1. Annuals or short-lived perennials; inflorescences diflusely branched, rays very slender; flowers yellow-green; fruits ovoid, ribbed …….. 1. B. hamiltonii
+ Perennials; inflorescences erect, rays slender to more robust; flowers yellowgreen or purple; fruits oblong to ovoid, ribbed or winged … 2
2. Plants usually less than 40cm tall; stems numerous (more than 5) and often decumbent with a woody tap-root ….. 3
+ Mature plants more than 40cm tall; stems few, erect . . . . . .. 4
3. Bracteoles 4(-5), broadly elliptic-ovate; umbellules 1-4 per umbel ………. 2. B. dalhousieanum
+ Bracteoles 5-6, linear to linear-ovate; umbellules more than 5 per umbel ………… 3. B. gracillimum
4. Mid stem leaves ovate-elliptic to oblanceolate, more than l.5cm wide, cuneate or rounded at base; umbellules numerous, usually more than 8 per umbel .. 4. B. candollei
+ Mid stem leaves narrower, usually less than l.5cm wide, long attenuate at base; umbellules less than 8 per umbel …. 5
5. Mid stem leaves expanded at base and clasping the stem; bracteoles numerous, more than 7 per umbellule, ovate, conspicuously longer than the purple flowers; fruits prominently winged . . . . . .. 5. B. himalayense (syn. of Bupleurum rupestre Edgew. syn: Bupleurum longicaule var. himalayense (Kl.) Cl.)
+ Mid stem leaves attenuate at base; bracteoles usually less than 7 per umbellule, narrower than above and about as long as the yellow-green flowers; fruits with prominent ribs but not winged . . . . .. 6
6. Leaves with broad whitish cartilaginous margin; bracteoles linearlanceolate, about half as long as the flowers and shorter than the fruiting pedicels . .. 6. B. marginatum
+ Margin of leaves not as above; bracteoles narrowly ovate, about as long as the flowers and longer than the fruiting pedicels . . .. 7. B. falcatum (No distribution in Indian subcontinent as per Catalogue of life)
Bupleurum candollei Wall. ex DC. (China (W-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan), S-Tibet, Bhutan, N-India (Himalayas, Assam, Darjeeling), Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), N-Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, Pakistan (Swat, Hazara), Pakistani Kashmir (Gilgit), Chumbi as per Catalogue of life)
Bupleurum gracillimum Klotzsch (Tibet, Pakistani Kashmir (Karakorum, Gilgit, Baltistan, Hunza), Jammu & Kashmir, Bhutan, N-Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, Afghanistan (Wakhan, Kunar / Nuristan), Pakistan (Chitral), India (Himalayas) as per Catalogue of Life)
Bupleurum hamiltonii N.P.Balakr. (China (Hubei, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, NW-Yunnan), S-Tibet, Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), Pakistan (Murree, Waziristan, Swat), Bhutan, India (Himalayas, N-India, Assam), Nepal, Thailand, Myanmar [Burma] (Mandalay), Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)
(NW-India (W-Himalaya), Pakistan (Hazara), Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir) as per Catalogue of life)
Bupleurum lanceolatum Wall. ex DC. (Nepal, Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), Pakistan (Swat, Hazara, Murree), NW-India (C- to W-Himalaya) as per Catalogue of Life)
Bupleurum longicaule Wall. ex DC. (China (Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, W-Hubei, SE-Qinghai, SW-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan), E-Tibet, Jammu & Kashmir (Zanskar, Kashmir), Bhutan), N-India (Himalayas), Nepal, Pakistan (Hazara) as per Catalogue of Life)
Bupleurum marginatum Wall. ex DC. (China (Gansu, Tibet, Qinghai, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong), Tibet, India (Himalayas, NE-India), Pakistan (Swat, Chitral, Hazara), Pakistani Kashmir (Hunza, Gilgit, Astor, Baltistan), Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), India (W-Himalaya), Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Nangarhar, Parwan), Jammu & Kashmir, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar [Burma] as per Catalogue of Life)
Bupleurum ramosissimum var. wightii (Mukh.) S.S.R.Bennet (Sri Lanka, India (E- to S-India) as per Catalogue of Life)
Bupleurum species in India
Taxonomic status of Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas, India by B. L. Bhellum- Journal of Biology and Earth Sciences-Vol 2, No 2 (2012)-
Abstract– Introduction: The genus Bupleurum is perennial rhizomatous herbs, recognized by simple leaves, conspicuous bracts and bractlets, often shows a great deal of variation in morphological characteristics. The genus is well developed in temperate and alpine zones of Kashmir Himalayas and other lesser Himalayan ranges of Jammu and Kashmir State. A key to the species, brief description, flowering and fruiting periods are given. The approximate elevation, distribution of species in the region andillustrations of selected species are provided.
Species given with details & keys–
Species with description &
Bupleurum candollei Wall. ex DC. (Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum falcatum Linn. (Europe, Asia)
Bupleurum gracillimum K1. in K1. & Garcke (Himalayas)
Bupleurum jucundum Kurz (Himalayas)
Bupleurum lanceolatum Wall. ex DC. (Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum linearifolium DC. (Middle East to Afghanistan, Central Asia, India, W. Pakistan) is a synonym of Bupleurum falcatum subsp. cernuum (Ten.) Arcang.
Bupleurum longicaule Wall. ex DC. (Central Asia, Himalayas in India and Pakistan)
Bupleurum longicaule var. himalayense (Kl.) C.B. Clarke in Hook. f. (Himalayas in India and Pakistan)
Bupleurum longicaule var. ramosum Nasir (Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum marginatum Wall. ex DC. (Central Asia to China, Himalayas in India & W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum subuniflorum Boiss. & Heldr. in Boiss. (Mediterranean region to Central Asia, Afghanistan, India, W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum swatianum Nasir (Himalayas)
Bupleurum thomsonii C.B. Clarke in Hook. f. (Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan)
Bupleurum candoleii Wall. ex DC. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Assam, N. Burma, Tibet)
Bupleurum dalhousieanum (C. B. Clarke) Kozo-Polj. [Bhutan, NE India, N Myanmar, Sikkim].
Bupleurum falcatum subsp. marginatum (Wall. ex DC.) H. Wolff (Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan)) is a synonym of Bupleurum marginatum
Bupleurum falcatum var. gracillimum (Klotzsch) H. Wolff (Karakorum, Himalaya (Kashmir to Sikkim)) = Bupleurum gracillimum K1. in K1. & Garcke
Bupleurum hamiltonii Balak. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Assam)
Bupleurum lanceolatum Wall. ex DC. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Kumaun))
Bupleurum longicaule Wall. ex DC. (Himalaya (Kashmir, Kumaun, Bhutan), Tibet)
Some species found in India with description & keys from Flora of China (Distribution other than China):
Bupleurum candollei var. candollei (C. B. Clarke) Ridley [Bhutan, N India, Kashmir, N Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim].
Bupleurum dalhousieanum (C. B. Clarke) Koso-Poljansky [Bhutan, NE India, N Myanmar, Sikkim].
Bupleurum gracillimum Klotzsch in Klotzsch & Garcke [Bhutan, Kashmir, N Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].
Bupleurum hamiltonii var. hamiltonii (C. B. Clarke) Ridley [Bhutan, N India, Kashmir, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim, Thailand,
Bupleurum longicaule var. longicaule (C. B. Clarke) Ridley [India, Kashmir, Nepal, Pakistan].
Bupleurum marginatum var. marginatum (C. B. Clarke) Ridley [Bhutan, NE India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim].
CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names … By Umberto Quattrocchi (2012)- Details-
Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 3 By T. Pullaiah, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2007)- Details with keys–
A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, Volume 1 By George Watt (1893)- Details-
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- Brief details-
Encyclopaedia of world medicinal plants, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah (2006)- Details-
An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details-
Hot spots of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan by M. P. Nayar –Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, 1996 – Science – 252 pages-
Bupleurum lanceolatum Lindley : W. Himalaya.
Bupleurum gracillimum Klotzsch in Klotzsch & Garcke : Herb; N.W. Himalaya and adjacent Nepal and Pakistan Himalaya.
Bupleurum hamiltonii Balak. ………………..
Antidiabetic Plants in India and Herbal Based Antidiabetic Research By T. Pullaiah, K. Chandrasekhar Naidu (2003)- Details-
Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary edited by C.P. Khare (2007)- Details-
Bupleurum (Apiaceae) : 1 post by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Bupleurum (Pl. click).
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.
I have compiled and added the list of species in India.
Bupleurum page (Apiaceae) with images of species in efloraofindia : 1 post by 1 author.
If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.
If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.
Bupleurum (Apiaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia : 1 post by 1 author.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.