1. Annuals or short-lived perennials; inflorescences diflusely branched, rays very slender; flowers yellow-green; fruits ovoid, ribbed …….. 1. B. hamiltonii
+ Perennials; inflorescences erect, rays slender to more robust; flowers yellowgreen or purple; fruits oblong to ovoid, ribbed or winged … 2
2. Plants usually less than 40cm tall; stems numerous (more than 5) and often decumbent with a woody tap-root ….. 3
+ Mature plants more than 40cm tall; stems few, erect . . . . . .. 4
3. Bracteoles 4(-5), broadly elliptic-ovate; umbellules 1-4 per umbel ………. 2. B. dalhousieanum
+ Bracteoles 5-6, linear to linear-ovate; umbellules more than 5 per umbel ………… 3. B. gracillimum
4. Mid stem leaves ovate-elliptic to oblanceolate, more than l.5cm wide, cuneate or rounded at base; umbellules numerous, usually more than 8 per umbel .. 4. B. candollei
+ Mid stem leaves narrower, usually less than l.5cm wide, long attenuate at base; umbellules less than 8 per umbel …. 5
5. Mid stem leaves expanded at base and clasping the stem; bracteoles numerous, more than 7 per umbellule, ovate, conspicuously longer than the purple flowers; fruits prominently winged . . . . . .. 5. B. himalayense (syn. of Bupleurum rupestre Edgew. syn: Bupleurum longicaule var. himalayense (Kl.) Cl.)
+ Mid stem leaves attenuate at base; bracteoles usually less than 7 per umbellule, narrower than above and about as long as the yellow-green flowers; fruits with prominent ribs but not winged . . . . .. 6
6. Leaves with broad whitish cartilaginous margin; bracteoles linearlanceolate, about half as long as the flowers and shorter than the fruiting pedicels . .. 6. B. marginatum
+ Margin of leaves not as above; bracteoles narrowly ovate, about as long as the flowers and longer than the fruiting pedicels . .  .. 7. B. falcatum (No distribution in Indian subcontinent as per Catalogue of life)

Bupleurum candollei Wall. ex DC. (China (W-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan), S-Tibet, Bhutan, N-India (Himalayas, Assam, Darjeeling), Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), N-Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, Pakistan (Swat, Hazara), Pakistani Kashmir (Gilgit), Chumbi as per Catalogue of life)





Bupleurum gracillimum Klotzsch (Tibet, Pakistani Kashmir (Karakorum, Gilgit, Baltistan, Hunza), Jammu & Kashmir, Bhutan, N-Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, Afghanistan (Wakhan, Kunar / Nuristan), Pakistan (Chitral), India (Himalayas) as per Catalogue of Life)


Bupleurum hamiltonii N.P.Balakr. (China (Hubei, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, NW-Yunnan), S-Tibet, Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), Pakistan (Murree, Waziristan, Swat), Bhutan, India (Himalayas, N-India, Assam), Nepal, Thailand, Myanmar [Burma] (Mandalay), Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)

Images by Nidhan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg)




Images by Alok Mahendroo (Id by Krishan Lal) (Inserted by J.M.Garg)


Bupleurum jucundum Kurz (NW-India (W-Himalaya), Pakistan (Hazara), Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir) as per Catalogue of life)



Bupleurum lanceolatum Wall. ex DC. (Nepal, Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), Pakistan (Swat, Hazara, Murree), NW-India (C- to W-Himalaya) as per Catalogue of Life)
(Images by Dinesh Valke (Id by Gurcharan Singh & Tabish) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Bupleurum longicaule Wall. ex DC. (China (Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, W-Hubei, SE-Qinghai, SW-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan), E-Tibet, Jammu & Kashmir (Zanskar, Kashmir), Bhutan), N-India (Himalayas), Nepal, Pakistan (Hazara) as per Catalogue of Life)

(Images by Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg)) 


Bupleurum marginatum Wall. ex DC. (China (Gansu, Tibet, Qinghai, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong), Tibet, India (Himalayas, NE-India), Pakistan (Swat, Chitral, Hazara), Pakistani Kashmir (Hunza, Gilgit, Astor, Baltistan), Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), India (W-Himalaya), Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Nangarhar, Parwan), Jammu & Kashmir, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar [Burma] as per Catalogue of Life)



species in India

  1. Bupleurum aitchisonii H. Wolff
  2. B. andhricum M.P.Nayar & R.N.Banerjee
  3. B. atroviolaceum (O.E.Schulz) Nasir
  4. B. canaliculatum Diels
  5. B. candollei Wall. ex DC.
  6. B. clarkeanum (H.Wolff) Nasir
  7. B. constencei Nasir
  8. B. dalhousieanum (C.B.Clarke) Koso-Pol.
  9. B. distichophyllum Wight & Arn.
  10. B. falcatum L.
  11. B. gilesii H. Wolff
  12. B. gracillimum Klotsch
  13. B. hamiltonii N.P.Balakr.
  14. B. hoffemeisteri Klotsch
  15. B. jucundum Kurz
  16. B. khasianum  (C.B.Clarke) P.K.Mukh.
  17. B. kurzii P.K.Mukh.
  18. B. lanceolatum DC.
  19. B. longicaule Wall. ex DC.
  20. B. maddenii  C.B.Clarke
  21. B. marginatum Wall. ex DC.
  22. B. microcephalum Diels
  23. B. plantaginifolium Wight
  24. B. ramosissimum Wight
  25. B. rotundifolium L.
  26. B. rupestre Edgew. (synonym of B. longicaule)
  27. B. scorzonerifolium Willd.
  28. B. setaceum Fenzl
  29. B. sikkemense P.K.Mukh.
  30. B. stewartianum  Nasir
  31. B. subuniflorum Boiss. & Heldr.
  32. B. swatianum Nasir
  33. B. thomsonii C.B.Clarke
  34. B. wightii Koso-Pol.


  1. Karthikeyan, S., Sanjappa, M. and Moorthy, S. 2009. Flowering Plants of India, Dicotyledons, vol-I (Acanthaceae- Avicenniaceae). Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. pp.
  2. eFI page

Taxonomic status of Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas, India by B. L. Bhellum- Journal of Biology and Earth Sciences-Vol 2, No 2 (2012)-
Abstract– Introduction: The genus Bupleurum is perennial rhizomatous herbs, recognized by simple leaves, conspicuous bracts and bractlets, often shows a great deal of variation in morphological characteristics. The genus is well developed in temperate and alpine zones of Kashmir Himalayas and other lesser Himalayan ranges of Jammu and Kashmir State. A key to the species, brief description, flowering and fruiting periods are given. The approximate elevation, distribution of species in the region andillustrations of selected species are provided.
Species given with details & keys
Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Bupleurum distichophyllum Wight & Arn.  Herb Western Ghats,
Evergreen Forests
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Bupleurum plantaginifolium Wight Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Bupleurum wightii Mukh. var. ramosissimum (Wight &Arn.)
Chandrabose is a synonym of Bupleurum ramosissimum
Herb Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Nilgiri, Salem, Theni  
Bupleurum wightii Mukh. var. wightii is a synonym of Bupleurum ramosissimum Herb Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983
Dharma puri, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Bupleurum candollei Apiaceae Himalayan Thorowax
Bupleurum gracillimum Bupleurum falcatum var. gracillimum Apiaceae Slender Thorowax
Bupleurum lanceolatum Apiaceae Lanceleaf Thoroughwax
Bupleurum longicaule Bupleurum longicaule var. ramosum, Bupleurum himalayense Apiaceae Long-Stem Thorowax
Bupleurum marginatum Bupleurum falcatum var. marginatum Apiaceae Margined Chinese Thoroughwax

Bupleurum candollei Wall. ex DC. (Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum lanceolatum Wall. ex DC. (Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum linearifolium DC. (Middle East to Afghanistan, Central Asia, India, W. Pakistan) is a synonym of Bupleurum falcatum subsp. cernuum (Ten.) Arcang.
Bupleurum longicaule Wall. ex DC. (Central Asia, Himalayas in India and Pakistan)
Bupleurum longicaule var. ramosum Nasir (Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum marginatum Wall. ex DC. (Central Asia to China, Himalayas in India & W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum subuniflorum Boiss. & Heldr. in Boiss. (Mediterranean region to Central Asia, Afghanistan, India, W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum tenue Buch. Ham. ex Don (Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan) = Bupleurum hamiltonii
Bupleurum thomsonii C.B. Clarke in Hook. f. (Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan) 

Bupleurum candoleii Wall. ex DC. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Assam, N. Burma, Tibet)
Bupleurum commelynoideum de Boiss. (No distribution given in India as per FOC)
Bupleurum dalhousieanum (C. B. Clarke) Kozo-Polj. [Bhutan, NE India, N Myanmar, Sikkim].
Bupleurum hamiltonii Balak. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Assam) 
Bupleurum lanceolatum Wall. ex DC. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Kumaun))

Bupleurum candollei var. candollei (C. B. Clarke) Ridley [Bhutan, N India, Kashmir, N Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim].
Bupleurum dalhousieanum (C. B. Clarke) Koso-Poljansky [Bhutan, NE India, N Myanmar, Sikkim].
Bupleurum gracillimum Klotzsch in Klotzsch & Garcke [Bhutan, Kashmir, N Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].
Bupleurum hamiltonii var. hamiltonii (C. B. Clarke) Ridley [Bhutan, N India, Kashmir, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam].



Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 3 By T. Pullaiah, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2007)- Details with keys



Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- Brief details-



An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details-
Bupleurum wightii P.K.Mukh. is a synonym of Bupleurum ramosissimum


Hot spots of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan by M. P. NayarTropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, 1996 – Science252 pages-
Bupleurum lanceolatum Lindley : W. Himalaya.
Bupleurum gracillimum Klotzsch in Klotzsch & Garcke : Herb; N.W. Himalaya and adjacent Nepal and Pakistan Himalaya.
Bupleurum hamiltonii  Balak. ………………..

Antidiabetic Plants in India and Herbal Based Antidiabetic Research By T. Pullaiah, K. Chandrasekhar Naidu (2003)- Details-
Bupleurum falcatum

Bupleurum ‎(Apiaceae) : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Bupleurum (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

I have compiled and added the list of species in India.

Pl. go through Bupleurum page (‎‎‎Apiaceae) with images of species in efloraofindia (done by me).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.
If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.


Pl. go throughBupleurum ‎(Apiaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.

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