Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss., Euphorb. Gen. 109 1824. (syn. Andrachne doonkyboisca B.Heyne ex Wall. [Invalid]; Bridelia airy-shawii P.T.Li [Illegitimate]; Bridelia amoena Wall. ex Baill.; Bridelia cambodiana Gagnep.; Bridelia chineensis Thin; Bridelia cinerascens Gehrm.; Bridelia crenulata Roxb.; Bridelia fordii Hemsl.; Bridelia fruticosa Pers.; Bridelia hamiltoniana var. glabra Müll.Arg.; Bridelia pierrei Gagnep.; Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng.; Bridelia retusa var. glabra Gehrm.; Bridelia retusa var. glauca Hook.f.; Bridelia retusa var. pubescens Gehrm.; Bridelia retusa var. roxburghiana Müll.Arg. [Illegitimate]; Bridelia retusa var. squamosa (Lam.) Müll.Arg.; Bridelia retusa var. stipulata Gehrm.; Bridelia roxburghiana (Müll.Arg.) Gehrm.; Bridelia spinosa (Roxb.) Willd.; Bridelia squamosa (Lam.) Gehrm.; Bridelia squamosa var. meeboldii Gehrm.; Clutia retusa L.; Clutia spinosa Roxb.; Clutia squamosa Lam.);
Indian Subcontinent to S. China and W. Malesia: Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya as per POWO;
spinous kino tree • Assamese: কহিব, kuhir • Bengali: geio, kosai • Garo: khasi • Hindi: ekdania, काझी kaji, kasai, katti-daman, kattian, khaja, कुहिर kuhir • Kannada: ಮುಳ್ಳುಹೊನ್ನೆ ಮರ mulluhonne mara • Khasi: dieng rishan • Konkani: कांटे आसन kamte asan • Malayalam: മുള്‍ക്കൈനി mulkaini, മുള്ളുവേങ്ങ mulluvenga • Marathi: असण or असणा asana • Nepalese: गायो gayo • Oriya: asano • Sanskrit: असनः or आसनः asana • Tamil: செம்மரம் cemmaram, மலைவேங்கை malai-venkai, மரவகை maravakai • Telugu: కోరామద్ది koramaddi, మద్దికాయలు maddi-kayalu, ములుమద్ది mulu-maddi, పుట్టకరక putta-karaka;
bree-DAY-lee-uhnamed for the Swiss botanist Samuel Elisée von Bridel (1761-1828)
re-TOO-suh — rounded and notched tip
Native to: south China, Indian subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia
Edible use (WILD): … ripe or unripe fruit (as FRUIT)
A small or moderate sized deciduous tree, spinous, bark grey. Leaves are coriaceous, elliptic- oblong, obtuse, sub-acute or rounded at the apex, with entire or slightly crenulate margins, bright green and glabrous above ( turning pinkish -brown before falling) galucous and usually finely tomentose beneath, base usually rounded (rarely cordate); main nerves prominent, straight, 15-25 pairs, with finely reticulate venation in between.
Drupes as can be seen in the pictures change colour from greenish to yellowish red and finally turn purple -black. edible.  The drupes  are seated on  a persistent slightly enlarged calyx 8 mm in diameter. 


Was at my farm at Shahapur [north of Bombay] today with my friend …
Bridelia retusa [Asana] trees were laden with fleshy drupes which attracted a number of birds including Yellow-footed Green Pigeons, Red-vented Bulbuls, Common Mynas and Ultramarine Flycatchers {two males & one [or more] females}.  Enjoyed the better half of the morning watching these dainty flycatchers. Sending a few photographs [the last 2 are …].


Euphorbiaceae week :: Phyllanthaceae: Bridelia retusa:
Bridelia retusa (Asana – आसाणा )
The last picture showing stem with thorns/prickles has recently been taken
from Vasai fort area.
OK I will add it separately.

Euphorbiaceae week-Phyllanthaceaee : Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss:
Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss – now under Phyllanthaceae as per Kew Plant list. These pictures were taken by me at Matheran, Mah. in October 2011.
A small or moderate sized deciduous tree, spinous, bark grey. Leaves are coriaceous, elliptic- oblong, obtuse, sub-acute or rounded at the apex, with entire or slightly crenulate margins, bright green and glabrous above ( turning pinkish -brown before falling) galucous and usually finely tomentose beneath, base usually rounded (rarely cordate); main nerves prominent, straight, 15-25 pairs, with finely reticulate venation inbetween.
Drupes as can be seen in the pictures change colour from greenish to yellowish red and finally turn purple -black. edible.  The drupes  are seated on  a persistent slightly enlarged calyx 8 mm in diameter.
There are several syonyms as per Kew Plant List as follows:
Andrachne doonkyboisca B.Heyne ex Wall. [Invalid]
Bridelia airy-shawii P.T.Li [Illegitimate]
Bridelia amoena Wall. ex Baill.
Bridelia cambodiana Gagnep.
Bridelia chineensis Thin
Bridelia cinerascens Gehrm.
Bridelia crenulata Roxb.
Bridelia fordii Hemsl.
Bridelia fruticosa Pers.
Bridelia hamiltoniana var. glabra Müll.Arg.
Bridelia pierrei Gagnep.
Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng.
Bridelia retusa var. glabra Gehrm.
Bridelia retusa var. glauca Hook.f.
Bridelia retusa var. pubescens Gehrm.
Bridelia retusa var. roxburghiana Müll.Arg. [Illegitimate]
Bridelia retusa var. squamosa (Lam.) Müll.Arg.
Bridelia retusa var. stipulata Gehrm.
Bridelia roxburghiana (Müll.Arg.) Gehrm.
Bridelia spinosa (Roxb.) Willd.
Bridelia squamosa (Lam.) Gehrm.
Bridelia squamosa var. meeboldii Gehrm.
Clutia retusa L.
Clutia spinosa Roxb.
Clutia squamosa Lam.


tree for id:
would be grateful for an id
large tree at prince of wales museum, mumbai. this sunday

This is Asana [ a Bridelia sp.] possibly B.spinosa.

I can see the similarity in the leaves now. the tree is really large and the spines must have fallen off with age

Will be sending the list of saplings as soon as I get some clarification on the ids from …

it look like Bridelia squamosa not B. spinosa

Would like to know on what basis you have arrived at this conclusion. Have both species of these trees at my farm at Shahapur.
Have also in the past had a detailed discussion with Dr. Almeida on this topic. As seen in the photographs most of the leaves are fresh. In Bridelia spinosa the leaves are more elliptic with an acute tip whereas in Bridelia squamosa the leaves are broader and more oval in shape with older leaves tending to loose chlorophyll and developing spots because of a fungal attack.


bridelia retusa:
bridelia retusa or asana as it is commonly called coming into leaf my place, alibaug yesterday

ID REQUEST 31052011 PJ3:
Id  requested for the following attachment.
Date/Time-: 8/05/11   –    17:00

Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-   wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- tree
Height/Length- 7 mtr

what is the size of leaves?
Could this be Breynia retusa of Euphorbiaceae?

This is a species of Bridelia possibly B.spinosa [Asana].

Breynia retusa is shrub, and without spines..
.. is right its Bridelia spinosa (Aasana or Bhimashan in Marathi name)


identification no220711sn2:
Kindly identify this fruit Tree. Unfortunately I could not take more pictures due to heavy rain. Taken at
Mulshi,Pune in June11.

Bridelia for ID :: Devgad, Konkan, May 2017 :: ARKMAY01 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (9)
Seen these trees at 2 locations at Devgad, Kokan, MH in May 2017. Location 1 was a mountaintop and Location 2 was at the base of the mountain next to a salt water creek. A similar tree in the same locality was identified as Bridelia stipularis here.
Are these trees B. stipularis only or are they B. retusa?

Though the images are devoid of flowers and fruits, you observed them to be trees and the photos are showing the same.  The leaves are of typical Bridelia and I think that this is the common but variable B. retusa. The spines in older parts may or may not be present.  Here you have referred to some earlier images which were identified as B. stipularis.  You mentioned there that the habit was climber/tree.  Please note that B. retusa is usually a tree and sometimes forming a bush whereas B. stipularis is a climber.  Next, the flowers of B. stipularis are 6 – 12 mm in diameter, i.e. larger than any other species and the leaves become successively smaller on a branchlet.
There was a dispute sometimes back regarding the identity of a Bridelia tree from Bangalore which I had identified as B. retusa but there was argument that the flowers in that case were appearing much bigger and B. stipularis is also rarely a tree, as mentioned in the Flora of India, Volume 23, 2012.  Yes, in that work it was indeed mentioned that B. stipularis is rarely a tree.  In this case I wish to clarify that a revision is usually prepared and presented  mainly based on study of herbarium specimens and the author/s has to depend on the field notes and he has to mention what the collectors had observed in the field.  A few collectors may always note wrong observations.  Moreover, the descriptions presented in the taxonomic revisions are based on measurements available on dried specimens and they are bound to be less than what we see and measure in the field.
I have looked carefully at all the earlier images referred to by you and all the comments made therein.  However, I wish to inform you that those images are lacking typical conditions seen in B. stipularis.  I have many images of this species and I will present the same here to clarify the doubts.

Here are two images posted by you earlier. These images have characters of typical B. stipularis. I am also attaching herewith an image of a herbarium specimen of the species downloaded from the website of the British Museum, Natural History (BM). Hope that you will understand the differences of the species from B. retusa.
Attachments (3)

Thank you so much … for detailed analysis.
I was confused because both these species were located on the same mountain, may be 200 metres from each other.
I take the pics posted originally on this post as as B. retusa only.

SS_1_June_2017_Request_For_ID : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)

Please help me identify this tree. Please find attached the photos of the tree.
The lower trunk of the tree has prominent thorns. The rest of the upper trunk and the branches do not have any thorns.
Location: Kandivali West, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Date: 1st June 2017

It looks like Bridelia species, the leaf looks like Bridelia; for correct identification either flower or fruit necessary; some Bridelia species bear thorns on stem.

The secondary venation of the leaves is that of typical Bridelia (Phyllanthaceae) and the species appears to be B. retusa, quite common in that area.




Validation for Bridelia glauca requested : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)

The attached plant images are identified as Bridelia glauca based on the following characters (Ref: eflora china)
Flowers monoecious, many-flowered fascicles with up to 50 flowers, axillary; bracts very small; pedicel distinct 1.5-5 mm. Male flowers white, 3.5-5 mm in diam., sepals lanceolate to triangular, up to 2 mm; petals obovate, lanceolate, or spatulate, ca. 0.8 mm, margin 3-5-toothed; disk pulvinate or saucer-shaped,  
Please validate

Hundred percent Bridelia glauca.

…, I do not have good images of this species. If possible and permissible, please send me high resolution images of the species for reproduction in my book on Phyllanthaceae, being sent to press shortly for which I will duly acknowledge your help.

Further scrutiny of more images kindly sent by … reveals that in this plant the lateral nerves of the leaves are terminating directly at the margins into the marginal nerves (instead of forming brochidodromous loops with the superadjacent nerves) and the fruits are appearing to be slightly bilobed towards apex indicating that they were 2-locular (instead of 1-locular) and the tendency of the inflorescences to sometimes become leafless pseudoracemes or pseudopanicles are characters of Bridelia retusa.


Flower for Id – ID12022018SH2 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Flower for Id pl.
Location – SGNP, Borivali, Mumbai
Date – August 2017

Bridelia retusa!


Request for ID : 270411 : AK-2:
A tree at Khandala, Maharashtra taken on the 24th of March, 2011.
Very tiny flowers.

This is also Asana [ a Bridelia sp.] possibly B.spinosa.

You know in our place Asana tree is for Terminalia alata!! They say that the log doesnt bend if dried in sunlight or kept in water. So I found it good for hanging my orchids on to it…

I guess Bridelia squamosa

According to me this looks like Bridelia retusa (Asana असाणा)  only.

it is Bridelia spinosa.

I Hope B.retusa and B. spinosa are Synonyms. Please elaborate if not correct. 

Yes .. Bridelia spinosa Willd. Sp. Pl. 4: 979, 1805; Singh et al, Fl. Mah. St. 2: 865, 2001; Almeida, Fl. Mah. 4: 294, 2003.
Synonyms: B. retusa (L.) Spreng Syst. Veg. 3: 48, 1826; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 268, 1887; Cooke, Fl. Pres. Bombay 3: 68, 1958 (Repr.), p.p.; Pradhan et al, Fl. SGNP 550, 2005. Cluytia retusa L. Sp. Pl. 1042, 1753.
Common names: Asan, Kutgi.

Bridelia retusa:  Tree from CBD Hills.
Bot name: Bridelia retusa
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Date/Time: 20-08-2011 / 08:30AM
Location: CBD Hills, Navi Mumbai
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Tree

Very Good Close-Up … now family is Phyllanthaceae

20092011NVR1 Tree from Goa for ID:
Enclosed recent pictures of a tree found widely in Goa and locally called Konji. Deciduous tree losses leaves in summer.

Yes this is fruiting Bridelia retusa
Attaching a picture of the flowers clicked from Pune recently (15 days back)

ID 300911: Location Mumbai
Date – September, 2011

This is Bridelia retusa
At present flowering in Pune too
Euphorbiaceae Asana असाणा

Yes, i was wondering i am missing something here.
Missed the picture with the conical spines.

Yes it is Bridelia retusa of Phyllanthaceae family, for sure.

The tiny flowers of this tree are really beautiful.  I diagnose the plant by looking at the leaf which is very characteristic and unmistakable even from a distance.  It is thick; leathery; the veins or nerves( I don’t know what to call them correctly) are clear prominent and perfectly parallel originating from the mid vein. Of course the shape is important and the area of occurrence. Attaching some flowers captured recently in last fortnight from Mhatoba Tekdi Kothrud.

It is now called Bridelia spinosa. My trees are also flowering. Sending a few of my photographs. 

According to “the plant list” Bridelia spinosa (Roxb.) Willd. is a synonym of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss.

the plant list put B. squamosa as synonym and  B. spinosa synonym of B. retusa
 anyone pls clarify..  or we consider this all as one species following the plant list…

Flora Malesiana, Dressler, Euphorbiaceae, treats both species  (B. squamosa (Lehm.) Gehrm. and B. spinosa (Roxb.) Willd.) as synonyms of B. retusa (L.) A. Juss. Obviously they are same species. Flora Malesiana is one publication which can’t be easily ignored.

In Maharashtra we see two Bridelia (tree) species one is Bridelia spinosa (Roxb.) Willd. (plant stems with spines, dioecious flower) and other one is Bridelia squamosa (Lamk.) Gehrm. (Plant without spines, monoecious flower)
please anyone clarify this!!!!!

There is another:
Bridelia hamiltoniana Wall. ex Müll.Arg. (synonym of Bridelia Montana (Roxb.) Willd.) flickr

i was talking about trees,, Bridelia hamiltonia is a shrub.. we also get Bridelia stipularis in maharashtra.

Yes they may be two different trees, with some differences, but only an expert who has worked on specimens all over the world can decide whether differences are enough to call them as different species or not, otherwise there would be no heterotypic synonym ever in this world. The simple fact that important recent publications treat them as synonms is enough to be satisfied. Perhaps the differences are considered even strong enough to call them as distinct varieties, although some earlier authors had done. Till we find any new publication which contradicts Flora Malesiana, I think we have to follow it.
And yes Bridelia hamiltoniana Wall. ex Mull.Arch is a synonym of B. montana (Roxb.) Willd.
So we have two B. retusa and B. montana.

sirji both the species are very common in Maharashtra and different from each other, than how can one say them or treat them as a single species… atleast i am not satisfied with your explanation.. even Fr. Santapau and the Gehrm. treated these two different species, but they called B. spinosa by Bridelia roxburghiana which is synonym of B. spinosa Willd.

It is not question of my or your liking. We have to live with the present and accept what the science today accepts. I have great respect for Fr. Santapau, and all other great taxonomists of India, but have to accept if some recent revisions based on advanced taxonomic research have relegated some taxa to synonymy. I have numerous new species and name changes to my publication list, some of these have been changed recently, but that does not mean I won’t accept those changes. We may have our opinions, but it is the latest taxonomic treatment that counts. Bridelia in Flora Malesiana is one the most recent treatments and most authors will follow it.

i never said it is a topic of liking… we have two different species in Maharashtra,, and i think many of the members (from maharashtra or Western India) on the group also will agree with it.. I think We need to check with Original Description and type material. I have not seen Flora of Malesiana.. so i don’t know about the book.

It is online. Here is the link nationaalherbarium


efloraindia: Bridelia retusa images from Coimbatore:
Sharing the images of Bridelia retusa from NBNP, Coimbatore.


Alagarkoil flora 19072012 TBN 3 for id:
Please identify this plant details of which are as follows: Date : 01/07/2012

Location :Silambar valley, Alagarkoil
Altitude :1700 ft
Habitat :wild rf
Habit :tree
Height :40 ft
Leaves :simple stipulate
Flowers :not seen
Fruits :?berries
Local name :do not know
Is it Terminalia bellerica?

Yes, Bridelia retusa


Flowerpeckers and Bridelia retusa:  Have you ever watched Tickell’s Flowerpeckers going absolute “ga… ga…” over some delectable fruits? Yes, they do so when Bridelia retusa tree
Bridcurt-photo.gif- is in fruit.
Last March, while I visited a lake in Vidyaranayapura which has been developed by BBMP to `disuse’, I chanced upon a Bridelia retusa tree in full fruit and was given a peek into the addictive habit of the flowerpeckers to its fruits. While there was a very pugnacious flowerpecker which declared war on other flowerpeckers visiting the tree, and kept chasing them out of the canopy, there were other thieves and robbers making merry. In this melee, I watched flowerpeckers devouring the small Bridelia fruits in neat gulps from as close as two
feet, and at that, they did not care a tuppence about my presence so close. At any given point of time there were at least 10 birds given to such a frenzied feeding, that bordered around the point of near addiction – a behavior which I have seen only when these birds are feeding on the pyriform white fruits of Securinega leucopyrus (/wp-content/uploads/attachments).
This medium sized Bridelia tree can be planted in small gardens and it will be in fruit for nearly 6 months and through summer. This tree is a good replacement to the exotic Singapore Cherry. I am sure one will have
many delightful days of watching these flowerpeckers at close quarters when the tree is in fruit. I happen to have some seeds of Bridelia sourced by … of Pancharatna Plus to give away to those who want to nursery them and distribute the saplings to others – to spread the joy of Flowerpecker watching. Do contact me if interested ( I am out of town from Aug 18-26).


Bridelia retusa – fresh flowering of season:
Photographed at Matheran on 12th Sept., 2012. To mention the last flowering was observed till April, 2012, but that was evergreen forest patch and this was in forest clearing.


KAS Week::(Bridelia retusa 05/10/2012-NJ): 
Bridelia retusa (Asana in Marathi)
Tree found on the way to Kas. Photo taken in May


Requesting ID of these plants – Mumbai :31072013 : ARK-01 : Attachments (10). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Requesting to please ID these plants captured at 2 different locations in Mumbai.
Are both of these Bridelia retusa?

Tree with fruits is Bridelia retusa.
The other one may be Bridelia or Cassia fistula.


Wild Tree For ID : 140813 : AK-2 : Attachments (1). 4 posts by 2 authors.
Saw this tree growing wild with small fruits on way to Saputara on 7/8/13.
Sorry for the bad picture quality.
Unfortunately I have only one picture.

Bridelia retusa

Agree with … Now called Bridelia spinosa. Please check the archives of this group for my photographs of this.  

Requesting ID of this small tree – Lohagad : 22082013 : ARK-02 : August 2013 :  Attachments (2). 5 posts by 3 authors.
Requesting to please ID this small tree captured at Lohagad near Pune in August 2013.

Is this Bridelia retusa??

Yes I think so.

Affirmative. This is Bridelia retusa [Asana].


Flora of Kaiga_ID_24092013 PJ1. : Attachments (1).  2 posts by 2 authors.

Date/Time-: 12/05/13 12:20
Location-Place, Altitude – Kaiga, Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka,
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- TREE
Height/Length- 9m


Bridelila retusa.

I thought leaves are not as sharp as in Bridelia retusa

Euphorbiaceae fortnight :: Bridelia retusa from Coimbatore BRS 019 :  Attachments (3). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Sharing the images of Bridelia retusa from Anaikatti, Coimbatore.

The identity id correct.

Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss. … Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae s. l.
at Yeoor Hills (part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park), Thane on 30 AUG 09
at Vaghbil, Thane on 19 OCT 08

Excellent photos. The leaves will fall and the fruits will look like in a panicle.

Bridelia retusa is a fairly commonly observed tree in western ghats and few trees do exist in the Pune city limits too.
“असाणा “ in Marathi

Excellent close ups.


Euphorbiaceae Fortnight : 07112013 ARK-27 : Bridelia retusa from Mumbai – June 2013 : Attachments (9). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Attached are pictures of Bridelia retusa from SGNP, Mumbai in June 2013 and Lohagad, Maharashtra in August 2013.

Excellent photos.

Euphorbiaceae Fortnight : Bridelia retusa : Maharashtra : 111113 : AK-74 : Attachments (4). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Bridelia retusa from various places in Maharashtra…. Khandala, Pali & SGNP, Mumbai.

Correct identification.


Kindly id this tree
Place : Dombivli
Date : 9.11.2013

Bridelia retusa.

EUPHORBIACEAE FORTNIGHT : Phyllanthaceae : RVS-7 : 4 images. 4 posts by 4 authors.
Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss.
Collected from: Sirumalai hills, TN.

Correct only.

Euphorbiaceae Fortnight : Bridelia retusa from Coimbatore BRS 032 : Attachments (3). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Sharing the images of Bridelia retusa from Anaikatti, Coimbatore.

Looks like Bridelia retusa.


Tree from CBD Hills (Navi Mumbai).
Bot name: Bridelia retusa
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Habitat: Wild

Beautiful close up

Bridelia retusa indeed.

Bridelia spinosa sapling :  Attachments (6). 1 post by 1 author.
Photographed on my property at Shahapur. The sapling was collected at Khandala. The leaves are much smaller and narrower compared to those of B.squamosa [as seen in my next post]. Saplings anyway, have much larger leaves than their adult counterparts.

Bridelia squamosa saplings : Attachments (3). 1 post by 1 author.
Photographed on my property at Shahapur. All three saplings have grown naturally.

Bridelia spinosa : 12 posts by 5 authors.
For many years have faced the dilemma on how to differentiate between B.squamosa & B.spinosa. Most reference books are pretty ambiguous. Dr.Almeida’s ‘Flora of Maharashtra’ mentions that in the former the bark is yellowish and the drupes fleshy and presumably greenish with a yellowish tinge, whereas in the latter the bark is greyish and the drupes purplish-black.
I believe I have the problem licked.
B.spinosa differs from B.squamosa in having smaller, narrower and more pointed leaves.
Have not encountered B.spinosa in / around Bombay or at Shahapur.
The tree is well showcased at Khandala and Lonavala. Sending a few photographs.
My previous posts at these links are therefore erroneous :
My apologies to … for this
Inadventently got it right at this link, but this was also photographed at Khandala.
Also therefore feel that Dinesh Valke’s recent post of a tree at ? Yeoor ? Thane was also way off the mark.

thanks for this. A long time dilemma for me too,.
I will now test out your theory and see if it holds good.

Bridelia retusa is one of the commonest Euphorbiaceae in Maharashtra. It is a variable species, so please need not worry about the identity. I can provide you full synonymy in case you need it.

Managed to find only this one specimen of a drupe of Bridelia spinosa. The photographs were taken in Jan.12 at the base of Visagadh fort in Lonavala.
Distinctly remember having eaten it and planting the seed which unfortunately did not germinate.

Thanks … for stressing that B. spinosa and B. squamosa (B. retusa) are separate species. (I had come to understand that the spines are shed as the tree matures, thus easily convinced that the two species are synonymous). I will correct my notes at earliest.

A slight correction – B.spinosa [previously B.retusa] and B.squamosa are the 2 species of trees found in Maharashtra.

I have revised the genus Bridelia for Flora of India and I reiterate that there is a long tail of synonymy for Bridelia retusa, a variable species.

Thanks, …,
I will go with … who is an expert on this family that B.spinosa and B.squamosa are syn. of B.retusa (as in Flora of India), which is also agreed to by the following well known sources:
This has also been discussed previously in our group & details can be seen at ID 300911. More details can be seen at Bridelia retusa

Fair enough, but a difficult conclusion specially if one has seen both species in the wild.

ANOCT75 Please identify this tree : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)

Nandi Hills
October 2014

Bridelia sp.

Bridelia species so far in efi. 

Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss (= Bridelia cinerascens Gehrm.)

ANNOV52 Please identify this tree : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (7)
Chimmony wildlife sanctuary, Kerala
November 2014

Bridelia retusa

Agree with …, Bridelia retusa


ANAPR44 Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss. : 14 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (13)

Family: Phyllanthaceae
Date: 17th April 2015
Place: Nandi Hills, Bangalore, Karnataka
Habit: Tree
Habitat: Scrub forest

I think its okay.

Very good pictures.

Why not B. stipularis …?
Flowers look large (greater than 6mm).

From my side, sir- Bridelia stipularis is scandent in habit and found in the western ghats.

Bridelia scandens (Roxb.) a synonym of Bridelia stipularis (L.) Blume

Yes, I am aware of that. I did mention the details about this post is Bridelia retusa and not Bridelia stipularis/Bridelia scandens.

Well, the habit of Bridelia stipularis is scandent or climbing and in this species the flowers (calyx) and the fruits are larger than the other species.

It can be a small tree also, 3-5m.
In support of my contention I refer you to Fl. India, vol 23, pg. 382, [1st line of the last para, on that page] (Publ. BSI) Ed. N.P. Balakrishnan et al.
More interestingly, the Section on Tribe Bridelieae Meul. Arg. is edited by one T. Chakrabarty et al

I take the privilege to inform you that I am the same “one T. Chakrabarty”, one of the authors for the genus Bridelia Willd. (Euphorbiaceae, sens. lat.) published in Fl. India 23: 376. 2012.
Having seen the authentically named materials, I believe that the present photographs represent Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss. – in its present circumscription. However, since a doubt has been raised on the identity, I refrain from any further comment unless I examine herbarium specimens collected from the same tree which seems impossible. Hence the identity suggested by … may be accepted.
It is well known that while the herbarium specimens form the base of Angiosperm taxonomy, a photograph, however good it may be, is invalid for scientific purposes without a scale or at least measurements and and such it is useful only for getting a first hand impression of the plant.

I agree fully with your thoughts … That seems to be an appropriate reply. We appreciate your efforts in contributing to the knowledge of members of this forum.

Thank you very much … A herbarium of this can be made as I am very familiar with the forests here. Please let me know if this is required. It can be done.

Please send photographs of fruits of this species when available. I have already posted my comments and for the present I am not discussing the intricate details regarding differences between the two species, i.e. B. retusa and B. stipularis.

I will certainly do that sir. Thank you.


Tree_for_ID_20042015AJK1 : 7 posts by 4 authors. 2 correct images as above.
Please id this tree..

Date/Time- 19th April 2015
Location- Oxford golf club hill, Bavdhan area, Pune
Habitat- wild
Plant Habit- Tree
Flowers not seen
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- -picture attached

Are you sure the fruits and leaves belong to same plant
The leaves may be of Diospyros melanoxylon while the fruits appear to be from Bridelia retusa

Could it be new leaves of Bridelila retusa!

I suppose the lateral veins on the leaves of Bridelia retusa are exactly parallel and will be same even in new leaves.
My replies are based just on the locality I am used to and I have seen similar leaves and fruits in recent times in these areas.
Diospyros does show variability in leaf character.
My answers are more of an observation than expertise.
Would like to know other views too.

Yes, the leaves are not of Bridelia.

Thank you very much, for your response.
I think I would go and check it again whether the leaves and fruits are of the same tree.

Today I checked it again; yes, there are two different trees.
I could see the dried leaves of Bridelia retusa, and some fruits of Diospyros melanoxylon. Unfortunately, I could not take the photographs.

Bridelia retusa—-for sharing and validation : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Pic taken at Aambyvalley rd., Lonavala, Pune In Oct.14

A zoomed photograph. No other features visible.
Can’t comment. Since you know it … should be.

Yes the perfect leaf pattern

Bridelia retusa—-for sharing and validation : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2)
Pics taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala, Pune in May 15.

Sharing a close-up of the inflorescence of Bridelia retusa [Phyllanthaceae] bearing a few immature fruits.
The petals of all the flowers in this photograph are pectinate (with toothed ends), typical of male flowers. The female flower petals are described as being spatulate & entire as illustrated in the line drawing of this tree in Flora of China.
Observed on the 24th of April, 2016 in Matheran (courtesy of …).

Thanks, …, for the beautiful close up & details.

Mulluvenga (മുള്ളുവേങ്ങ) in Malayalam.

Bridelia retusa—for sharing : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Pic taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala, Pune in April 15.


Bridelia retusa :: TMC Biodiversity Park :: 15 APR 18 : 2 posts by 2 authors. 5 images.
TMC Biodiversity Park  Thane
Date: April 15, 2018 … Altitude: about 15 m (50 feet) asl
Bridelia retusa  (L.) A.Juss.


flowering near Bhor near Pune in Sahyadri ghat 4/5/08; in March-08 in Mumbai;  flowers appear from May to July as per link.

Euphorbiaceae (castor, euphorbia, or spurge family) » Bridelia retusa
Synonyms: Bridelia spinosa, Bridelia squamosa, Cluytia retusa, Clutia spinosa
bree-DAY-lee-uhnamed for the Swiss botanist Samuel Elisée von Bridel (1761-1828)
re-TOO-suh — rounded and notched tip

Native to: south China, Indian subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia
Edible use (WILD):
… ripe or unripe fruit (as FRUIT) …  Plants and People of Nepal <> …
Henriette’s Herbal<henriettesherbal>

Bridelia retusa—-for sharing : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Pics taken at Aambyvalley Rd.,Off Lonavala, Pune in March17.


Fwd: fruit green from dapoli : mixed thread:  Attachments (1)- 4 MB.
Fruit colour green
Habitat tree
Location mawal
Near lanawala

Attachments (1)- 4 MB.

Attachments (1)- 4 MB.

Attachments (1)- 4 MB.

These four photographs (i.e. IMG_20180424_104604.jpg, IMG_20180424_104607.jpg, IMG_20180430_092714.jpg, IMG_20180430_092723.jpg) are of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss. [Phyllanthaceae].


id confirmation requested : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Is it Bridelia retusa or some other species; the branchlets and abaxial side of leaves pubescent. flowers unisexual, it is a female plant, the size of the flowers smaller than other trees in the area. fruit green and larger than others. the leaf size is also quite larger than commonly seen Bridelia retusa. Your valuable opinion needed.

Only two species are there in your area, B. retusa and B. montana. The leaves of the latter are usually narrowing towards base and therefore I think that this is B. retusa only, a variable species, quite evident form its long tail of synonymy.

Bridelia retusa—-for sharing : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)- around 300 kb each.
pics taken at Aambyvalley Rd.,Off Lonavala,Pune in May 17.



Distinct veins on leaf, drupe fruits : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)- 1 mb each.

Please find attached pictures of a tree.
Location-Matheran, Maharashtra, Part of Western Ghats.
Date-Mid December 2019.

Leaves-alternate, simple, elliptic, rounded base, apex acute, thick leaves.
Remarkable character-leaves has very distinct veins which are very clear from lower leaf surface.
Though only single fruit is seen at each auxiliary position, the image ‘IMG_20181217_124542_Scaled_CR’ has dried calyx near fruit at second position.
Could not see big thorns on stem or trunk.

To me also appears close to images at Bridelia retusa

Bridelia retusa.

Tree for ID : Nasik : 01MAY19 : AK-1 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
A small tree seen in a cultivated garden in Nasik.
Bridelia retusa?
For validation please.

I too think it must be Bridelia retusa.

Bridelia retusa.

110719AB3 ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)

Identification, please.
Date/Time- November 8, 2017; 09:32 hrs.
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Eastern Melghat
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-  Tree with thorns on the trunk
Height/Length- 10+’

Elevation- 700m

Bridelia sp. Could be B.retusa.

Bridelia retusa :: Nagla block of SGNP :: 21 DEC 19 : 1 post by 1 author. 1 image.
Nagla forest  … part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Date: December 21, 2019 … Altitude: sea level to about 600 ft asl
Bridelia retusa  (L.) A.Juss.
In saplings, the leaves are often found many times larger than in a normal matured plant.

Bridelia retusa – armed trunk :: Nagla block of SGNP :: 21 DEC 19 : 3 posts by 2 authors. 2 images.
Nagla forest  … part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Date: December 21, 2019 … Altitude: sea level to about 600 ft asl
Bridelia retusa  (L.) A.Juss.
Trunk of young tree, armed with extra-long spines – perhaps to protect from foragers.

This I have seen in Matheran. That time I had no idea about its identity.

Thanks … I saw it the first time in SGNP during field trip with BNHS team and our leader briefly explained about the tree to us, and that it is born armed as a matter of protection.


080719AB2 ID : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Identification, please. I understand this could be inadequate to identify. As far as I understand, this could be Ficus sp. but can anyone go beyond that based on just the fruits?
Date/Time- November 7, 2017; 09:32 hrs.
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Eastern Melghat
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-  Tree
Height/Length- Not sure.

Other recipients:
I think your guess is correct. Please provide elevation and images showing other aspects of plant. Thank you. Saroj Kasaju
I think your guess is correct. Please provide elevation and images showing other aspects of plant.

Thank you, … Actually, there is a mistake in my earlier description. When consulting the field notebook, I found that these fruits were borne on a climber and not on a tree.
Better photographs are currently not available.

Pl. check Bridelia retusa



Requesting ID of this tree – Mumbai :19072013 : ARK-06 : January 2013 : Attachments (1). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Requesting to please ID this tree captured in Hiranandani Heritage Gardens, Powai, Mumbai in January 2013.

NEED ID ASSISTANCE for BANKURA PLANT : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)

I need id assistance for the following plant collected from SALDIHA area of Bankura District.
Locality: Saldiha
Alt. 112 m
Date: 3/12/2015
Local Name: KOSOI (Santals)

If you have more photos, pl. post.

Happy to learn that you have come down from the hills.
Just a suggestion, try Bridelia – Phyllanthaceae – though the characteristic leaf-venation is not clearly visible here.

Bridelia retusa


Bridelia SN3132020a : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)- 5 mb.
Wild tree from Palakkad area. The tree is called Kalani (Spinous Kino), wood is having good timber value. Timber is valuable, having commercial value.

Referable to Bridelia cinerescens Gerhm., a synonym of B. retusa.


Please help with the id: 1 image.
This tree with its very thorny offhoots is growing in alibag maharashtra.

Bridelia retusa


Tree for ID : Borgad Conservation Reserve : Nasik : 18SEP21 : AK – 021: 4 images.
A small tree seen today at the base of Borgad.

Bridelia retusa

SK 2392 16 January 2020 : 14 posts by 4 authors. 8 images- 3 to 7 mb each.
Location: Bangkok, Thailand
Date:  07  December 2019 
Elevation: MSL
Habitat: Cultivated
…: Is it some Phyllanthus sp.?

Bridelia Sp.

I am unable to identify.

To me, it appears quite close to images and details at Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss.

Bridelia retusa.


The Plant List  India Biodiversity Portal  Bridelia retusa (L.) – Nationaal Herbarium Nederland  Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist  GRIN  Flora of Pakistan  Annonated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal  Flora of China  FoC illustration one and two  Seeds  Bridelia retusa – Spinous Kino Tree  Flora of Peninsular India  BSI Flora of India Checklist

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