Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Encycl. 3: 29 1789 (Syn. Artocarpus brasiliensis Ortega; Artocarpus maximus Blanco; Artocarpus nanca Noronha; Artocarpus philippensis Lam.;                    (=) Artocarpus integer auct.; (=) Artocarpus integrifolius auct.);

ar-toe-karp-us or ar-toh-KAR-pus — from the Greek artos, (bread) and carpus (fruit)
het-er-oh-FY-luh — meaning, differently leaved

commonly known as: Indian bread-fruit, jack-fruit • Assamese: কঁঠাল kothal, পূতফল putaphala • Bengali: কাঁঠাল kãthal • Bhojpuri: कटहर katahar • Gujarati: ફણસ phanas • Hindi: कटहल kat-hal, पनस panas, पूतफल puta-phal • Kannada: ಪನಸು panasu • Khasi: dieng sohphan • Konkani: फोणोस phonos, पोणोसु ponosu • Kuki: lamphong • Lushai: la-ui, lâm-khuang • Malayalam: Plaavu (പ്ലാവ്) Manipuri: থৈবোং theibong • Marathi: पणस panas, फणस phanas • Mizo: lamkhuang • Nepali: कटहर् katahar • Oriya: ପନସ ponoso • Pali: panasa • Sanskrit: मुरजफलः murajaphala, पनसम् panasam, पूतफलः putaphalah • Sinhalese: kos • Tamil: மலைத்தேன் malai-t-ten, முழவுக்கனி mulavu-k-kani • Telugu: పనస panasa • Urdu: کٿهل kathal
 
The above names could also refer to raw fruit (used as vegetable), however in some of the languages it has specific name(s): Assamese: মুচি muchi • Bengali: ইঁচর ichor • Kannada: ಹಲಸು halasu • Konkani: कडगि kadagi • Malayalam: ചക്ക chakka • Marathi: पारा para • Tamil: கொத்தச்சக்கை kotta-c-cakkai, மோசு mocu, பலாக்கொட்டை pala-k-kottai • Tulu: ಗುಜ್ಜೆ gujje, ಕುಜ್ಜೆ kujjev
Further, the tree is known by these names, though some of them are of generic nature: Hindi: पूग poog, सदाफल sadaphal • Marathi: बारमाशी baramashi • Punjabi: ਤਿਊਨ tiun • Sanskrit: चम्पकालुः champakaluh, कण्टकम् kantakam, कण्टकिन्फलः kantakinphalah, कण्टाफलः kantaphalah, लक्ष्मीवत् lakshmivat, मूलम्फलदः mulamphaladah, पनसः panasah, फलम्वृक्षकः phalamvrukshakah, फलसः or फलशः phalasah, पूग poog, प्राञ्च्फलः pranchphalah, रसालः rasalah, उत्तर uttara
 
Native of: India; widely cultivated in the tropics

Images by tspkumar

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TSPNOV2015-85-128: Images of Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)

It is my pleasure to share few images of Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae 

Habit:Tree 

Habitat: Wild, Moist deciduous forest 

Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1000 msl. 

Date: 22-01-2015, 24-01-2015 and 05-02-2015


very nice close ups


Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk.- Moraceae) is common in Assam


I love this vegetable I have heard the white of this Jackfruit also has some medicinal use I dont know whether the fact is true


Jackfruit …. Phanas in Marathi… my favorite fruit from Sindhudurg, Maharashtra:):)


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Fruits & Vegetables Week: Artocarpus heterophyllus from Delhi: Artocarpus heterophyllus from Delhi, grown less commonly in gardens and private houses. Young fruits cooked as vegetable, ripe as table fruit.


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Fruits & Vegetables Week: RVS-1: My favourite Jack fruit, from Sirumalai hills.

According to Tamil literature this is the second tastiest fruit in the world (Mango, Jack and Banana, is the order). But i rank this first. Have you ever tried to taste all these three fruits at a time? We have relished, together with honey!! [?] During surveys our team used to sit and finish one whole jack fruit at one go! Later at base camp we roast or cook the seeds and eat.

Just to add. If you take Mango, Jack and Banana in excess and feeling stomach discomfort, please wait a while and take it in reverse order i.e. Banana, Jack and Mango in small quantity. You will get rid of trouble. (Oudhipedia) Here is picture of Bastar weekly village market. Matured Jack is available in Dona. http://pankajoudhia.com/album/main.php?g2_itemId=36599


– I think you should try this when you get chance. Even sweet persons (diabetics!) can’t resist without tasting it, but only a single piece may be allowed! But remember there are several cultivars with different tastes and fibrous nature, available in the market. Thanks for the ‘antidote’ formula, … As you know Jack and Mango are laxatives and banana does the ‘controlling’ job.


Jack and Mango are laxative But only when they are used separately but the combination of Jack, Mango and Banana acts in entirely different way like the flowers of Cassia fistula. These flowers are laxative but when loose motions are due to Cassia fistula fruit pulp, the use of (its) flowers stop it.

While documenting Traditional Knowledge I have noted more than ten herbal ways to manage the stomach upset caused by trio. Its use in reverse order helps in managing it as mentioned in previous mail.
You will be surprised to know that long term use of this combination with other herbs changes the taste of semen to sweeter side without affecting other properties.


Moraceae (mulberry, fig family) » Artocarpus heterophyllus
Synonym: popular: Artocarpus integrifolia (correct: Artocarpus integrifolius), Artocarpus integer
ar-toe-karp-us or ar-toh-KAR-pus — from the Greek artos, (bread) and carpus (fruit)
het-er-oh-FY-luh — meaning, differently leaved

commonly known as: Indian bread-fruit, jack-fruit • Assamese: কঁঠাল kothal, পূতফল putaphala • Bengali: কাঁঠাল kãthal • Bhojpuri: कटहर katahar • Gujarati: ફણસ phanas • Hindi: कटहल kat-hal, पनस panas, पूतफल puta-phal • Kannada: ಪನಸು panasu • Khasi: dieng sohphan • Konkani: फोणोस phonos, पोणोसु ponosu • Kuki: lamphong • Lushai: la-ui, lâm-khuang • Malayalam: മഹാസര്‍ജ്ജം mahaasarjjam, മുരജഫലം murajaphalam, പലസം palasam, പനസം panasam, പിലാമ്പഴം pilaampazham • Manipuri: থৈবোং theibong • Marathi: पणस panas, फणस phanas • Mizo: lamkhuang • Nepali: कटहर् katahar • Oriya: ପନସ ponoso • Pali: panasa • Sanskrit: मुरजफलः murajaphala, पनसम् panasam, पूतफलः putaphalah • Sinhalese: kos • Tamil: மலைத்தேன் malai-t-ten, முழவுக்கனி mulavu-k-kani • Telugu: పనస panasa • Urdu: کٿهل kathal
The above names could also refer to raw fruit (used as vegetable), however in some of the languages it has specific name(s): Assamese: মুচি muchi • Bengali: ইঁচর ichor • Kannada: ಹಲಸು halasu • Konkani: कडगि kadagi • Malayalam: ചക്ക chakka • Marathi: पारा para • Tamil: கொத்தச்சக்கை kotta-c-cakkai, மோசு mocu, பலாக்கொட்டை pala-k-kottai  • Tulu: ಗುಜ್ಜೆ gujje, ಕುಜ್ಜೆ kujjev
Further, the tree is known by these names, though some of them are of generic nature: Hindi: पूग poog, सदाफल sadaphal • Marathi: बारमाशी baramashi • Punjabi: ਤਿਊਨ tiun • Sanskrit: चम्पकालुः champakaluh, कण्टकम् kantakam, कण्टकिन्फलः kantakinphalah, कण्टाफलः kantaphalah, लक्ष्मीवत् lakshmivat,  मूलम्फलदः mulamphaladah, पनसः panasah, फलम्वृक्षकः phalamvrukshakah, फलसः or फलशः phalasah,  पूग poog, प्राञ्च्फलः pranchphalah, रसालः rasalah, उत्तर uttara
Native of: India; widely cultivated in the tropics
Edible use:

 

… under-ripe fruit as VEGETABLE
… ripe fruit as FRUIT
some facts:
… popularly known as poor man’s fruit in the eastern and southern parts of India.
… eaten unripe at 25-50% of full size as a vegetable, or ripe as a fruit
… the largest tree-borne fruit in the world, reaching 80 pounds in weight and up to 36 inches long and 20 inches in diameter.
… there are two main varieties. In one, the fruits have small, fibrous, soft, mushy, but very sweet carpels with a texture somewhat akin to raw oysters. The other variety is crisp and almost crunchy though not quite as sweet.
Quoted from: Department of Agriculture<http://www.sikkimagrisnet.org/General/en/Agriculture/Jackfruit.aspx>(Govt. of Sikkim)
“Jackfruit” is a common misspelling or typo for: jack-fruit.
Quoted from Websters Dictionary – Online<http://www.websters-dictionary-online.com/definitions/Jackfruit?cx=pa…>
some trivia:

… referred to as vegetarian meat … quoted in various sites discussing recipes


– Knew it as vegetable. Nice to know that ripe ones can be eaten raw.


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Sending photos of jack fruit. Place : Pattambi, Kerala.

3 images.


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Mutant Artocarpus heterophyllus?: This is a real jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) found in Purwokerto, but it grows close to banana plant. Some parts of the fruit look like banana.
Is it a cross pollinated Artocarpus by Musa or a mutant jackfruit?
Could you explain this please.


Sure looks interesting… but I don’t know answer to your question,  but since I deal with weird diseases… I always think, ANYTHING is possible….
    seriously though…
I would wait till its ripe… if its under my control… or if its in some one else’s control ..like a farmer… pay him to keep an eye on it and sell you the rights to the fruit… then when ripe , cut it open…since jackfruit and banana both are are edible, eat /taste the fruit pulp… photogrpah it first… and ..
voila you and then we will know if it indeed is a wonder of nature at work with a real live hybrid…
right before your…  and thru you, our eyes…
ISN’T life wonderful?  and MYSTERIOUS!!

good guess work and suggestions from … EVEN I WILL BE INTERESTED TO KNOW THE LOOKS AND TASTE.
BUT NOW A LITTLE BOTANY
Jackfruit is a compound fruit. The jackfruit flowers are in a form of an infloerencense. Each is an individual flower, which gets fertilized and form fruit. But when the fruit formation occurs all fruits togather form one fruit.

    That is the external rind is common on all fruits togather.
internally each part that we eat is the individual fruit with a seed in it. the threads or fibres or stripes which we dont eat are the unfertilised flowers.

Now in the photographed jackfruit some of the flowers have followed the normal phenomenon forming normal jackfruit. Some flowers have not followed the rule (like us) and hence formed seperate fruit each. Since the rind is developed on every fruit it is giving an appearence like banana.
But i will definately like to know about inner part. generally such abnormalities result into malformation of fruit too.
other example of compound fruit is pineapple. Each exagone wil represent a fruit.
Waiting for … observations further.
BOTANISTS EXCUSE FOR THE NONSCIENTIFIC TERMINOLOGIES USED IF ANY AS THIS IS FOR NON BOTANISTS TO UNDERSTAND

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Nov and Dec 2011
Sharing images of Artocarpus heterophyllus at a private society at Pune
Family Moraceae
Common name Jackfruit
Separate male and female inflorescences are borne on the same tree.
3 types of footstalks or inflorescence bearing special leafy twigs are produced on a tree in each flowering season
TYPE 1: produces only male spikes and this is the first to appear in the flowering season. They occur mainly on the terminal shoots and branches of the tree’s crown and also in the main stem. About 10-15 spikes are borne on each footstalk.
TYPE 2 bears only female spikes 1-3 on each footstalk. They are formed on the main trunk and in some cases as low as 50 cm above ground level. This footstalk is fewer in no as compared to type 1. Virtually all develop into fruit if pollinated
TYPE 3 produces both male and female spikes and spikes are borne on the main trunk or on main branches nearer to the main trunk. Female spikes are few in no 1-3 and are borne in the proximal leaf axils of the footstalk. Male spikes are also few in this type. Only few 1-2 develop into fruit
Whereas male and female inflorescences are similar during early development, the female spike is later distinguished by a thicker peduncle and a large annular disc at the base of the spike. Also female inflorescence buds are shorter and stouter whereas male inflorecence buds are longer and slender.
When young, both male and female spikes are enclosed by a pair of spathe-like stipules which eventually fall off and leave a prominent annular scar on the node.
The male spike has many densely crowded flowers, which may be sterile or fertile. The sterile male flower has a solid perianth: the fertile male flower is tubular and bilobed The individual flower has a single, 12- mm-long stamen and four yellow anthers . Flowers are scented. The male spikes gradually turn black after dehiscence due to growth of mould and drop after about a week
Female spikes have numerous female flowers. Each flower has a stout fleshy receptacle with a white clauvate stigma. Flowers are odorous
I think the tree was affected by some white fungus.
I noticed a strange thing, another plant was growing on this tree. pic attached. The same plant was planted in pots next to this tree.
The information on Jackfruit was compiled from the following links

Such a detailed description ! wow.. thanks … for dis n a complete pics set.


Complete set of pictures with illustration.

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Jackfruit is a tree which is unique in the fact that it produced huge fruits directly from its stem. 
Jackfruit is most probably native of the rain-forests of the Western Ghats.
In fact, the name Jackfruit is derived from the malayalam name chakka. 
The tree is handsome and stately, 30-70 ft tall, with evergreen, alternate, glossy, somewhat leathery leaves to 9 in long, oval on mature trees, sometimes oblong or deeply lobed on young shoots. All parts contain a sticky, white latex. Short, stout flowering twigs emerge from the trunk and large branches, or even from the soil-covered base of very old trees. 
Tiny male flowers are borne in oblong clusters 2-4 in in length; the female flower clusters are elliptic or rounded. 
Largest of all tree-borne fruits, the jackfruit may be 8-to 3 ft long and 6-20 in wide, and the weight ranges from 10-50 kg. The “rind’ or exterior of the compound or aggregate fruit is green or yellow when ripe and composed of numerous hard, cone-like points attached to a thick and rubbery, pale yellow or whitish wall. The interior consists of large “bulbs” of yellow, banana-flavored flesh, massed among narrow ribbons of thin, tough undeveloped perianths, and a central, pithy core. Each bulb encloses a smooth, oval, light-brown “seed” covered by a thin white membrane. There may be 100 or up to 500 seeds in a single fruit. 
When fully ripe, the unopened jackfruit emits a strong disagreeable odor, resembling that of decayed onions, while the pulp of the opened fruit smells of pineapple and banana.

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3 images


Lovely shots of all features of this plant

 

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VALMIKI : OBSERVER OF NATURE: Mixed thread: 1 correct image as above.

Attaching an image of PANAS as mentioned by Valmiki in his Ramayan. Common name of this tree is Jack Tree. Scientifically it is known as Artocarpus heterophyllus.


 

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Hooghly : কাঁঠাল : 4 images. 6 posts by 3 authors. This is Artocarpus integrifolia of FLORA INDICA.


One of our favourite fruits, besides mangoes, litchi, this is KAANTHAAL.


Perhaps we will land into confusion by using name Artocarpus integrifolia
The original A. integrifolia L.f. is now correctly known as A. integer (Thunb.) Merr. a fruit known as Campedak, Champedak, known to be grown and eaten in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.
Artocarpus integrifolia auct. (non L.f.) is correctly A. heterophyllus Lam., the jack fruit or Kathal. Strangely The Plant List does not list A. integrifolia Willd. (nor does IPNI). It treats both Sitodium cauliflorum Gaertn. and Polyphema jaca Lour. as unresolved names. Let us be happy to use A. heterophyllus
Perhaps many books including Hortus Third were confused on these two trees. Perhaps some one may upload Champedak for us. It apparently has large seeds in fruits, filling most of it.

At the time of posting i noticed the problem between Artocarpus integrifolia of L. f. and Artocarpus integrifolia of non L. f.
So, i added the words – “… of FLORA INDICA”.

About citations of many plants described in the Flora Indica, i have noticed many a time that “Willd.” of Flora Indica often gets transformed into “L.” in The Plant List site. Do not know why.


I have a tree of Kathal fruit in my garden. It is about 12 years old but has the similar problem Fruit rots at early stage. Fruit grow about 3-4 inch long then they get these spots and rot.

Can anyone on the group help in solving this problem?


We also have this tree in our homeyard, but didn’t experience similar rotting disease. This may help – http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/jackfruit_ars.html#Pests%20and%20Diseases.


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These fruits (3 images) are from the very individual tree which we call KAANTAAL (কাঁঠাল), in Bengali.


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Artocarpus species for ID | Matheran | RDS :  3 images. 3 posts by 3 authors.

Attaching 3 pics of one of the Artrocarpus species that I clicked at Matheran, on 31st March, in evergreen forest . Kindly advice the exact ID of species.


Artocarpus heterophyllus


Artocarpus heterophyllus

Jack fruit & Mango … my beloved fruit bcoz it tells us that summer holiday are coming 😛


 

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Artocarpus heterophyllus/ABFEB04 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (5)

I photographed this jackfruit tree in Andhra Pradesh on a recent visit. There was a mildly sweet aroma around the tree. Jackfruit is now celebrated as an important source of nutrition and its wood is highly valued (used in the manufacture of musical instruments such as the Indian Veena and the Indonesian Gamelan). I did not know that this tree is believed to have originated in India. The texture and colour of its bark reminded me of mahogany.

On my way back, I saw a tree in Delhi too but it was without fruit.

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)
18 Jan. 2015
Andhra Pradesh

 

Please take a look at the Artocarpus heterophyllus page. The malayalam name for the tree is given as  Malayalam: മഹാസര്‍ജ്ജം mahaasarjjam, മുരജഫലം murajaphalam, പലസം palasam, പനസം panasam, പിലാമ്പഴം pilaampazham. These names given here are I think Sanskrit names. The jackfruit tree is known as Plaavu (പ്ലാവ്) in Malayalam. Please make the change. 


Thanks … for forwarding …. mail with clarity of names for jackfruit.

I used English-Malayalam-English dictionary at Mashitantu.
… must be correct; will revise my notes soon as per her clarification.


…, many thanks to you for pointing to names of jack-fruit possibly being derived from Sanskrit (OR from languages of neighbouring regions).


 

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Jack fruit – a malnad variety – indiantreepix | Google Groups : 6 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3)

Jack fruit – a malnad variety.
The morphological characters (size, shape,..) of this malnad jack fruit differs from the common jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). Locals call this fruit by a unique name bikke, rudra bikke(?).
Jack fruit
Kavalu katta, Uttara Kannada, Karnataka
23 June 2009,

Fruits attached with twigs or with stem? Photo create confusion.

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Attached slightly better pictures. Hope this helps.

3 images.


i heard there are about 37 varieties of jackfruit in South India, However i am sorry i dnt have any documented reference to it.
this seems to be some variety of Artocarpus. ill reply back if i got the reference


There are about 60 species of Artocarpus available and several cultivars and varieties exist.
I also seen several varieties from South India but I also don’t have a documented evidence to prove it but for the former statement i.e. for 60 species, one can see the following reference.
http://www.chicagobotanic.org/downloads/staff/zerega/Zerega_etal_2005_SysBot.pdf


I am not convinced of this being Artocarpus heterophyllus


I have seen this variety. It is fruiting right now. The id is correct


There is so much variability in fruit size, shape, color in Artocarpus heterophyllus, just like in mango and jamin. To my view it seems to be Jack tree only.


I think somebody in Kerala can help by contacting TGBRI, where they have Jackfruit Promotion Council

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230918- NS1- ID please : 3 posts by 1 author. Attachments (1)

 


 

4390 looks like Artocarpus heterophyllus


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please id the species of Artocarpus: this is fruit of Artocapus taken by my friend from Karnataka. he says leaves are small like A.heterophyllus., he dont take photo. sorry for incomplete information.

It could be a Artocarpus incises


… kindly check with Artocarpus lanceifolius or A. hirsutus as without leaves it is difficult to say. So kindly go through these 2 plants.


This is a variety of Artocarpus heterophyllus that produces small fruits.
We have one plant in our farm. The fruiting is over for this season.
Unfortunately I don’t have pictures of fruits.


It looks like a Pandanus fruit to me.
http://svbaraka.com/vanuatulog.htm


Please upload the leaf/ branch with leaves of the plant


To me it looks like fruit of Pandanus odoratissimus


This is interesting.

This type of fruit not observed in Indian Pandanaceae. Other plant part may help to identify the species.


This will also be Artocarpus heterophyllus as per discussions at Jack fruit – a malnad variety


Dried vegetable with shell? : 3 posts by 2 authors. 1 image.
Photo prise le 08/07/2019 sur un marché à Bhaleri-Rayagada district-Odisha-India
At first glance I thought of a kind of bean…
These seeds which have a shell must be from another plant.

Any suggestion is welcome!


Artocarpus heterophyllus!



Pictures taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Off Lonavala, Pune in March 19

Artocarpus heterophyllus!


References:

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