಿ ತಪ್ಪು sarali thappu
~~~~~ x ~~~~~


Please ID this plant…Urgent…. : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)

Location- Sadavali, Dapoli, Maharshtra
Habitat- Wild
Plant Habit- Big tree
Height-10 meter

Male tree of Aporosa cardiosperma. Urgent??

It might be Aporosa cardiosperma

ID KANNUR 17 : 10 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2) – 2 MB each.
Please identify this climber from Kannur district of Kerala, Only fruits are available and it is Riparian in Habitat.


Aporosa cardiosperma ?

You are telling this as climber. May be some Annonaceae?

Yes according to the information provided by the …, I am telling this as woody climber.

To me also appears close to Aporosa cardiosperma as per images herein and as per images under thread: Euphorbiaceae week- Phyllanthaceae- Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr

I also thought of Aporosa cardiosperma in which the climbing habit is unknown so far. Hence further studies are desirable.



Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1) – 2 mb.
Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. (Syn. A. lindleyana): EUPHORBIACEAE
Photo from Edible Fruit Plants Conservatory of JNTBGRI, Trivandrum


79 ID wild plant: 8 images.
Please ID wild plant,
Location: near Reserve Forest, Chathamattom, Ernakulam District, (Kochi) Kerala PIN:686671
Flower date:07.03.2021, 02.15pm
Habitat:wild moisture
Plant habit:tree, erect, branches, hard wood, long lasting
Height:07 meters
Leaves:alternate, oval, oblong, apex, little sweet
Flower: bunches like sandal stick 1-4cm length, yellow, non fragrant
Fruit:globular, outer shell green into brown, inner fruit yellow 2 nos, diameter:10cm edible delicious sweet
Seed:black, single, heart shaped diameter:5mm

This appears to be an Aporosa sp. [Phyllanthaceae].

Aporosa species. Mostly it could be the one as per this website. http://keralaplants.in/keralaplantsdetails.aspx?id=Aporosa_cardiosperma

To me also appears close to images at Aporosa cardiosperma

Beautiful images of Aporosa cardiosperma.


Aporosa cardiosperma:
Aporosa cardiosperma belongs to the family euphorbaceae or phyllanthaceae. what this tree has actual name? which is to be considered? cardiosperma or lindleyana?.
and i need details of chemical constituents and therapeutic uses of this trees roots. Kindly do the needful

I am providing the  eflora link on the question posed by you :
Hope this clarifies your doubt.

Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr. (=  Aporosa lindleyana (Wight) Baill.), Family-  Euphorbiaceae



Tree for ID :: Devgad, Konkan, May 2017 :: ARKMAY22 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Please ID this tree seen near Devgad, MH in May 2017.

It is very difficult to get the plant, all four images are same, may be a Lythraceae member.

This looks like Salai [Aporusa lindleyana]. [The leaves highlighted in the 3rd photograph are of a different plant.]

Thank you … for the possible ID. Would like to hear more comments.
Since the tree was in a very densely wooded forest (sacred grove), I may have got confused, thinking the leaves are of the same tree. Would like some other opinions as well.


Tree for identification ,Sawantwadi, Sindhudurg District: 3 images.

Sharing a tree from Sawantwadi, Sindhudurg forest for identification. It was very beautiful to look at.
Tree habit- Small sized tree
Tree size- 15 feet approximate
Habitat- Wild
No fruiting or flowering was observed.
Can this be identified? Please help.

Resembles Margaritaria indica

Aporosa cardiosperma most likely,

Seems to be Aporosa species

Yes, appears close to images at


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