Artocarpus lacucha Buchanan-Hamilton ex D. Don (Syn. Artocarpus acuminatissimus Merr.; Artocarpus cumingiana Trec.; Artocarpus cumingiana var. stenophylla Diels; Artocarpus dadah Miq.; Artocarpus dadah var. pubescens Miq.; Artocarpus dasyphyllus Miq.; Artocarpus ficifolius W.T.Wang; Artocarpus fretessii Teysm. & Binn. ex Hassk.; Artocarpus inconstantissimus (Miq.) Miq.; Artocarpus lacucha F. Buchanan-Hamilton (ambiguous synonym); Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.; Artocarpus lakoocha var. malayana King; Artocarpus leytensis Elmer; Artocarpus mollis Miq.; Artocarpus ovatus Blanco; Artocarpus paloensis Elmer; Artocarpus peltatus Merr.; Artocarpus refractus Becc.; Artocarpus reniformis Becc.; Artocarpus rufescens Miq.; Artocarpus tampang Miq.; Artocarpus vrieseanus var. papillosus F. M. Jarrett; Artocarpus yunnanensis H.H.Hu; Ficus inconstantissima Miq.; Prainea rumphiana Becc.; Saccus cumingianus (Trec.) Kuntze; Saccus dadah (Miq.) Kuntze; Saccus lakoocha (Roxb.) Kuntze; Saccus mollis (Miq.) Kuntze);
China (S-Yunnan), Taiwan (introduced), India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar [Burma] (Chin, Mandalay, Taninthayi, Yangon), Andamans (South Andamans), Sikkim, Nepal, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, ?Cambodia, Solomons, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Aru Isl.), New Guinea, Philippines (widespread), Palawan, Singapore, Trinidad & Tobago (introduced) as per Catalogue of Life;
Lakoocha, Monkey Jack • Hindi: लकूचा Lakoocha, लकूच Lakooch, लकूची Lakoochi, badahara, बढ़ल Barhal, Dahu, Dahua • Manipuri: হৰীকোকথোঙ Harikokthong • Marathi: बढहर Badhar, Kshudraphanas, phala • Tamil: ilagusam, irappala, solaippakku, tinippalavu • Malayalam: chimpa, lakucham, pulinjakka • Kannada: esuluhuli, lakucha, otehuli, vatehuli • Bengali: Dephal, Dahu • Oriya: Lakoocha • Urdu: Theitat • Assamese: Bohot • Sanskrit: ऐरावत Airawata, Amlaka, Dahu, Dridhavalkala, Granthimatphala • Nepali: बढहर Badhar;
Flora Indica informs natives eat the fruit and also eat the male spadix in their curries.

BARHAL FRUIT – indiantreepix | Google Groups :
I don’t have a pic. to go with this identification query, but hopefully the brief description below will be enough.

In a village near Lucknow, I was offered barhal fruit to eat. They were lumpy and yellow, like small very misshapen papayas and very ugly. The peel was smooth, thin and edible. Inside the flesh and seeds ressembled bright orange/yellow custard apples, with seeds placed similarly. The flesh was delicious with a tang of Vitamin C – a cross between an orange and a custard apple. Local people said they were full of calcium. I was not able to see the tree.

I think you mean the following tree, called Badhal or Barhal

yes, looks like monkey jack from one of the links – the one showing the green misshapen fruit. However the skin was smooth not velvety. I
have a picture now, but can’t work out how to post it!

Images by J.M.Garg (Inserted by Sandhya S)


Artocarpus lakoocha (Badhal/ Mokey Jack)? – indiantreepix | Google Groups :
May anybody help with Id of this tree. Pictures taken on 30/6/07 at Narenderpur near Kolkata. I have regularly seen this tree growing in the compounds or Gardens etc. in Kolkata.

Thanks Akramul ji for Iding ‘Ausphal’ earlier. Here is another forward for Id confirmation please. Mrs. Sushmita Basu from Kolkata identified it as Artocarpus lakoocha (Badhal/  Monkey Jack). Here are a few links. I am bit confused after looking around on the net. Pl. confirm:

regarding your confusion I want to inform that surely it is Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. (Beng vern. name — Barhal )—It is a large deciduous tree, 50-60 ft tall.
I think your confusion has created (frm a link) as its flowers are yellow in colour & arranged in a condensed inflorescence. Fruit is compound type (i.e. single frt from a mass of fls). Here species level is identified by the Lobed frt & the surface smooth/non-warted.
i think now it is cleared.

A big Ficus tree with Yellow fruits. Size 2 – 5 cm Diameter.
Don’t know the name.

It appears to be Artocarpus lacucha (Badhal, Monkey Jack or Lakooch). I was confused about this tree in Kolkata for long. A lot of trees here are also fruiting. Pl. see the earlier Indiantreepix link
& here are a few more links: & Link


How do we say some tree is a fig?

Lakoocha is a deciduous tree, 10-15 m tall.
Branchlets are 3-6 mm thick, densely covered with stiff pale brown to yellow velvety hairs.
Stipules are ovate-lanceshaped, 4-5 cm long.
Elliptic leaves, on 2-3 cm long stalks, are densely covered with yellow bristles. Leaves are large, 25-30 cm long, 15-20 cm wide, sometimes pinnately lobed, base wedge-shaped, tip blunt. Leaf margin is entire or with small teeth. 
Flowers are tiny, yellowish, fused into a round flower body.
The fruits are nearly round or irregular, 2 to 5 inches wide, velvety, dull-yellow tinged with pink, with sweet sour pulp which is occasionally eaten raw but mostly made into curries or chutney. The male flower spike is pickled.
Ref. Flowersofindia


More. 5 images.


Hooghly Today : Artocarpus lakoocha Roxburgh: 6 images.

Rural kids in Hooghly often eat a fruit which is known as MAADAAR or MAADAAL. But i didn’t know it was the same Artocarpus lakoocha Roxburgh of my earlier upload. For books give me another Bengali name, DEOPHAL. “Bengal Plants” doesn’t refer any Bengali Name while “Flora Indica” refers it as DHEA-PHUL-BURHUL !
I thought MAADAAR and DEOPHAL are different trees, though their fruits look like same, MAADAAR being slightly bigger! Now, i can guess why Roxburgh referred it as DHEA-PHUL-BURHUL.
A search in the net for MAADAAR (MADAR) gives two species, Calotropis sp. and Erythrina sp.
Only this pdf states that MAADAAR (মাদার) = Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb., but fruits are not cooked as vegetable, what had been stated in the same pdf. Flora Indica informs natives eat the fruit and also eat the male spadix in their curries.

I remember of collecting this plant from Shillong in Meghalaya with my friend Mr. Gautam Upadhaya who has revised Moraceae of India (excluding Ficus). He only informed me that the accepted name for this taxon is Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham.
GRIN also maintains the same status for this plant..but The Plant List does not.
Never knew the name ‘Madar’ for this plant….always thought Madar is Calotropis.

A reply received from …:
“It should be Artocarpus lacucha Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham.”

Thank you very much … for both the mails. I am also grateful to … for the correct name.
This tree was common in rural gardens, but, they are not so common now. My earlier upload was a roadside plantation.


Artocarpus lakoocha (Family: Moraceae) Hooghly, West Bengal: 4 images.

The day before yesterday I received ID of this tree from ‘Indian Flora’ (facebook) group. After receiving the ID i come to know that it is called DEOPHAL (phal = fruit) in Bengali. I found this on roadside and it is not that common as Acacia, Delonix, Copper pods, Albizia etc are.
ID help – facebook

Yes Artocarpus lakoocha. Nice shots indeed

Thank you for confirming. I think this tree is struggling with other much bigger trees to get its share of sunshine. It is not that healthy looking one.

no, but for water

Yes, …, it must be the water which is wanting to this tree. For it is hard pressed side by side with several other trees, yet facing open east side.


I ate this fruit (MADAR) in my childhood and as far as i remember i did not notice any seed at that time too. Thank you for your question, it raises my curiosity, i will check.

I do not know MADAR/ Maadaar (seems its used for many disparate ids/ things) but I do know DEOPHAL
after the holidays, i’ll go thru my ocean of DSC numbers!!!! I’ll try to find these and post…

Flora Indica and Flora of British India also refer to its oblong seeds, a pic at – sunshine-seeds.
My memory fails, maybe i had had unripe fruits, but MADAR looks like the 3rd and 4th pics in the above link. Certainly i will try to find more, usually i do not forget important issues.


These fruits are from the same tree as in my earlier records. This is MAADAAR or MADAR (sometimes ‘R’ is replaced by “L”) in local vernacular. I think it is also the same DEOPHAL of literatures. One interesting thing that i have found out about this tree is that each year the fruits in the first phase do not grow more than an inch or two and do not bear seeds. Later the tree again produces fruits and 10 to 15% of those fruits grow big enough to contain edible pulp, and also seeds.
Please also visit efi thread for the correct name of this taxon.
7 images.


These are the fruits of the same species, another individual at another place. Also a jungle myna!
4 images.


These fruits are known as MAADAAR (as in mother) in rural Hooghly, village urchins liked it before 2000, for the state of rural economy was not as sound as today, some of them still eat this.
MAADAAR is not recorded in BP or FI or in Hortus; instead FI states “DHEA-PHUL-BURHUL“, Hortus informs ডেঁফল
Attachments (3)

VALMIKI : OBSERVER OF NATURE (mixed thread): 1 correct image.
Attaching an image of LAKOCHA as mentioned by Valmiki in his Ramayan. Once this tree was very common in Bengal and Assam. I saw a huge tree near the Military Hospital in Indian Military Academy (I only hope it is still there ). Common name of this tree is Monkey Jack. Scientifically it is known as Artocarpus lakoocha.


SYMBIOSIS : 371 :  Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.
Attaching an image of a Blue-throated Barbet on the fruit of Artocarpus lakoocha. (MONKEY JACK).


SYMBIOSIS : 372 :  Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.
Attaching an image of a Jungle Babbler on the fruit of Artocarpus lakoocha (MONKEY JACK).

SYMBIOSIS :373 : Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.
Attaching an image of a Red vented Bulbul on the fruit of Artocarpus lakoocha (MADRAS THORN/ MANILA TAMARIND/ BARHAL/ DEPHAL/ DEWA).


SYMBIOSIS : 374 :  Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.
Attaching an image of female Koel on the fruit of Artocarpus lakoocha (MONKEY JACK/ BARHAL/ DEWA/ DEPHAL).


Artocarpus lakoocha : 2 posts by 2 authors.
can anyone please guide me as to when Artocarpus lakoocha flowers in North India.
what i always see are the fruits (young or mature) but never flowers.

Not aware about the season in North America.
Regarding flowers…..
Being a Moraceae member one will not see the exposed flowers as they are hidden inside the so called fruit.

Artocarpus lacucha from Uttarakhand: May 2014 DSR_7 :  1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3).
Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. (Moraceae), locally called as ‘Barhal’ is planted in many places in Pantnagar.

Thanks … for showing beautiful pics.. fruit shape is interesting..

Yes I had once found this in Delhi market and photographed, used as pickle.

It is relished very much by the Jarwas of the Andaman Islands. When raw, they roast the fruits and eat. The seeds are also preserved by them for eating.

I really love this fruit…. Feel hungry now !!!
Unfortunately never saw it in HK even in the markets.

for identification of plants : 15 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (13)

Date/Time- 31 march 2015

Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Dapoli, maharashtra, near sea shore

Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- planted 

Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-  tree

Height/Length-  3-4 meters

Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size-  simple, about 20 cm.

Artocarpus lakucha.

… with such small fruits and almost spiney surface skin of the fruits and greyish white bark of the tree?

…, detaied photos and information provided is appreciated. This leads to easy and accurate identification. While providing information please mention only the selected option without repeating all options.

Wild edible jackfruit?

if this is really Artocarpus lakucha. than its Deophal in bangla.. …
but i had questions about the small size of the fruit and the skin texture

Fortunately here a pen is inserted from we can estimate the size of the ripe fruits.  I have seen the unripe fruits of A. lakucha in the Andamans which were much bigger than this. The unripe fruits are roasted by the Jarawas there in their unique way and eaten. The seeds are also edible.

Very nice to know, … did you get to photograph the fruits they roasted?
i know Jarawas are not be photographed ( I dont think)  to preserve their way of life and culture…
though Maragaret mead and her students even lived with them and brought a lot of modern ideas (directly or unconsciously percolated to them)   to them , before Indian govt even woke up to put a ban on that kind of “Research” .
but what is this tree and fruit in this case in your opinion?

I do not know … but I have seen fruits of A. lakucha and A. chaplasha (now A. chama) in the Andamans. Someday I will show you the fruits.


Here are the fruits of Artocarpus lakoocha, sold in Delhi markets, used for making pickle
Here they are, locally known as Dehnu
2 images.

I do not really know about the species of Artocarpus except for my field experience.
This is not the platform for showing the images of the Jarawa tribe and I can only show a glimpse of how some plants are used by them.  For me there was no restriction as I entered this protected area as a member of the multidisciplinary team on behalf of Botanical Survey of India for carrying out ethnobotanical studies on them sponsored by the Directorate of Tribal Welfare, Andaman & Nicobar Administration, Port Blair.  Now nobody is allowed to enter the Jarawa Reserve and only the Andaman Trunk Road, connecting South Andaman to Middle Andaman, passing through their territory can be used.

Yes … I realized that nobody is allowed in the truly wild places anymore
I was keen on going because of Dr Meads’ descriptions when i was planning a trip to andaman
decided not to go because it would have meant just a touristy thing
not a traveller’s thing
too many restrictions
would like to see the fruits pictures you have


Thanks … deo phal or Artocarpus lakoocha is not so uncommon in south 24 paraganas in west bengal

local urchins climb the trees and get the fruits down, and their mothers sell them for 5 to 10 rs each right under the trees

one or two such i bought and had the kid give me some of the leaves he had broken also…
here’s the fully ripe fruit on leaves
surface has sparse stiff hairs  and trying to cut open with a sharp bread knife it sort of fell apart
pulp is kind of bland with sweetish overtones, not at all tasty.. i tried to eat it  but…
the seed arrangement inside looks like the unripe one you have… so I take it its the same fruit
3 images.

Here is a photo showing the roasting of wild jackfruit by the aboriginal tribals of the Andamans. I have cropped the photo to conceal nudity. Attachments (1)


35-TSP-ID-17JAN2016-1: Artocarpus sp for ID : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)

Kindly identify this tree. Could this be Artocarpus lacucha (Moraceae)….?? 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Wild, Semi-evergreen forest 

Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1200 msl 

Date: 28-11-2015

Seems to me to be Artocarpus hirsutus Lam.

efi pages on Artocarpus hirsutus (with images) & Artocarpus lacucha
To me it does not look like Artocarpus hirsutus  

It looks like Artocarpus lacucha, to me too.

Thanks … Even my field officers say that it is Artocarpus lacucha.

Location: Nuwakot , Nepal
Altitude:  3200 ft.
Date: 25 April 2015
Nepali Name : बडहर Badahar

Yes, it is. Thanks, …

Tree for ID, Kolkatta, NAW- FEB17-04 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Kindly identify this tree with yellow wrinkled fruit, photographed at the Botanical Garden, Kolkatta in October 2016.
Fruit about 4-5 cm in diameter.

Please compare with A. lacucha (Moraceae) in eFI.

I will agree with …

Tree for ID, Sylhet Bangladesh, NAW-APR17-04 : 5 posts by 2 authors.
Kindly identify this tree photographed in the northeast of Sylhet, Bangladesh, in April 2017.
Leaves about 10-15 cm wide, 40-50 cm long. ‘Fruits’ about 3-4 cm in diameter.

Images missing.

Sorry I got distracted while writing the email. Here are the pictures. Attachments (6) – more than 700 kb each.

Pl. check with images at Artocarpus lacucha

Thank you …



Artocarpus Species : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 16MAY17 : AK-12 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Artocarpus Species seen in Lalbagh a fortnight ago (16.5.17).

Pl. check Artocarpus lakucha 

Thanks … The problem is there are two trees next to one another, one is Artocarpus lacucha and the other is Artocarpus hirsuta.
I am getting confused between the two.

I am not sure in Lalbagh, there is Artocarpus hirsuta.
I can be wrong

Thanks … Are there any prominent distinguishing features between A lacucha and A. hirsuta?
I have seen and photographed both, but they look same to me.

Your images look much different from images at Artocarpus hirsutus



Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 933 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Koel (Male/ female- Male is seducing the female with pulp of a fruit of Artocarpus lakoocha). Both the birds are sitting on Artocarpus lakoocha (MONKEY JACK).



Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)

Location: Soureni, Mirik, India
Date: 18 May 2017
Altitude: 4300 ft.

Identification Request : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Date/Time- Nov 11, 2017, 7 AM
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Dhakuria lake, Kolkata
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-Urban
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tree
Height/Length- 20 Feet
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- Large (20-30 cm) Oval with a small Tip. Very rough. Resembles Ficus hispida to some extent
Inflorescence Type/ Size- Not sure
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts-
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- Not sure
Other Information like Fragrance, Pollinator, Uses etc.- Not Sure

Thanks, …, May I request you to pl. post image of the complete tree along with other images of flowers, fruits etc., if you have.

Pl. check images at/species/m—z/m/moraceae/artocarpus/artocarpus-lakoocha
To me appears close.


today I took a full view shot. I find this tree quite common in Kolkata and probably most of them are self grown
Attachments (1)

Thanks, … Though image is not in correct orientation, it looks like /species/m—z/m/moraceae/artocarpus/artocarpus-lakoocha only.

Images by Santhan P (Inserted by Sandhya S)



Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trécul SN may18 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (4).
Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trécul, Fam: Moraceae,
Wild tree, fruit with smooth pericarp and acid to taste.

To me looks closer to images at Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. rather than those at Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trecul 
Where was it clicked ?

Leaves are oblong (not ovate) and cuspidate (not acuminate) indicating A lakoocha.

Yes … it looks closer to Artocapus lacoocha only


IDENTITY : 32 : Attachments (1). 4 posts by 2 authors.
Attaching an image of a big tree with fruits. Can it be Artocarpus chaplasha ?

To me it seems to be Artocarpus chaplasha. I am not very sure

It appears like Artocarpus lakoocha to me

Id of Fruit : 1 image. 2 posts by 2 authors.

Please help in identifying this fruit.
Location – Empress Garden, Pune
Date -23.03.2013 at 2.00pm.

A guess…. Artocarpus lakoocha.


SYMBIOSIS : 1315 : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Black hooded Oriole feeding on the fruits of Artocarpus lakoocha (MONKEY JACK)

SYMBIOSIS : 1327 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Blue throated Barbet feeding on fruits of Artocarpus lakoocha (MONKEY JACK/ DEUA)


from JNTBGRI, Palode


Identification of souring agent fruit from Konkan: 2 images.
I am asking after a long time. I have shifted fully from Delhi to Bangalore 2 years ago Just before the Pandemic.
This is a tree which I know from Goa.
It is a large tree with about a Pear size and approximate shaped fruit.
It is cut dried and used in kitchen as a souring agent in Goa and Konkan
We call it ओट or ओकांबा in Goa. Yesterday we god some dried  fruits from Hubli.
Could not get reference on Google Search in kitchen ingredients.
It is not Kokum
Here is the Photo.
The structure of the fruit resembles a JackFruit with a central core and seeds branching from it.

I searched in various resources for ओट or ओकांबा … was not able to find any clue.
I have sent it to one Goan friend.
Will update if he has any lead.

Here is a more clear photo. This is available in local markets where generally specific forest produce is sold.
I have seen the tree as a child but do not remember the leaves. Only falling fruits.

Eureka !!!
Starting from Google lens going via a Wrong commercial name as Kokum Phool I finally landed on a whole blog post appropriately written about this fruit with more pictures.
Here is the blog post ourfarmatchitrapur.blogspot
Attaching two pictures from that Blogpost. 

The plant that I am referring to is exactly same as  detailed in the blogpost.
However there is no clarity about Botanical name.
Two names came up but both seem wrong to me from the Photos on Internet.
Garcinia cambogia and Artocarpus lacucha
The correct Konkani name is वटाम्बो, ओट and ओकांबा  I wrote earlier seem to be local distortions

Images in the blog appear to be those of Artocarpus lacucha as per images and details herein.
And it is quite sour as I have tasted it.


Fruit for Id – ID15032023SH1: 4 high res. images.

Fruit for Id pl.
At present the fruit is unripe but afterwards it grows as big as Custard Apple and is edible.
Location – Vasai, Maharashtra
Date – March 2023

Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don



Artocarpus lakoocha Wall. ex Roxb.: 3 images.

Location: Taplejung, East Nepal 
Date: July 2023
Elevation: 1200 m.
Habit : Wild
Images sent by Sajan Subedi


Moraceae: Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don: 1 image.
synonyms: Artocarpus lacucha F.Buchanan-Hamilton, Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb., Artocarpus dadah Miq.
location/date: University of Agricultural Sciences campus, Bangalore, July 1997



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